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Political Philosophy Plato

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Title: Political Philosophy Plato


1
Political PhilosophyPlato
2
Common Good
  • Plato believed that people were at their best
    when they acted in the common good or all in
    society.
  • The goal of people should be virtuous.
  • The quest of people should be to grow and attain
    a supreme morality.

3
Common Good
  • Argued material possessions provide a distraction
    from people achieving a higher state.
  • When all the members of a society strive to
    become virtuous they will put the needs of others
    and society first.
  • This will create a better society for the person
    to live in and will result in a happier life.

4
  • When people put themselves first it causes
    conflict within society.
  • They compete and stop caring about the common
    good.
  • This leads to the downfall of society.

5
Who should Lead?
  • Plato believed that society should be split into
    three classes.
  • Philosopher Rulers, Guardians, and Producers
    (artisans)
  • The quality of human life can be improved if
    people learn to be rational and understand that
    their real interests lie in harmonious
    cooperation with one another, and not in war or
    partisan strife.

6
Who Should Lead
  • Philosopher rulers should be the leaders of
    society.
  • Normal people are corrupt and self serving and
    only better themselves to gain more power.
  • Philosophers get power from searching for the
    truth and bettering themselves morally and
    educationally.
  • Riches do not matter to them.

7
  • They would be identified in schools and removed
    from their families.
  • Would not have families or Land as these would
    cause them to care more about personal issues
    rather than the state.
  • Philosophers enjoy respect and leisure.

8
Guardian Class
  • This group is the protectors of the state.
  • They enjoy the physical aspects of life.
  • Get honour and worth from protecting the city and
    other military honours.
  • They have little interest in leisure or wealth,
    they want status and reputation.

9
  • Producers are artists, business people.
  • They enjoy wealth and producing goods.
  • They have families, and possessions but have no
    desire to rule or attain honour or knowledge
    unless it benefits their business.

10
  • The three groups work for the mutually benefit of
    each other in harmony.
  • Each class is working in the things they are best
    at.
  • All interests will be served.
  • Society is organized for the common good.

11
Aristotle
  • 364-362 BCE
  • Student of Platos Academy
  • Agreed with Platos theory that the most just
    rulers rule for the common good of all.
  • Sent his students all over the world to discover
    the types of governments used.

12
Aristotle
  • Defined three categories of governments
  • Rule by the one, Rule by the few, Rule by the
    many.
  • Correct regimes rule for the benefit of all,
    corrupt regimes rule for the benefit of
    themselves.

13
  • Deviations of the correct regimes.
  • Correct regimes are Monarchy (ruled by the one),
    Aristocracy (rule by the few), Polity (rule by
    the many).
  • Corrupt are Tyranny (rule by one), Oligarchy
    (rule by the few), Democracy (rule by the many).

14
Why Democracy was Corrupt
  • Aristotle also ranked the regime
  • Monarchy was the best, Aristocracy, Polity,
    Democracy, Oligarchy, Tyranny (the worst)
  • During this time women, slaves, and Manual
    labourers were not considered citizens.

15
Why Democracy was Corrupt
  • They existed for the common good of the citizens
    so they could have a privileged life.
  • In places with democracy there are two groups
  • The few rich and the many poor.
  • These two groups are always in conflict.

16
Why Democracy was Corrupt
  • Because of this conflict people who are not
    virtuous are free to take power.
  • There are more people in Platos producer class
    and therefore they will get more votes.
  • The producers will always outnumber the most
    virtuous groups.

17
Machiavelli
  • Author of The Prince
  • First to separate politics and ethics
  • Believed good politics is politics that succeeds.
  • Good or bad does not matter as long as you win.

18
Machiavelli
  • He argued that it didnt matter if a ruler was
    ethical or good as long as the people believed he
    was good.
  • Leaders should wear a mask and create an image to
    convince or fool the public.
  • They should do whatever it takes to gain power
    including lie.

19
Machiavelli
  • Machiavelli stated that it would be best to be
    both loved and feared. But since the two rarely
    come together, anyone compelled to choose will
    find greater security in being feared than in
    being loved.

20
Divisions of Government
  • Modern Governments consist of three branches of
    government.
  • Executive
  • Legislative
  • Judicial

21
Executive
  • Executive is composed of elected individuals and
    chosen by the Leader to act as their advisors.
  • In Canada this would be the PM and all of the
    Ministers i.e minister of Education, Health,
    Defence etc.

