IDEOLOGICAL ONE PARTY STATE (TOTALITARIAN) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – IDEOLOGICAL ONE PARTY STATE (TOTALITARIAN) PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 69dfb2-YzVjN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

IDEOLOGICAL ONE PARTY STATE (TOTALITARIAN)

Description:

Bolsheviks seized power through a coup; people faced food shortages, ... (1966-1976) A method to regain control of the party after the disastrous Great Leap Forward. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:63
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 58
Provided by: CearaO1
Learn more at: http://ripkens.wikispaces.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: IDEOLOGICAL ONE PARTY STATE (TOTALITARIAN)


1
IDEOLOGICAL ONE PARTY STATE(TOTALITARIAN)
  • Also known as a Communist State.
  • One small political group holds power.
  • Government policy is based on a an ideology.
    (equality of all)
  • It appears in underdeveloped or backwards
    countries that wish to industrialize.
  • The former Soviet Union and China are examples.

2
Karl Marx
  • Marx said one day there would be a revolution
    that would overthrow the ruling class and set up
    a system he called communism.
  • Under communism, all farms, factories, mines and
    profit were to be shared equally.
  • Marx wrote his ideas in two books, The Communist
    Manifesto Das Kapital.

3
FASCISM VS. COMMUNISM
  • FASCISM
  • Draws support from lower classes business.
  • Makes decisions in the interest of the state.
  • Focuses activities on the state.(national)
  • Corporate state (private enterprise)
  • Elitism
  • Ultra-nationalism(ethnocentric)
  • racist
  • COMMUNISM
  • Draws support from working classes.
  • Makes decisions in the interest of the working
    class.
  • Desire to help working class around the world.
    (international)
  • State ownership of the means of production.
  • Nationalities unimportant (equally)

4
THE RISE AND FALL OF THE SOVIET UNION
5
The Russian Revolution of 1917
  • Karl Marx believed that Russia was an unlikely
    place for a communist Revolution because it was a
    non-industrialist nation.
  • Bolsheviks seized power through a coup people
    faced food shortages, soldiers rioted.
  • Communists led by Lenin seized telephone lines,
    railways, banks, electric plants, etc.
  • Communist Control of Soviet Union was complete in
    1921.

6
THE BOLSHEVIKS
  • One revolutionary group called the Bolsheviks
    took their ideas from a German writer named Karl
    Marx.
  • Marx said one day there would be a revolution
    that would overthrow the ruling class and set up
    a system he called communism.
  • Under communism, all farms, factories, mines and
    profit were to be shared equally.
  • Marx wrote his ideas in two books, The Communist
    Manifesto Das Kapital.

7
Values, Assumptions, and Myths
  • Communists claimed that the new country was a
    democracy.
  • Set up govt. that on paper was democratic
  • Govt. based on a constitution (1922)
  • CPSU refers to itself as democratic because it
    rules in the interest of the majority.
  • Real power was with the CPSU.
  • Maintained a monopoly of power by controlling
  • Access to positions of leadership
  • Content of communication
  • Direction of the economy
  • Culture and education

8
Democratic Forms
  • Founding myth
  • Lenin took control of the Democratic Soviets
  • Councils that set policies and had elections.
  • Example
  • National Congress of Soviets
  • Made up of workers, peasants, and soldiers.

9
Authoritarian Essence
  • The CP was the only legal political party
  • This was justified by
  • Only one class (proletariat) therefore only one
    party needed.
  • Party was the vanguard of the proletariat and
    protector of communism.
  • Lenin also believed that elections in capitalist
    countries were simply a sham (illusion of real
    choice).

10
Authoritarian Essence cont
  • Democratic Centralism
  • Issues are discussed bottom up, then resolved by
    the party congress with the expectation that all
    party members will obey.
  • Eventually used by Stalin to purge all opposition
    and became a justification for strict censorship,
    imprisonment and executions.
  • In this way, Stalin ended up controlling the
    party, which controlled the government, which
    controlled the USSR.

