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The Enlightenment

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Enlightened Despots of Europe Divine Right of Kings 16th century political theory Rulers are chosen by God ... exist to preserve social order On Crimes and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Enlightenment


1
The Enlightenment
  • Challenging Absolutism

2
Causes of the Enlightenment The Renaissance
Reformation
  • Humanism encouraged people to learn
  • Printing Press spread new ideas recreate old
    ancient texts
  • Martin Luther 95 Thesis people challenged
    ideas supported by the RCC
  • Questioning Spirit

3
Causes of the Enlightenment The Scientific
Revolution
  • Scientific Method encouraged people to challenge
    and test theories
  • Scientists challenged the science of the RCC
  • Geocentric versus the heliocentric theory

4
Causes of the Enlightenment Age of Absolutism
  • Absolutism
  • All power in government belongs to a monarch
  • --No separation of powers or checks and
    balances
  • Divine right position of monarch was created by
    God

5
Causes of the Enlightenment Age of Absolutism
  • Corrupt abusive rulers and govt officials
  • Arbitrary laws/punishments
  • Unequal and over taxation
  • Religious persecution

6
Causes of the Enlightenment Age of Absolutism
  • EXAMPLES???

7
Causes of Enlightenment The Bourgeoisie
  • Middle class education
  • Printer press created cheaper books
  • Excess income leisure time

8
Causes of Enlightenment The Bourgeoisie
  • French salons
  • Gatherings of intellectuals
  • Ideas spread

9
Causes of Enlightenment The Bourgeoisie
  • Lack of political rights
  • Heavily taxed
  • Not political privileged due to birth

10
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11
John Locke
  • Consent of the governed

12
Main Ideas
  • Govt gets its authority to rule from the
    citizens
  • Citizens have the right to overthrow an unjust
    govt

13
Impact on Democracy
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Right to vote
  • Impeachment process

14
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15
Montesquieu
  • All men are born equal

16
Main Ideas
  • All men are born equal
  • Govt must protect that equality through laws
  • Separation of powers

17
Impact on Democracy
  • Declaration of Independence
  • U.S. Constitution
  • 13-15th Amendments
  • Womens Suffrage Movement 19th Amendment
  • Civil Rights Movement leads to Civil Rights Act
  • Three branches of govt check/balances

18
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19
Voltaire
  • Let us crush the infamous ones

20
Main Ideas
  • Freedom of Religion
  • Freedom of Speech

21
Impact on Democracy
  • 1st Amendment Bill of Rights
  • Freedom of RELIGION, ASSEMBLY, PRESS, PETITION,
    SPEECH

22
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23
Rousseau
  • The will of the people

24
Main Ideas
  • Decisions should be made based on the common good
  • Direct democracy is the best type of govt

25
Impact on Democracy
  • Voting rights
  • Congressional representatives

26
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27
Beccaria
  • Laws should not avenge crime

28
Main Ideas
  • Laws exist to preserve social order
  • On Crimes and Punishments (1764)
  • Abolishment of torture, arbitrary and cruel
    punishments, irregular trial proceedings, and
    capital punishment

29
Impact on Democracy
  • Bill of Rights
  • Miranda Rights
  • Habeas Corpus Rights

30
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31
Mary Wollstonecraft
  • If all men are born free, how is it that all
    women are born slaves?

32
Main Ideas
  • Marriage should be equal
  • A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
  • Women should receive education equal to men, have
    equal job opportunities, and participate in
    politics

33
Impact on Democracy
  • Womens suffrage movement
  • Equal Rights Act

34
Enlightened Despots
  • Pages 638-639 (561-562 in the old book)
  • What political and economic reforms were made by
    the monarch?
  • In what ways did the monarch refuse to make
    changes?
  • Was the monarch enlightened or not? Justify your
    opinion using facts.

35
Enlightened Despots
  • Using pages 517, 559-560 take notes on p. 27-28
    in the Enlightenment packet.
  • What political and economic reforms were made by
    the monarch?
  • In what ways did the monarch refuse to make
    changes?
  • Was the monarch enlightened or not? Justify your
    opinion using facts.

36
Enlightened Despots of Europe
37
Divine Right of Kings
  • 16th century political theory
  • Rulers are chosen by God and answerable for their
    actions only to God

38
Enlightened Despot
  • Themes of the Enlightenment
  • Reason, Logic, Natural Rights, Happiness, Liberty
  • Absolute ruler who used their power to create
    reform
  • --avoided wars, abolish torture and capital
    punishment, increase political/economic freedoms,
    abolish serfdom

39
Hapsburg Austria Maria Theresa (1740-80)
  • absolute ruler
  • Reforms
  • Forced the nobles clergy to pay taxes
  • Lowered taxes of peasants
  • Decreased amount of labor for peasants
  • Created public education

40
Hapsburg Austria Maria Theresa (1740-80)
  • Refusals to make change
  • Limited rights after American Rev
  • Invaded Poland

41
Prussia Frederick II (the Great) 1712-1786
  • Reforms
  • Lessened censorship
  • Religious tolerance
  • Public education
  • Reformed justice system
  • Abolished torture

42
Prussia Frederick II (the Great) 1712-1786
  • Refusal to make change
  • Invaded Poland Austria
  • Kept serfdom to keep support from landowners

43
  • Catherine the Great
  • end of 18th century
  • Reforms
  • Read philosophers communicated with Voltaire
  • Recommended religious tolerance abolishment of
    capital punishment torture

44
  • Catherine the Great
  • end of 18th century
  • Refusal to change
  • Crushed serf rebellion
  • Gave nobles complete power over serfs
  • Waged war with Ottomans and Poland
  • Ended all reform when the French Rev began

45
The Gold Room
The Catherine Palace at Pushkin what are the
gold domes in the background?
46
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