22
Legislative
  • Voted into power during elections and usually
    belong to a political Party.
  • This branch makes and approves laws and bills.
  • In democracies they approve actions created by
    the leader of the executive.
  • These are the Members of Parliament in Canada.

23
Judicial Branch
  • Composed of Courts
  • Usually appointed by executive
  • Ensures the constitution is followed
  • This includes Charter of Rights and Freedoms
    cases.

24
Types of Government Authority
  • Traditional Leaders are chosen by hereditary.
    Family usually associated with being divine.
  • Usually Monarchy

25
Legal Authority
  • Governments are also formed but have to abide by
    rules or a constitution.
  • They must follow previously established rules
    such as term lengths, elections.
  • The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
    limits government powers.
  • Agreement between the Government and the people.

26
Autocratic Authority
  • This is a government achieved by the use of
    force.
  • Ideological or religious beliefs form the basis
    of support.
  • Usually have to be supported through military and
    the elite.
  • Laws are imposed from above.

27
Autocratic Authority
28
Political Leadership and Change
  • There are many ways leadership changes in
    society.
  • Elections
  • Hereditary and Designated Succession
  • Coups dEtat

29
Elections
  • Most orderly way of having leadership change.
  • Most modern systems have one person one vote.
  • Uses the party system
  • Everyone that is a citizen may run for office

30
Fraud in Elections
  • Throughout history there have been limits to true
    democracy.
  • Literacy tests used as a way to keep African
    Americans from voting. (it was illegal for them
    to be taught to read)
  • Women were not given the vote in Can until 1919.
  • Threats at the polls

31
  • 2000 U.S Elections between Gore and G W Bush so
    close
  • had to be determined by the supreme court
  • Came down to state of Florida where Bushs
    Brother was governor.
  • Led to many protests

32
Hereditary and Designated Succession
  • Used in Monarchical Systems tradition or cultural
    rule determines next leader.
  • Rulers are believed to be gods or chosen by god
  • Leadership usually given to oldest son.

33
Hereditary and Designated Succession
  • Autocratic authority governments designate
    successors
  • Fidel Castro handed over power of his country to
    his brother Raul
  • Kim Il Sung gave power to his son Kim Jong-Il.
    North Korea had to mourn the fathers death for
    three years.

34
Coup DEtat
  • Means blow against the state
  • Overthrows an existing government to establish an
    autocratic government
  • Usually involves violence.

35
Coup DEtat
  • Takes place quickly supported by a military.
  • Fidel Castro and Che Guevara in Cuba.

36
Political and Social Ideologies
37
  • Political Ideology is an organised collection of
    ideas and values that describes a political
    system, movement or way of thinking.
  • Political Spectrum An imaginary scale that places
    your opinions in regards to Left wing, Center,
    Right wing.

38
Political Spectrum
Communism
NDP
Capitalism
Conservatism
Liberal
Right Wing
Left Wing
Centrist
39
  • Social Spectrum aims to measure human rights
    and other societal issues.
  • Scale goes from Libertarianism to
    Authoritarianism.
  • Libertarianism belief in total individual
    freedom without rules.
  • Authoritarianism belief that individuals have a
    duty to follow established rules.

40
Conservatism
  • Believe that traditional values are the building
    blocks of society.
  • Traditional institutions hold society together
    and puts people in orderly roles.
  • Traditional family - Religion
  • Role of women - Immigration
  • Crime - Social issues

41
  • Traditional family Same sex marriage
  • Role of Women were against women working as
    threat to family
  • Religion abortion, euthanasia laws

42
  • Immigration other cultures moving to Canada
    threaten the stability of society
  • Others should assimilate to our culture.
  • Criminals should be punished severely

43
Social Responsibility
  • Conservative stresses individual responsibility
  • govt should act as a police officer but not a
    babysitter.
  • If adults make bad decisions they should look to
    themselves not govt for help

44
  • No govt intervention
  • Govt should stay out of the economy and peoples
    lives.
  • Oppose social programs like welfare, EI, taxes,
    govt health care, govt schooling.

45
  • What issues would challenge these traditional
    values and what would be the conservative
    response?
  • Traditional family - Religion
  • Role of women - Immigration
  • Crime - Social issues (poverty, etc)

46
Liberalism
  • Evolution of Liberalism

47
Classic Liberalism
  • Developed in Europe in the 18th century
  • Encouraged analysis of traditional ideas and
    structures, institutions.
  • Church, authority, Police powers etc.
  • Distrust of state power ( rulers, monachs chosen
    by God)

48
Classic LiberalismGovt involvement
  • Least government involvement in society.
  • Based on individual freedoms
  • Government should not be involved in the lives of
    people
  • Few laws, limited police powers
  • No economic involvement.