11
Structure of Communist Party
  • Politburo
  • Supreme policy making body
  • 15 members
  • Secretariat
  • Supervised the Politburo
  • Managed daily activities of the party
  • Supervised all state and government appointments
  • Implemented policies
  • Led by General-Secretary

12
(No Transcript)
13
Structure of Soviet Government
  • Though appearing both democratic and federal in
    nature the Supreme Soviet (parliament) was not
    effectively democratic.
  • Met 2 times per year
  • Laws first past by Presidium so Supreme Soviet
    simply rubber stamped legislation.
  • Real purpose of Supreme Soviet was simply to
    spread message of Presidium.
  • Elections were not considered democratic because
    there was usually only one name on ballot.

14
(No Transcript)
15
Communist Party Membership
  • Only those who were politically conscious,
    honest, educated, and dedicated to the party
    could join.
  • Nominated by party member
  • Two years to become member
  • Every aspect of candidates life was investigated
  • Only 20 of population were members.
  • Majority of CPSU members were employed in
    industry and agriculture. (72)

16
Large Secret Police Force
  • Cheka (1917) Lenin
  • NKVD (1934) Stalin
  • Peoples Commissarat of Internal Affairs
  • KGB (1954)
  • Committee for State Security

17
Soviet Government
  • Federal system
  • Little autonomy to republics.
  • Autonomy right to make own decisions
  • Government controls all levels of government.
    (Moscow Kremlin)

18
Vocab
  • Tsar
  • Proletariat
  • Democratic centralism
  • Great purges
  • Perestroika
  • Glasnost
  • USSR
  • CIS
  • Politburo
  • Secreteriat
  • Protectorate
  • Platt Amendment

19
China
  • After 1949

20
China becomes a Communist State
  • 1949, Mao Zedong revolts against the Kuomintang
    (Chinese Nationalist Party) and turns China into
    a communist state.

21
The Peoples Republic of China
  • Mao adopted a country that was politically and
    economically backwards.
  • Lack of political unity
  • Primitive technology
  • Population explosion
  • Famine
  • Began a campaign of abolishing private property,
    collectivization of agriculture and 5 year plans.

22
Great Leap Forward (1958-1960)
  • Economic and social plan to turn China from an
    agrarian society into a modern industrialized
    communist society.
  • The hope was to industrialize by making use of
    the massive supply of cheap labor (unemployed)
    and avoid having to import heavy machinery.
    (Peoples Communes)
  • Plan was a disaster Great Leap Backwards
  • Unorganized (more workers dedicated to industry
    than to agriculture caused food shortages)
  • Unrealistic work assignments
  • typhoons, floods
  • Mao stepped aside from the government as he had
    lost support of the communist party. (though
    still a father figure to the masses of Chinese
    people)

23
Foreign Policy
  • After the death of Stalin a bitter rift developed
    between China and the Soviets.
  • Mao was ignored by Stalin successors which forced
    Mao to solicit support from other communist
    nations.
  • Mao criticized Khrushchev for his policy of
    peaceful co-existence.
  • USSR offered moderate aid to the Chinese but did
    not want to help them become a global power.
  • Ordered all Soviet technicians and scientists in
    China to return home in 1960.

24
Foreign Policy cont
  • Tensions between China the USSR grew when
    Brezhnev (1964) became the new leader. (Brezhnev
    Doctrine)
  • This resulted in friendlier relations with the
    USA. (ping pong diplomacy)
  • 1970s China retreated from socialism to more of
    a modified private enterprise system.

25
Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
  • A method to regain control of the party after the
    disastrous Great Leap Forward.
  • Maos strategy was to use the youth (Red Guard)
    of China to raise mass consciousness of the
    dangers of privilege and modified capitalism.
    (destroy all symbols of the past)
  • Over 12 million students activists took part in
    mass rallies in support of Mao.
  • Large bands of protesters all over China left
    chaos and political instability.

26
OUTCOME
  • Premier Zhou Enlai ordered the Peoples Army to
    restore order by force.
  • 400 000 people died
  • 17 million sent to work camps
  • Millions more sent to correctional camps to be
    re-educated.
  • Mao Zedong dies in 1976.
  • Government of China rounds of the Gang of Four
    puts them on trial for role in Cultural
    Revolution.
  • Sentenced to death (later changed to life
    imprisonment)
  • Deng Xiaoping takes control of China.
  • Favored better relations with the west in trade.

