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Islamic Fundamentalism

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Islamic Fundamentalism Beliefs and Practices; Social Movements and Groups * * * * * * The movement stayed on the fringes during the 1950s when Gamal Nasser in Egypt ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Islamic Fundamentalism


1
Islamic Fundamentalism
  • Beliefs and Practices Social Movements and Groups

2
Islam is not equal to Islamic Fundamentalism
  • DO NOT CONFUSE THE TWO!

3
Beliefs of Islamic Fundamentalism
4
Islamism or Islamic Fundamentalism
  • As globalization spread, many Muslims became
    skeptical about western economic development and
    political and cultural norms
  • Blamed the West for their own economic and
    political problems and the breakdown of
    traditional social and religious values
  • Saw the abandonment of Islamic traditions as the
    cause of their problems and many blamed the US

The Saudi Arabian Mutaween, or religious police,
enforce the Islamic dress code
5
Islamist Reaction
  • Many saw the solution as a revival of Islamic
    identity, values, and power
  • Most sought to bring about change through
    peaceful means
  • An extremist minority has claimed a mandate from
    God that calls for violent transformations

Supporters of Hizbut Tahrir, a hardline Muslim
group, protesting in front of the US Embassy in
Jakarta, Indonesia
6
Islamic Fundamentalism Beliefs
  • Islamic society should be united and returned to
    a more pure time
  • The true Islamic state should be led by a
    Caliphs as in the early Islamic Empire
  • The Koran and Islamic law (sharia) should be the
    legal basis for state and society.
  • Islam must be a fixed element in all areas of
    life.
  • Some fundamentalists reject all reform and
    modernizing as Un-Islamic.
  • Islam, as generally lived nowadays, is seen as a
    compromise with the unbelieving world.

7
Why Do They Hate The West? Especially USA
8
Why do they Hate USA?
  • Westernization
  • Imperialism
  • US overthrew Iranian elected prime minister in
    1952 and replaced him w/ a king
  • Cultural Imperialism
  • economic imperialism
  • OIL
  • Iraqi sanctions/embargo (1990-2002)
  • over 1 million dead
  • half of them under 5 yrs
  • Support of Israel
  • 3 billion a year
  • uses to fight Palestinians
  • Support Saudi Arabia
  • continued military bases
  • Good vs. Evil

9
Why Do People Turn To Islamic Fundamentalism?
  • What is the appeal?

10
Appeal of Islamic Fundamentalism Why?
  • Muslim fundamentalists, filled with idealistic
    zeal, are committed to the establishing of a
    state which is influenced only by Islam.
  • They are prepared for great sacrifice even
    their own lives to work for this goal.
  • Their life is to assist in the building of an
    Islamic state.
  • Their aversion to all things western and
    non-Islamic is expressed by clothing and strict
    adherence to an Islamic moral code.
  • The strength is to give individual people an
    identity, hope, and new sense of self respect.
  • Some of the social-welfare projects which
    fundamentalist groups have set up are exemplary,
    such as orphans and widows pensions, the
    building of hospitals and schools etc.

11
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12
Goals and Methods
13
Islamic Fundamentalism Achieve Goals By Doing The
Following
  • Combine religion and government create more
    Islamic states
  • Use Sharia Law for whole society
  • Limit the effects of modernization
  • Force non-fundamentalist Muslims and others to
    obey, even using violence
  • Womens rights are virtually non-existent
  • Unfair justice system
  • Punishments are cruel
  • Target the United States as the Great Satan

14
Why use terrorism?
  • Guerilla Warfare
  • Desire to wound a more powerful foe.
  • You may be more powerful, but you can still bleed
  • The higher the targets profile, the better.
  • American Embassies in Africa (Aug. 1988)
  • World Trade Center (1993 2001)
  • Military targets
  • Beirut, Lebanon (1983)
  • 241 Marines killed
  • Pentagon
  • US naval ships (USS COLE in Oct. 2000)
  • About sending a message!!