49
Evolution of LiberalismUtilitarianism
  • Utilitarianism created by John Stuart Mills and
    Jeremy Bentham.
  • Ethics - A good or ethical action is measured by
    the amount of people it helps.
  • Governments can be involved as long as its
    actions help more people than it hurts.

50
Evolution of LiberalismModern Liberalism
  • Modern Liberalism is a combination of Classic and
    Utilitarianism
  • Emphasizes individual rights
  • freedom of choice and dignity of people
  • Freedom of individual expression

51
Modern Liberalism
  • Liberals view people as essentially good
  • Strict rules are unnecessary as people will learn
    from their mistakes
  • Supports new ideas, especially those that promote
    equality.
  • Ex. Support Same Sex marriage because it promotes
    equality.

52
Modern Liberalism
  • Government should provide opportunities for
    women, minority groups, poor.
  • Believe human history as the development of
    progressive reforms such as the abolishment of
    slavery, equal rights for women.

53
Types of Government
54
Democracy Direct Democracy
  • Direct Democracy first practiced in Athens.
  • Native-born Free Men over 18 involved in
    decisions
  • Thousands would gather in a forum and discuss
    issues.
  • At the end of discussions a vote happened,
    majority ruled.

55
DemocracyRepresentative Democracy
  • Decisions affecting the public are made by
    elected representatives.
  • Elections are usually mandated every so many
    years.
  • Allows many people to have their say without
    being present.

56
Democracy Representative Democracy
  • Two forms are the Constitutional Monarchy and the
    Republic.
  • Constitutional Monarchy usually has a hereditary
    ceremonial head of state.
  • Elected officials run the government according to
    the constitution.
  • Britain, Canada, Netherlands

57
DemocracyRepresentative Democracy
  • In republics the people elect the head of state.
  • The head of state and the head of government
    might be the same person as in the U.S.
  • Or two separate groups. France has a head of
    state President and a head of government Prime
    Minister.

58
Democracy3 stages
  • Partial democracies have some elements of
    Democracy.
  • Emerging Democracy are trying to become Full
    democracy.
  • Full Democracy has a constitution that guarantees
    equality of rights and freedoms.

59
Indicators of Full Democracy1
  • Ensures majority rule while protecting minority
    rights.
  • Agree to govern by the constitution or Charter.
  • For example Language rights of French Canadians
    are guaranteed. U.S Civil Rights Act, Voters
    Rights Act.

60
Indicators of Full Democracy2
  • Full Democracies ensure the Rule of Law.
  • This means that no one is above the Law and the
    law is applied equally.
  • Applies to government officials as well.

61
Indicators of Full Democracy3
  • Ensures a choice of parties
  • Recognizes free and fair elections and responds
    to wishes of electorate.
  • Citizens may join or form their own parties or
    can join interest groups

62
Indicators of Full Democracy4
  • Independent Judiciary acts as a check to the
    power of government.
  • Can test laws passed by the government and
    declare it unconstitutional.
  • The Canadian Supreme Court practiced this when
    government made abortions illegal. (R.v.
    Morgentaler)
  • 2003 Halpern v. Attourney General granted full
    marriage rights to all Canadians

63
Indicators of Full Democracy5
  • Government has full control over its military and
    police.
  • U.S. President had to relieve General Macarthur
    of his duties in Korea for threatening China.
  • Ipperwash 1995 Ontario Police officer shot and
    killed Dudley George during a peaceful protest
    and was found guilty of negligence.

64
Indicators of Full Democracy6
  • Full Democracies are open to change from its
    citizens.
  • Divorce, Lesbian and Gay rights, abortion laws
    are all advancements made in the late 20th
    century.

65
Indicators of Full Democracy7
  • Full Democracies allow for freedom of information
    and freedom of the press, expression and
    religion.
  • Laws for access to government documents.
  • Freedom of the press to ask questions without
    fear of arrest.
  • Freedom of expression allows.

66
Limits to Full Democracy
  • Money traditionally mostly rich and educated
    vote and be elected. Poor and uneducated tend
    not to vote.
  • In the U.S donations are unregulated, last
    campaign cost Obama 234 million.
  • In Canada we have regulations where a corporation
    may only donate 1000.

67
Limits to Full Democracy
  • 2. Lobby and Interest groups
  • This groups promise large donations and support
    in exchange for favours once in office.
  • Examples good be oil companies not having to
    increase safety or environmental protections.
    Lower taxes.