27
LIFE UNDER THE CEAUSESCUS (ROMANIA)
  • Ruled Romania from (1965-1989).
  • Owned 40 homes
  • Elena owned 40 fur coats and 2000 gowns.
  • Elena never past grade four but had claimed she
    discovered compounds she named after
    herself.(received 72 degrees)
  • One in three people were secret police agents.
  • Bedrooms of high ranking officials bugged with
    microphones.
  • Program of Scientific Nourishment was started.
  • Abortions made illegal. (spied on mothers)
  • Sold babies of single mothers.

28
THE CUBAN REVOLUTION
  • 1898 Cuba with American help freed itself from
    Spanish control.
  • 1902 Platt amendment is signed with the USA
    making Cuba an American Protectorate.

29
THE REVOLUTION of 1933
  • Cubans dissatisfaction over their countrys
    political system turned into riots.
  • 1933 government was overthrown by the military
    and Batista ruled Cuba through puppet presidents.
  • USA supported overthrow because Batista promised
    concessions. (i.e. protect foreign investments.)
  • Supplied weapons and trained Cuban officers.

30
FIDEL CASTRO
  • Born in 1926 came from a wealthy family.
  • In 1950 graduated from law school but was
    disinterested.
  • Unhappy with the Batista regime decided to
    organize an armed uprising.(1952)
  • Uprising ended in failure and Castro was given 15
    year prison sentence.
  • While in prison mapped out strategy to overthrow
    Batista.
  • Freed from prison in 1955 (political amnesty) and
    fled to Mexico.

31
FIDEL CASTRO
  • Castro and Che Guevara (friend) began to train a
    small force in guerilla warfare.
  • Announced he would return to Cuba in 1956.
  • Landing was a disaster and Castro was forced to
    hide (regroup) in the Sierra Maestra mountains.
  • Castro gained supporters and they began winning
    small conflicts, broadcasting on Radio Rebelde
    and using propaganda.
  • USA stopped all shipments of weapons to Cuba
    (Castro promised protection of foreign
    investments, private enterprise, etc.)
  • 1958 Cuban government collapsed and Fidel Castro
    became the leader of Cuba.

32
USA and CUBA
  • Once Castro was in power, it became obvious that
    Castro was not willing to cooperate with the
    United States.
  • Tensions came to a head during the Cold War when
    Cuban rebels (backed by the USA) attempted to
    overthrow Castro and failed.
  • This is known as the BAY OF PIGS.
  • Following this, Castro allowed Khrushchev to
    place missiles in Cuba, the USA placed a
    quarantine on Cuba, preventing all trade.
  • To date, the USA has a trade embargo on Cuba,
    which has greatly burdened the Cuban economy.
  • Much of Castros popularity within Cuba has been
    based on his Anti-American stance.

33
2008 CASTRO RESIGNS!!!
  • After 49 years of rule, Castro resigns as
    dictator of Cuba!
  • Currently, his brother, Raul Castro, has taken
    over as leader
  • Will the USA lift their current trade
    sanctions????

34
In General, All Dictatorships
  • Promise to remake society on a grand scale
  • Penetrate all aspects of society
  • - Army, schools, must be a party member to get
    ahead
  • - No individual rights, subordinate to the state
  • Party is dominated by an all-powerful,
    charismatic leader
  • Party and leaders power are maintained by force
    (militarized society)
  • Monopolization of the flow of ideas
  • Rule supported by terrorist activities
  • - Parliamentary activities, Secret Police
  • Law is only what the state dictates
  • State control of the economy
  • - Different if fascist or communist!)

35
DICTATORSHIP
VS
DEMOCRACY
36
DEMOCRACY
freedom to participate in elections
practice responsible citizenship
opportunity to choose one's own government
freedom to be equal before law
respect the rights of others within society
respect the idea of majority rule with respect to
minority rights
37
DICTATORSHIP
obligation to serve the state
not permitted to criticize the government
duty to support the leadership without question.
place the groups interest above individuals
provide loyalty and obedience to the leader
be prepared to give up freedoms for the benefit
of the state
38
scapegoating
39
Munich Putsch
40
Enabling Act
41
propaganda
42
Nuremburg Laws
43
Gestapo
44
II Duce
45
Anti-Semitism
46
Controlled participation
47
March on Rome
48
Mien Kampf
49
Reichstag
50
indoctrination
51
Squadristi
52
Fuhrer
53
Totalitarian
54
Third Reich
55
Junta
56
Fascism
57
Great Man theory
About PowerShow.com