15
Jihad
  • Convinced that the Muslim world is under siege,
    extremists used the concept of the jihad to
    rationalize and legitimize terrorism and
    revolution
  • Jihad is sometimes called the Sixth Pillar of
    Islam and is an exertion or struggle in achieving
    the ways of Allah
  • It invokes the right and duty to defend Islam and
    the Islamic community from unjust attack

Members of the Islamic Jihads military wing, the
Al-Quds Brigade, in Gaza
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TERRORIST OR FREEDOM FIGHTER??
18
History of Islamic Fundamentalism and
Islamism/Islamists
19
Growth of Islamism
20
Example Muslim Brotherhood
21
Sayyid Qutb
  • Especially influential theorist, Sayyid Qutb
    (1906-1966), an Egyptian journalist, high-ranking
    member of Ministry of Education
  • Critic of corrupt King Faruq
  • Exiled to U.S., earned M.A. in Education from
    Colorado State College of Education (1949)
  • Appalled by consumerism, secularism, relaxed
    sexual mores, high divorce rate, racial
    inequality, alcohol, and support for Israel
  • On return to Egypt, joined radical Islamist
    Muslim Brotherhood, became leading theorist

22
Sayyid Qutb
  • Nationalist Colonel Gamel Abdul Nasser overthrew
    King Faruq, courted Qutb and Muslim Brotherhood
  • Qutb proposed Nasser remake Egypt as Islamic
    theocracy
  • Secularist, Arab-nationalist Nasser refused
  • Qutb and Muslim Brotherhood turned against him
  • Qutb arrested, imprisoned, tortured executed for
    opposition to Nasser (1966)
  • Became martyr, hero of radical Islam
  • Inspiration for ideas, actions of Al Qaeda,
    Taliban, radical Islamists

23
Growth of Muslim Brotherhood
  • Egypts defeat in Arab-Israeli war of l967
    provided an opportunity for the Muslim
    Brotherhood to expand
  • Since 1970s, fundamentalist groups attracted
    growing popular support

24
Other Examples of Islamic Fundamentalism
25
Roots of Islamic Radical Extremism
Muhammad Al-Wahhab Wahhabi Pure Islam
Sayyid Qutb Anti-West/Anti-America
Taliban Afghanistan
Hezbollah Lebanon
Al-Qaeda ???
Muslim Brotherhood Egypt
HAMAS Gaza
26
Anti-Israel Islamic Fundamentalist Groups
  • Goal the destruction of the state of Israel
  • Reside in West Bank Gaza
  • Build schools, clinics, roads, etc
  • Political parties
  • Hezbollah Party of God
  • Southern Lebanon
  • Shiite Muslims
  • HAMAS Islamic Resistance Movement
  • Leading political party in Gaza Strip
  • Sunni

27
Example Hezbollah
28
Hezbollah The Party of God
  • Goals
  • Elimination of Israel, liberation of Jerusalem,
    and Islamic rule in Lebanon
  • Guidance and assistance to other extremist
    groups
  • Independent State of Palestine

29
Hezbollah The Party of God
  • Attacks
  • Many attacks in Israel (80s-90s)
  • US Embassy (1984)
  • Marine Barracks, Lebanon, 1984
  • Kidnapping of Americans in Lebanon -1980s
  • TWA hijacking 1985
  • Israeli Embassy attack 1992

30
Hezbollah The Party of God
  • Financing
  • Iran
  • False charities and humanitarian groups
  • Wealthy individuals
  • Diplomatic, political, and logistical support
    from Syria
  • Businesses

31
Example Hamas
32
Hamas Background
  • Arabic acronym for The Islamic Resistance
    Movement
  • Grew out of the Muslim Brotherhood
  • Created in 1987 by Shaikh Ahmed Yassin
  • Headquarters in Gaza City, Palestine

33
Hamas
  • Attacks
  • Many bombings, suicide bombings, rocket and
    artillery attacks, kidnappings, beatings, and
    other acts of violence against Israeli civilians
    during 80s and 90s- hundreds of casualties
  • Provides relief, education, to Palestinians
  • Provides political participation
  • Goals
  • Destruction of Israel
  • Destruction of Judaism
  • Political violence
  • Creation of an Islamic State in Palestine

34
The Slogan of Hamas
  • God is its target, the Prophet is its model,
    the Quran its constitution Jihad is its path
    and death for the sake of God is the loftiest of
    its wishes.

35
Hamas
  • Financing
  • Various Middle East countries
  • Illegal drug sales
  • Palestinian expatriates and private donors in
    Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich Persian Gulf
    states.
  • Muslim Charities around the world
  • Iran also provides significant support

36
Example Al Qaeda
37
What is al-Qaeda?
  • Al Qaeda is a stateless (meaning without a
    country) terrorist organization.
  • led and financed by Osama bin Laden, a radical
    Shia Muslim.