68
Limits to Democracy
  • Electoral systems
  • In many countries people do not vote. Only 59
    in last Canadian election. 41 of the people are
    not heard.
  • Leaders can form government without the majority
    of support.
  • This means more people disagree with the leader
    than agree.

69
Limits to Democracy
  • 4. Inability to protect minority groups.
  • With majority rule minority rights may be
    overlooked or ignored.
  • If the majority supports discrimination then
    those practices may be allowed.
  • Ex. 1942 Canada interned 22,000 Japanese
    Canadians

70
  • 5. Democratic Rights Fail in Emergencies.
  • Anti Terrorism Act, Public safety act, Patriot
    act are all believed to limit rights after 9/11.
  • Germany after the Reichstag burning.

71
DictatorshipsLeft
72
Dictatorship
  • Form of government in which one person or small
    group holds absolute power.
  • Not held accountable to their citizens.
  • Originated in Rome and was only to be used in
    Emergency situations for 6 months.
  • In 44 BCE Caesar removed the 6 month limit and
    all limits to his power.

73
  • In 20th century left wing dictatorships arose in
    USSR, Peoples republic of China, Cuba, Vietnam,
    Cambodia.
  • Right Wing dictatorships arose in Italy, Germany,
    Spain, Argentina and South Korea.

74
Peoples Republic of China
  • 1927 after the Manchu Dynasty collapsed China
    fell into a civil war.
  • U.S supported Kuomintang party fought against the
    Chinese Communist party led by Mao Zedong.
  • Conflict paused during WW2 as China is invaded
    by Japan.

75
  • After the war the conflict resumes.
  • Communist seize control
  • Kuomintang goes to Taiwan while claiming to still
    rule China.
  • US supports this claim and refused to acknowledge
    Mao.

76
Maoism
  • Mao redistributed land to all the poor peasants.
  • All agricultural and industrial production was
    nationalised, owned by the country.
  • Started the Great Leap Forward Program which
    merged all land and families into Communes.

77
  • When Production failed and people began to starve
    Mao encouraged his citizens to let a hundred
    flowers (ideas) bloom and come up with
    solutions.
  • The flowers turned out to be forcing Mao to step
    down.
  • Mao jailed executed and banished these people to
    labour camps.

78
  • Mao became a cult like figure. Sent a Red Book
    of his famous quotes to millions in Society
    including schools.
  • Mao recruited millions of students and formed the
    Red Guard.
  • They would look for opposition and kill, beat or
    imprison them.

79
  • Politics is war without bloodshed, while war is
    politics with bloodshed
  • Mao dies in 1976
  • Deng Xiaoping becomes leader.
  • Focuses on modernizing economy allows market
    economy along side communism.

80
DengOne Family, One Child Policy
  • Freedoms still limited under Deng.
  • Families could only have one child to limit
    population and number of people to feed.
  • If you obeyed you got better housing and
    salaries, defiance meant you loss your job.
  • Females did not get paid a wage for work.
  • Led to infanticide of female babies since they
    were liabilities. (made no money)

81
Deng
  • Political dissent was tolerated until 1989 when
    the government crushed a student uprising wanting
    democracy.
  • Led to the killing of hundreds at Tiananmen
    Square.
  • This eventually led to free elections however the
    communist party still holds the majority of
    seats.
  • .

82
Limits to Freedoms
  • No school, factory, mayor can make a decision
    without party permission
  • No freedom of the Press.
  • Internet is limited to mostly Chinese sites.
  • Search engines (google) limit sites available to
    people.

83
DictatorshipsLeft
84
Dictatorship
  • Form of government in which one person or small
    group holds absolute power.
  • Not held accountable to their citizens.
  • Originated in Rome and was only to be used in
    Emergency situations for 6 months.
  • In 44 BCE Caesar removed the 6 month limit and
    all limits to his power.

85
  • In 20th century left wing dictatorships arose in
    USSR, Peoples republic of China, Cuba, Vietnam,
    Cambodia.
  • Right Wing dictatorships arose in Italy, Germany,
    Spain, Argentina and South Korea.

86
Peoples Republic of China
  • 1927 after the Manchu Dynasty collapsed China
    fell into a civil war.
  • U.S supported Kuomintang party fought against the
    Chinese Communist party led by Mao Zedong.
  • Conflict paused during WW2 as China is invaded
    by Japan.

