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The Spread of Islam

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Title: Byzantine and Sassanid Empire around 600 CE Author: HISD Last modified by: Administrator Created Date: 10/22/2007 3:22:07 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 19 February 2020
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Title: The Spread of Islam


1
  • The Spread of Islam

2
Arabia Before Muhammad
  • Pastoral nomads (Bedouins)
  • Tribal society
  • Caravan trade important (incense),
  • Mediterranean
  • Middle East
  • East Africa
  • India
  • Mecca major economic center
  • Arab tribes under political influence of
    Byzantine (Christian) and Sasanid empire
    (Zoroastrian)

3
Byzantine and Sassanid Empire around 600 CE
4
Muhammads Life and Teachings
  • Muhammad former merchant, began to have
    revelations by archangel Gabriel
  • Main features
  • Arab decent traced to Ishmael, Abrahams son
  • strictly monotheistic
  • promise of heaven after death
  • five pillars
  • Fasting
  • prayer 5 times a day
  • Almsgiving
  • confession of faith
  • pilgrimage to Mecca
  • universal religion, egalitariansim
  • Elite in Mecca forces Mohammed to flee to Medina
    (622 CE, HIJRA, beginning of Muslim calendar)

5
Muslim Expansion
  • Mohammad unites Arab tribes,
  • conquers Mecca in 630, dies 632
  • First four succesors (caliphs) expand territory
  • Middle East
  • North Africa
  • Persia
  • Caliphs are leaders of all Muslims, political and
    religious (theocracy)

6
  • Success possible because of exhausting war
    between Persia (Sassanids) and Byzantium,
    motivated soldiers, ingenious military
    leadership, indifferent population
  • Quarrels over succession lead to split into Sunni
    and Shia (Alis followers)
  • Shia mostly in Persia, southern Iraq
  • Sunni majority of Muslims

7
Muslim Expansion 632-750
8
Umayyad Dynasty (652-750)
  • Capital in Damascus
  • Wars against Byzantium
  • Conquest of Spain, further advances stopped by
    Franks in 732
  • Arabic official language of government
  • Conversions encouraged
  • Non-Muslims pay a special head tax, but not
    forced to convert
  • Judaism and Christianity tolerated

9
Great Mosque in Damascus
10
Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258)
  • Supported by Shiites, although Sunni
  • New capital Baghdad
  • First 100 years golden age of Muslim culture
  • Argument between ulama and caliph about who
    should have the final say in religious matters
  • Caliph renounces his final authority in religious
    matters
  • Counter caliph in Cordoba, Spain
  • Regional loyalties, problems with Shiites,rise of
    new dynasties, and difficulty to control a large
    empire lead to gradual decline

11
Government
  • Rulers legitimate power by upholding sharia law
  • Caliph is Muhammads successor
  • Arab military camps control conquered areas
  • Non-Muslims pay head tax
  • After conquest of Persia, Abbasids rely on
    Persian bureaucrats
  • Taxation of agricultural production
  • Adopt pomp and ceremonies of Persian court

12
Political Fragmentation
  • In 10th century third caliph in Cairo, Egypt
  • North Africa Berbers (11th cent.)
  • Turkey, Iraq, Syria
  • Abbasids rely increasingly on mamluks (slaves
    used as warriors)
  • Turkic slave soldiers gain political power
  • Seljuk Turks (11th century) create empire, are
    protectors of the caliphs, but hold de-facto
    political power
  • Turkey, Holy Land, Syria Crusading
    states(1099-1250), (Do not survive permanently)
  • Middle East Mongols (1258 sack of Baghdad, end
    of Caliphate)

13
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14
Islamic Law
  • Sunna tradition of the prophet
  • Hadith collection of Muhammads words and deeds,
    several different strands
  • Quran and Hadith basis for Sharia
  • Muslim ruler required to live by and enforce
    sharia
  • Unifying effect on Muslim world
  • Countries under Muslim law Dar al Islam

15
Cities
  • New cities and former military camps (Baghdad,
    Basra, Kufa, Fustat, Qayrawan)
  • Grow because of conversions and economic growth
  • Centers of Islam mosques, schools, universities
  • Centers of production Cloth, metal goods,
    ceramics, glass

16
Economy
  • International trade dominated by Muslim merchants
  • Banking system, checks, credit, crucial for long
    distance trade
  • Big cities provide markets for trade
  • Business partnerships (often with Jewish and
    Christian merchants)
  • Common currency (dinar)

17
Agriculture
  • Independent landowners, large estates with
    slaves, tenant farmers
  • Production for market, cash crops (sugar, citrus
    fruits, cotton, rice from India and China)
  • Use of fertilizers, water pumps, mills, improved
    irrigation
  • Slaves used for sugar cane production

18
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19
Science and Medicine
  • House of wisdom in Baghdad (Greek, Indian,
    Persian, Mesopotamian texts translated into
    Arabic)
  • Ibn al Haytham Scientific Method, Book of Optics
  • Al-Khwarizmi Algorithm, Algebra
  • Ibn Sina Medical encyclopedia, contagious nature
    of diseases
  • Surgeons disinfect wounds, use surgical
    instruments, trained in hospitals

20
Technology
  • Transfer between east and west
  • Paper, astrolabe, compass, lateen sail, decimal
    system
  • Production of steel (swords from Damascus)

21
Ibn Battutas Travels
22
Women and Slaves
  • Women veiled and confined to the house, in
    Byzantine and Sassanid times not new
  • Legal protection of women under Quran, a womans
    soul was considered equal before Allah, but not
    equality to men (limited divorce rights, keep
    dowry if divorced by their husband, womans
    testimony in court weighs only half of a mans,
    men can have up to four wives)
  • Slavery allowed, slaves from central Asia,
    Europe, Africa
  • Slaves used in households, as soldiers, in
    agriculture
  • Forbidden to enslave Muslims

23
Sufism
  • In 12th and 13th century
  • Mystic brotherhoods looking for union with God
    through rituals, emotional sense of religion,
    personal relationship with Allah
  • Sufi saints worshipped in countryside
  • Important in spreading Islam to other countries
    and making it more popular

24
Mosque in Samarra
25
  • Alhambra in Cordoba

26
Arches
27
  • Arabesques

28
Calligraphy
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