38
Osama bin Laden
  • Osama bin Laden began his militancy in response
    to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  • He helped found the Maktab al-Khadamat (MAK)
    which recruited and funded mujahideen to fight
    the Soviets
  • Ironically, the US also supported the mujahideen
    based on the Cold War philosophy that the enemy
    of my enemy is my friend

39
al-Qaeda
Part of the post-Desert Storm US military
presence at Prince Sultan Air Base, 80 km south
of Riyadh
  • In 1988, bin Laden split from the MAK and formed
    a new group comprised of some of the most
    militant mujahideen that would become the
    al-Qaeda terrorist group
  • The US involvement in Desert Storm and continued
    presence in Saudi Arabia, home of the Muslim holy
    sites of Mecca and Medina, bin Laden became
    infuriated by the Western influence

40
al-Qaeda
  • al-Qaeda calls for the use of violence and force
    bringing about the end of non-Islamic
    governments, and in particular, a wish to drive
    the U.S. armed forces out of Saudi Arabia and
    Somalia.

41
Bin Laden
  • Osama bin Laden overtly criticizes the Saudi
    government. Saudi Arabia banishes him his
    family disowns him (officially).
  • Bin Laden leaves Saudi Arabia to further build al
    Qaeda. al-Qaeda is responsible for the
    proliferating of terrorists throughout the world,
    and providing them with equipment and financing.
  • al-Qaeda has become a movement (philosophy).

42
History of attacks on US Interests connected to
al Qaeda prior to September 11, 2001
43
USA in Somalia
  • Dec. 4, 1992, George H.W. Bush sends 28,000
    American troops to Somalia.
  • Bush wanted to help the Somali people since all
    attempts to send food to them were intercepted by
    war lords.

44
Black Hawk Down!
  • In 1993, 18 Americans died when their Black Hawk
    helicopter was shot down over Mogadishu, Somalia.
  • The US believes al Qaeda operatives taught the
    Somalis how to shoot down helicopters just like
    they did in Afghanistan against the Soviets.

45
World Trade Center bombing
  • 9-11 was not the first terrorist attack on the
    WTC.
  • In 1993, a man rented a Ryder truck and
    detonated a large bomb in one of the towers
    hoping to knock it over onto the other tower.

46
1993 WTC bombing
It killed 6 people and injured over 1000.
47
Ramzi Yousef
  • He was a planner of the WTC bombing.
  • He was a member/leader of al Qaeda.
  • Yousef stated, "Yes, I am a terrorist, and proud
    of it as long as it is against the U.S.
    government."
  • Speaks 7 languages and has college degrees in
    engineering and chemistry.
  • Currently serving a life sentence.

48
1996 Car Bombing of Khobar Towers
  • The Khobar Towers provided housing for American
    military stationed in Saudi Arabia. 19 Americans
    were killed and hundreds injured.

49
US Embassy Bombings
  • Two American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania were
    bombed simultaneously in 1998. 220 people were
    killed.

50
Fatwa Legal interpretation of Islamic Law
  • In August of 1998, Osama bin Laden and 4 of his
    close associates sign and distribute a statement
    declaring it is the individual duty for every
    Muslim who can do it to kill Americans.

51
Clinton Responds
  • President Clinton decided to attack al Qaeda in
    response.
  • US attacks al Qaeda training camps in Sudan and
    Afghanistan with Tomahawk missiles. Camps were
    destroyed. Osama lives.

52
USS Cole attack Oct. 2000
  • In Yemen, Al Qaeda operatives sent a suicide
    bomber aboard a small ship near the USS Cole and
    detonated its bomb, blowing a large hole in the
    US Navy ship.
  • 17 sailors killed.

53
al-Qaedas International Presence at the Time of
the Sept 11 Attack
54
Example ISIS, ISIL, The Islamic State
55
ISIL Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant
  • ISIL has taken control of parts of Iraq Syria
  • ISIL is so extreme, even al Qaeda rejects them

56
ISIL Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant
  • ISIL began as an al Qaeda affiliate in Iraq
    following the 2003 US-led invasion
  • American forces spent years and enormous
    resources to bring the group largely to heel
    before US troops pulled out of the country in
    December of 2011
  • Since then, the region has been in political
    turmoil and sectarian hatreds
  • The Islamic State has seized on those
    Sunni-Shiite tensions to help inspire its Sunni
    extremist followers
  • The group is led by an ambitious Iraqi militant
    known as Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi

57
Flaws
58
Flaws in the Islamic fundamentalist argument
  • There was no purer time
  • The past they wish to return to is not the way
    they think it was
  • It violates rights of modern Muslims
    non-Muslims (especially women)
  • It leads to extremist acts (like terrorism) that
    violate the principles of peace inherent in Islam
  • Fundamentalist leaders rely on modern technology
    (the internet, cars, planes, bombs, etc) the
    same things they say they are fighting against

59
Political Cartoons on Islamic Fundamentalism
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