87
  • After the war the conflict resumes.
  • Communist seize control
  • Kuomintang goes to Taiwan while claiming to still
    rule China.
  • US supports this claim and refused to acknowledge
    Mao.

88
Maoism
  • Mao redistributed land to all the poor peasants.
  • All agricultural and industrial production was
    nationalised, owned by the country.
  • Started the Great Leap Forward Program which
    merged all land and families into Communes.

89
  • When Production failed and people began to starve
    Mao encouraged his citizens to let a hundred
    flowers (ideas) bloom and come up with
    solutions.
  • The flowers turned out to be forcing Mao to step
    down.
  • Mao jailed executed and banished these people to
    labour camps.

90
  • Mao became a cult like figure. Sent a Red Book
    of his famous quotes to millions in Society
    including schools.
  • Mao recruited millions of students and formed the
    Red Guard.
  • They would look for opposition and kill, beat or
    imprison them.

91
  • Politics is war without bloodshed, while war is
    politics with bloodshed
  • Mao dies in 1976
  • Deng Xiaoping becomes leader.
  • Focuses on modernizing economy allows market
    economy along side communism.

92
DengOne Family, One Child Policy
  • Freedoms still limited under Deng.
  • Families could only have one child to limit
    population and number of people to feed.
  • If you obeyed you got better housing and
    salaries, defiance meant you loss your job.
  • Females did not get paid a wage for work.
  • Led to infanticide of female babies since they
    were liabilities. (made no money)

93
Deng
  • Political dissent was tolerated until 1989 when
    the government crushed a student uprising wanting
    democracy.
  • Led to the killing of hundreds at Tiananmen
    Square.
  • This eventually led to free elections however the
    communist party still holds the majority of
    seats.
  • .

94
Limits to Freedoms
  • No school, factory, mayor can make a decision
    without party permision
  • No freedom of the Press.
  • Internet is limited to mostly Chinese sites.
  • Search engines (google) limit sites available to
    people.

95
Cambodia
  • The golden age of Khmer civilization lasted from
    9th to 13th centuries.
  • It was called the kingdom Kambuja or Cambodia.
  • Constantly under attack by its neighbours,
    Thailand, and Vietnam.

96
  • 1854 Monarchy asked France to help defend it.
  • Country cam under French control which lasted
    nearly a century.
  • Cambodia gained independence from France in 1953.

97
  • Allowed democratic elections.
  • Sihanouk takes power.
  • Popular with Buddhist monks and rural population.
  • During the cold war tried to stay neutral between
    the US and USSR.

98
  • He allowed the Communist Vietcong to use his land
    to help supplies come from China.
  • He accepted US aid.
  • 1965 during Vietnam war US kill Cambodians while
    chasing the Vietcong.
  • Cambodia end relationship with U.S.

99
  • U.S then Supports a coup and the Sihanouk
    government falls.
  • A capitalist pro U.S government is installed.
  • U.S begins bombing Cambodia in search of
    Communist Vietcong fleeing Vietnam.

100
  • People revolt against U.S installed government.
  • They sympathize with the Communist party and
    install the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot.
  • To implement communism he began persecuting any
    opposition and taking all private possessions.

101
  • Many groups threatened to take power from Pol Pot
    which led to brutal atrocities.
  • Creates enemies of his state which are executed,
    or worked and starved to death in forced labour
    camps.

102
Classification of Enemies
  • Anyone with connections to former governments.
  • Professionals and intellectuals
  • Anyone with glasses since it might mean they
    could read and therefore educated.
  • Other ethnicities
  • Economic saboteurs who were not working hard
    enough.

103
Rural Utopia
  • Pol Pot forced all residents out of cities as he
    believed this is how revolts are organized.
  • Wanted everyone in rural areas to be farmers and
    peasants.
  • It would get rid of all classes in society.

104
Results of Pol Pot
  • In four years 2 million people killed by the
    Khmer Rouge.
  • Used a school in the capital Phnom Phen to house
    1500 people at a time and eventually executing
    them.

105
End of Pol Pot
  • Pol Pot regime collapsed after Vietnam invaded in
    1979,
  • US helped Pol Pot fight the Vietnamese.
  • 1989 vietnam withdraws from Cambodia and the
    United Nations installed a government free of
    Khmer Rouge influence.
  • 1998 Pol Pot dies.

106
Oligarchy
107
Oligarchy
  • Plato stated that rule by the few could be
    achieved through two systems.
  • Aristocracy and Oligarchy
  • In Aristocracy the few rule for the common good
    of all.
  • In Oligarchy power is used by a wealthy minority
    to oppress a majority of the population.

