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The History of Chemical Agents

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Title: The History of Chemical Agents


1
The History of Chemical Agents
2000 B.C. - 2005 A.D.
2
2300 B.C.
The Chinese Army made use of chemical agents
  • Used pots of burning
    red
    pepper and oil.
  • Used ground pepper in rice paper bags.

3
431 B.C.
Peloponnesian Wars
Wood was saturated with sulfur and pitch. A
burning smoke was produced.
Results were 1. Disorientation 2. Eye
closure 3. Choking
4
673 A.D.
Greek Fire
Ingredients Sulfur, quick-lime, pitch, and
petroleum.
Results This mixture would burn on top of
water. It would cause choking and skin
irritation.
5
1300 A.D.
Siege of Taratine, Italy
First documented use of bacteriological warfare.
1. 2,000 cartloads of horse manure were used
to produce foul odor, flies, and disease. 2.
Later, dead bodies were used to produce
plague.
6
1864
Civil War
First use of chemical agent on U.S. soil.
  • Siege of Charleston, S.C. Confederate troops used
    wood saturated with sulfur, burning it to produce
    a choking smoke.
  • A plan by Federal troops to use Chlorine gas to
    retake the fort was not used.

7
1869
Discovery of CN
German Chemist Graebe
CN was a lacrimator and became known as weeping
gas. Later, it was called tear gas. It was
not used for about 40 years.
8
1912
Civil Disorder in Paris
First documented use of chemical agents by law
enforcement.
French Police load CN (EthylBromacetate)
into military 37mm grenades.
Riotous crowds were successfully dispersed.
9
1913
Germans discover DM Diphenylaminechlorarsine
  • Sickening Agent
  • Licorice odor
  • Pyrotechnic delivery

10
1915
April 22, 1915 in Northern France, Germans use
chlorine gas causing 7,000 allied casualties.
The French loaded CN into mortar shells as a
harassing agent. Later, both sides used
chlorine, phosgene and mustard gas.
11
1915
12
1916
  • Gas Masks rushed to the front
  • Developed from mining technology
  • Battlefield tested and developed

13
1918
  • Edgewood Arsenal refined DM
  • Major Roger Adams
  • Known as Adamsite gas

14
1920
OC Tincture Oleoresin Capsicum
  • Developed at Edgewood Arsenal by U.S. Army
  • Not used until the 1980s.
  • All natural, non-synthetic.
  • Thought to be less effective than CN

15
1928 CS Orthochlorobenzalmalononitrile
  • U.S.Chemists Carson and Sloughton develop it.
  • 1956 patented by British,
  • 1961 used by British on Cyprus,
  • Presently most used chemical agent by Law
    Enforcement.

16
1930
Acme Gas Axe
17
1954 LAPD
18
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19
1958
  • UN bans DM as war gas
  • U.S. does not comply with ban
  • U.S. still stockpiles DM

20
1960 M-17 Gas Mask
  • U.S. Army developed mask that would filter CS
    particles at 1-10 microns.
  • (1 micron 1/25,000 inch)
  • Filter types
  • Green Riot Agents
  • Black Biological
  • Gold Radioactive

21
1962 CR
  • Developed by U.S.Army
  • Higginbottom and Suchitsky
  • Tested and used by British
  • Used by U.S. military police
  • Hand-held aerosol containers loaded by Federal
    Labs

22
1965 Mace
  • Manufactured by General Ordinance (G.O.E.C)
  • .9-1 CN in a petroleum-based carrying agent.
  • Was most used agent in world.

23
1969 Tear Gas Act of California
  • Initiated after the death of LA Times news
    reporter Reuben Salazar
  • Regulated by DOJ
  • Sales
  • Transportation
  • Use
  • Training

24
1969 Ferret Rounds
  • AAI Corp. introduces 12-gauge liquid frangible
    shell.
  • CN CS
  • 1970 37mm shell
  • 1985 40mm shell
  • 1991 OC ferrets
  • Powder payloads

25
1974
  • U.S. Army approves CR as riot-control agent

26
1976
  • Aberdeen Proving Grounds tests new mask
  • Forerunner of MCU-2P (Mickey Two)

27
1982 OC
  • Discovered in 1920 Edgewood Arsenal
  • Re-discovered and introduced by Lucky Police
    Products in Florida
  • Marketed as Cap Stun

28
1983 MCU - 2P New Mask Mickey Two
  • Standardized quick change filters to NATO spec
  • 1st 10,000 to USAF in 1983 by MSI Corp.
  • Filters-chemical, biological, radioactive

29
1984
  • SDSO Reintroduces Gas Axe
  • Lake Erie Chemical Company

30
1985 Burn Box
Introduced by San Diego Police SWAT Military
Spec. Ammo Can with Ports
31
1986
  • OSHA/NIOSH Regulations clarified
  • 29 CFR 1910.128 APR Standards
  • Military type masks not approved

32
1990 OC
  • Def-Tec reintroduces OC nationwide
  • Use is restricted by CA DOJ
  • Availability in California to be determined by
    Environmental Health Services.

33
1991 M-40 GAS MASK
  • Combined M-17 and MCU-2P
  • U.S. Marines issued new mask
  • Later issued to all branches of the military

34
1992
RM 40mm Launcher
2002 Model
35
1992 OC
  • CA DOJ issues provisional use for 180 days
  • Extended to 1995
  • Two products
  • Def-Tec and Cap-Stun
  • Law Enforcement Only

36
1994 OC
  • DOJ approves use by citizens
  • As of March 1, 1994 citizens can carry OC with
    proper training
  • DEF-TEC has only legal product in California

37
1996 DOJ DEREGULATES CHEMICAL AGENTS IN CALIFORNIA
  • Citizen certification program halted
  • Citizen use restricted to aerosols less than 2.5
    oz
  • Unrestricted use by law enforcement

38
Jaycor Tactical Systems PepperBall
1999
  • SA200 Rifle
  • Multiple versions
  • OC powder

39
2000
Gas Ram
40
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41
Gas Ram Deployment
  • Visible
  • Persistent
  • Measured Dose

42
2001
  • Fit Testing for gas masks/APRs
  • Qualitative Testing/Smell Test
  • Quantitative Testing/Instrument Rating

43
2001 Gilbert Arizona
  • Home-made gas ram kills Sgt. Tom Hontz during
    training exercise in Arizona

44
Gas Axe Explodes
  • Smoke Grenade
  • Ports Blocked
  • Poor Design

45
(No Transcript)
46
1985
2001
Aluminum Burn Safe
Flame Trap
47
(No Transcript)
48
2001
  • FN Herstal introduces FN 303

49
2001 Penn Arms GL-1 40mm
Mil-spec 40mm Shot Launcher
50
2001 Penn Arms GL-6 40mm
Mil-spec 40mm Shot Launcher
51
2002 Remotec Robot
52
Remotec Robot with GL-6 40mm Launcher
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