108
South African Apartheid
  • South Africa is rich in resources including
    diamonds and gold.
  • Throughout history the Dutch and British
    oppressed the native populations and forced them
    in to slave labour in mines.
  • This led to a group of white dutch settlers
    called Afrikaners in South Africa and made up 15
    of population.

109
  • In 1948 the Afrikaner led government implemented
    Apartheid.
  • This was designed to separate the 85 Africans
    and 15 Afrikaners.
  • The Afrikaners are classified as a Oligarchy.

110
  • African mobility, occupations, and social lives
    were tightly restricted
  • Sex and marriage between races forbidden.
  • Blacks were moved to reservations.
  • 85 all lived off 5 of the land.
  • Land given was not farmable.

111
  • The idea of the reserve system came from Canada.
  • In 1960 the African National Congress party is
    banned after a peaceful protest led to 180
    members being killed in Sharpeville.
  • Nelson Mandela was a leading member in the party
    and is sentenced to life in prison.

112
Oligarchy
113
Oligarchy
  • Plato stated that rule by the few could be
    achieved through two systems.
  • Aristocracy and Oligarchy
  • In Aristocracy the few rule for the common good
    of all.
  • In Oligarchy power is used by a wealthy minority
    to oppress a majority of the population.

114
South African Apartheid
  • South Africa is rich in resources including
    diamonds and gold.
  • Throughout history the Dutch and British
    oppressed the native populations and forced them
    in to slave labour in mines.
  • This led to a group of white dutch settlers
    called Afrikaners in South Africa and made up 15
    of population.

115
  • In 1948 the Afrikaner led government implemented
    Apartheid.
  • This was designed to separate the 85 Africans
    and 15 Afrikaners.
  • The Afrikaners are classified as a Oligarchy.

116
  • African mobility, occupations, and social lives
    were tightly restricted
  • Sex and marriage between races forbidden.
  • Blacks were moved to reservations.
  • Land given was not farmable, rural areas where
    people were forced to hunt and gather.
  • Whites took control of all major urban areas

117
  • The idea of the reserve system came from Canada.
  • In 1960 the African National Congress party is
    banned after a peaceful protest led to 180
    members killed in Sharpeville.
  • Nelson Mandela was a leading member in the party
    and is sentenced to life in prison.

118
  • World found out about apartheid in the 70s
  • United Nations condemned the policy.
  • Countries (except for US and Britain) refused to
    trade with South Africa.
  • Government began to collapse and president De
    Clerk rewrote constitution to allow one person
    one vote system open to Africans and whites.

119
  • 1990 De Clerk orders Mandela released.
  • The African National Congress was made legal
    again.
  • Nelson Mandela was the first democratically
    elected president of South Africa 1994.
  • South Africa transformed from Oligarchy to
    democracy.

120
International Humanitarian Law
  • Geneva Conventions

121
Geneva Conventions
  • Made up of 4 treaties and 3 additional protocols.
  • Ratified by 194 countries
  • Aim is to set a standard for treatment of victims
    of war.

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  • Defines rights of those captured during the war.
  • Establishing protections for the wounded
  • Addresses protections for the civilians in and
    around a war zone.

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  • Henri Dunant wrote a book (Memoir of Solferino)
    in which he proposed a permanent relief agency
    for humanitarian aid in times of war
  • A government treaty recognizing the neutrality of
    the agency and allowing it to provide aid in war
    zones.

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  • This led to the Red Cross and the Geneva
    Conventions.
  • Dunant became the first recipient of the Nobel
    Peace Prize.

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Basic Rules
  • Attacks must be limited to combatants and
    military targets
  • 1.1 Civilians may not be attacked
  • 1.2 Civilian objects (houses, hospitals, schools,
    places of worship
  • 1.3 Using civilians to shield military targets is
    prohibited

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  • 1.4 prohibited for combatants to pose as
    civilians
  • 1.5 Starvation of civilians as a method of combat
    is prohibited
  • 1.6 illegal to attack objects that are important
    to survival (farms, drinking water
  • 1.7 illegal to attack dams, dykes, nuclear power
    plants

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Weapons
  • 2. Attacks or weapons which indiscriminately
    strike civilian and military objects and persons,
    and which cause excessive injury or suffering are
    illegal
  • 2.1 chemical and bio weapons, blinding laser
    weapons, weapons that injure the body by
    fragments, poison, anti personnel land mines.

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Victims of War
  • 3 Civilians, wounded combatants, and prisoners
    should be spared, protected and treated humanely.
  • 3.1 no one shall be subjected to physical or
    mental torture or cruel or degrading treatment
  • 3.2 sexual violence illegal
  • 3.3 prisoners are entitled to respect and must be
    treated humanely

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  • 3.6 taking hostages is illegal
  • 3.7 Prohibited to kill or wound an enemy who has
    surrendered
  • 3.10 Illegal to recruit children below the age of
    15 for any type of military service.
  • 3.11 everyone is entitled to a fair trial

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  • 4. Military and civilian medical personnel and
    facilities must be respected and protected
  • 4.1 illegal to attack any person vehicle or
    building that wears the red cross red crescent
    symbol
  • 4.2 No priority is given when treating wounded
    people except on medical grounds.

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Nationalism
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Nationalism
  • Nation a political community of people that
    shares an identity.
  • May be based on ethnicity (race, language,
    culture, history, religion)
  • Anthems
  • Institutions (Health care, Military)
  • Symbols (flags, images)
  • Athletics, hobbies, pastimes ( hockey, olympics)

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State
  • State geographical territory containing a
    population led by a government.
  • European concept.
  • Most states are decided on by nationalism.

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  • Sovereignty is the right to exercise force in a
    territory and to control it by a government.
  • Canadian Artic Sovereignty
  • Free trade agreements.
  • United Nations
  • IHL laws
  • All these challenge the idea of sovereignty.

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Conflicts
  • Nations exist within or without a state.
  • Canada has a French and Aboriginal nation.
  • Palestinians were forced to give up their land so
    that Israel could have a state for their nation.

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Two Ideologies of State Formation
  • Civic Nationalism state is home to all people
    who believe in what the state stands for
    politically and morally.
  • Ethnic Nationalism Culture was the most
    important factor to defining a state. Language
    was the imperative part of culture historically.

137
Quote
  • Patriotism is when love of your country comes
    first, Nationalism, when hate for people other
    than your own comes first. - - French President
    Charles de Gaulle

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Internationalism
  • States do not exist in isolation
  • Internationalism promotes economic and political
    cooperation.
  • cooperation among states, not nationalistic self
    interest, will help further Platos common good.

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Quote
  • it is impossible for one to be
    Internationalistic without being a nationalistIt
    is not nationalism that is evil, it is the
    narrowness, selfishness, exclusiveness which is
    the bane of modern nations which is evil.-
    Mahatma Gandhi

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Rwanda
141
Some Info
  • Population 7,810,056Capital KigaliGovernment
    type RepublicPresident Paul KagameEthnicity
    85 Hutu, 14 TutsiMajor languages Kinyarwanda,
    English and French are official languages.
    Swahili is also used.Major religions Catholic
    (56.5), Protestant (26), Adventist (11.1),
    Muslim (4.6)

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Some Info
  • Life expectancy 39.33 yearsMedian age 18.1
    yearsNatural resources Gold, tin ore, tungsten
    ore, methaneCanadian imports from Coffee
    (700,000)Canadian exports to Electrical
    machinery (800,000 and worn clothing 100,000)

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History
  • First colonized by Germany in 1890.
  • Germany forced to give it over to Belgium in
    Treaty of Versailles in 1919.
  • Natives made up of two ethnic groups, Tutsi and
    Hutu who lived together for 600 years.

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Hutu Tutsi
  • Both groups spoke the same language, shared the
    same religion, and traded resources.
  • Both followed the Belgian chosen leader and
    thought he was godlike.
  • Intermarriages were common between the two.

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Differences Hutu Tutsi
  • Physically the Tutsi were lighter skinned,
    thinner and taller than Hutus
  • Hutus were shorter and stocky, darker skinned.
  • Tutsi were cattle herders, Hutu were famers.
  • 85 of people were Hutu, 15 Tutsi
  • Large Hutu Majority.

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Belgium Influence
  • Belgium orders the citizens to carry identity
    cards stating who was Tutsi and Hutu.
  • Belgium viewed the Tutsi as ethnically superior
    because they had lighter skin, were taller.
  • Tutsi were richer since they had cattle.
  • Gave privileged jobs and government positions to
    Tutsi.
  • This angered Hutus as they were the majority

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Conflict
  • In 1959 Rwandan Tutsi king dies and Belgium
    installs another Tutsi king.
  • This angered Hutus and a violent revolution
    resulted.
  • Rwanda holds an referendum and vote for
    independence from Belgium.

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Hutu Power
  • 1962 First Hutu, Gregoire Kayibanda, elected to
    power.
  • Throughout the 60s and 70s Hutus kill and
    persecute Tutsi and remove them from powerful
    jobs.
  • 2 million Tutsi fled to Uganda, Congo, Tanzania.

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  • In 1973 military coup installs Hutu General
    Habyarimana
  • He changes constitution that states Tutsi can
    only fill 9 of government positions.
  • Tutsis in Rwanda and all neighboring countries
    from the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) to fight
    for Tutsi rights.

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  • 1990 RPF in all countries invade Rwanda.
  • France and Zaire send troops to stop the invasion
    and force a cease fire in 1991.
  • Hutu Government declares Tutsis as enemy of the
    state.
  • United Nations intervenes to make sure the cease
    fire is not broken.
  • Mission is called United Nations Assistance
    Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR).

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UNAMIR
  • 2500 troops
  • 370 from Canada
  • 400 Belgium
  • 800 Ghana
  • Canadian Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire is put
    in charge of the mission to support Arusha
    Accords cease fire.

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Ethnic Division
  • President Habyarimana takes this event to create
    a Tutsi enemy threat.
  • Gave him more support in the country.
  • Organized massacres of Tutsi and opposition
    groups.
  • Formed a youth militia called the Interahamwe
    (those that attack together).

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  • Interehamwe recruiters offered them food, drugs,
    freedom to rape, cash.
  • Encouraged them to take Tutsi possessions.

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Hutu Power Radio
  • Habyarimana also started the radio station RTLM
    also known as Hutu Power.
  • Used to spread hatred and blame the Tutsi for all
    problems.
  • Called them Inyenzi or cockroaches
  • Also spread hate against UNAMIR and Belgium.
  • In Burundi, Tutsis murdered the Hutu president
    making the Rwandans more frightened.

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Hutu Power Radio
  • Radio announces that Tutsi should exterminate
    their neighbours and take their land and
    possessions.
  • False reports of the Tutsi attacking Hutu in
    rural parts of country led by the RPF.

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Civilian Civil Defense Force
  • Habyarimana organizes another militia (Civilian
    Civil Defense Force) of ordinary citizens and
    gives them clubs and machetes.
  • It is now believed that France supplied weapons
    and training for the Interahamwe and the Civilian
    force.

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Structure
  • Habyarimana then kills all local leaders that
    does not support him and replaces them with his
    own Hutu leaders.
  • Police chiefs, Mayors, government employees all
    support killing the Tutsi.
  • They wait for the signal from the Hutu power
    radio station.

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Dallaires Cables
  • Dallaire captures shipments of weapons from
    France (in violation of Arusha Accords) destined
    for Hutu Government.
  • Meets with Interahamwe informant Jean Pierre
    who tells of weapons caches throughout Rwanda.
  • Dallaire sends cable (communication) requesting
    permission to capture weapons and is denied.
    Forced to tell Habyarimana what he knows.
  • Jean Pierre is never seen again

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Start
  • April 6th 1994 President Habyarimana is killed
    when his plane is shot down.
  • Colonel Bagosora takes charge and orders the
    military, Interahamwe, Civilian Civil Defense to
    begin extermination of the Tutsi for self
    defense.

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Strategies
  • Organised to kill 1000 every 20 minutes
  • Since Rwandans were forced to identify, Hutus
    knew where they lived.
  • Went house to house killing families.
  • Local officials order militias to create barriers
    on roads to prevent Tutsis from leaving.

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Strategies
  • Force Tutsi to go to public buildings (churches,
    schools, govt buildings) where they are massacred
    in large scale.
  • Women were raped in exchange for their life.

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Belgium Deaths
  • Once the killings started, Romeo Dallaire sent 10
    Belgium peacekeepers to protect the Prime
    Minister Agathe uwilingiyimana
  • She is killed
  • Troops are captured, tortured and killed by the
    Tutsi.

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Evacuations
  • France, Belgium, U.S send 2000 in troops and
    Military planes to evacuate its citizens in
    Rwanda, and leave.
  • Belgium removed its troops after the deaths.
  • Dallaire was left with 270 troops from Canada and
    Ghana.
  • UN ordered Dallaire to leave, he denied the
    order.

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End of Genocide
  • The genocide came to an end after the RPF invaded
    once again.
  • Estimated 800,000 Tutsi and Hutu killed in 100
    days.
  • RPF capture Kigali and form an interim government
    composed of Tutsi and Hutu.
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