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Managing Waiting Lines

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Managing Waiting Lines – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Managing Waiting Lines


1
Managing Waiting Lines
2
Lines and Waiting
Every day I get in the queue, that waits for the
bus that takes me to you Pete Townshend,
Magic Bus
3
(No Transcript)
4
Where the Time Goes
  • In a life time, the average
  • American will spend--
  • SIX MONTHS
  • Waiting at stoplights
  • EIGHT MONTHS
  • Opening junk mail
  • ONE YEAR
  • Looking for
    misplaced 0bjects

  • Unsuccessfully returning
  • TWO YEARS phone
    calls
  • FOUR YEARS Doing
    housework
  • FIVE YEARS
    Waiting in line
  • SIX YEARS
    Eating

5
Cultural Attitudes
  • Americans hate to wait. So business is trying a
    trick or two to make lines seem shorter The
    New York Times, September 25, 1988
  • An Englishman, even when he is by himself, will
    form an orderly queue of one George Mikes,
    How to be an Alien
  • In the Soviet Union, waiting lines were used as
    a rationing device Hedrick Smith, The
    Russians

6
Waiting Realities
  • Inevitability of Waiting Waiting results from
    variations in arrival rates and service rates
  • Economics of Waiting High utilization purchased
    at the price of customer waiting. Make waiting
    productive (salad bar) or profitable (drinking
    bar).

7
Laws of Service
  • Maisters First Law Customers compare
    expectations with perceptions.
  • Maisters Second Law Is hard to play catch-up
    ball.
  • Skinners Law The other line always moves
    faster.
  • Jenkins Corollary However, when you switch to
    another other line, the line you left moves
    faster.

8
Remember Me
  • I am the person who goes into a restaurant, sits
    down, and patiently waits while the wait-staff
    does everything but take my order.
  • I am the person that waits in line for the clerk
    to finish chatting with his buddy.
  • I am the one who never comes back and it amuses
    me to see money spent to get me back.
  • I was there in the first place, all you had to do
    was show me some courtesy and service. The
    Customer

9
Psychology of Waiting
  • That Old Empty Feeling Unoccupied time goes
    slowly
  • A Foot in the Door Pre-service waits seem
    longer that in-service waits
  • The Light at the End of the Tunnel Reduce
    anxiety with attention
  • Excuse Me, But I Was First Social justice with
    FCFS queue discipline
  • They Also Serve, Who Sit and Wait Avoids idle
    service capacity

10
Approaches to Controlling Customer Waiting
  • Animate Disneyland distractions, elevator
    mirror, recorded music
  • Discriminate Avis frequent renter treatment
    (out of sight)
  • Automate Use computer scripts to address 75 of
    questions
  • Obfuscate Disneyland staged waits (e.g. House
    of Horrors)

11
The Art of Service Recovery To err is human to
recover, divine
  • Measure Cost of Lost Customer
  • Listen Carefully
  • Anticipate Need for Recovery
  • Act Fast
  • Train Employees
  • Empower the Frontline
  • Inform Customers of Improvement

12
Essential Features of Queuing Systems
Renege
Arrival process
Departure
Queue discipline
Calling population
Service process
Queue configuration
No future need for service
Balk
13
Arrival Process
Arrival process
Static
Dynamic
Random arrivals with constant rate
Random arrival rate varying with time
Facility- controlled
Customer- exercised control
Appointments
Price
Accept/Reject
Balking
Reneging
14
Distribution of Patient Interarrival Times

15
Temporal Variation in Arrival Rates

16
Poisson and Exponential Equivalence
  • Poisson distribution for number of arrivals per
    hour (top view)


  • One-hour
  • 1 2 0
    1 interval
  • Arrival Arrivals Arrivals
    Arrival

62 min.
40 min.
123 min.
Exponential distribution of time between arrivals
in minutes (bottom view)
17
Queue Configurations
Multiple Queue
Single queue

Take a Number

Enter
3
4
2
8
6
10
12
7
11
9
5
18
Queue Discipline
Queue discipline

Static (FCFS rule)
Dynamic
selection based on status of queue
Selection based on individual customer attributes
Number of customers waiting
Round robin
Priority
Preemptive
Processing time of customers (SPT rule)
19
Outpatient Service Process Distributions

20
Service Facility Arrangements
  • Service facility
    Server arrangement
  • Parking lot Self-serve
  • Cafeteria Servers in series
  • Toll booths Servers in parallel
  • Supermarket Self-serve, first stage
    parallel servers, second stage
  • Hospital Many service centers in
    parallel and series, not all used by each patient

21
Topics for Discussion
  • Suggest some strategies for controlling
    variability in service times.
  • Suggest diversions that could make waiting less
    painful.
  • Select a bad and good waiting experience, and
    contrast the situations with respect to the
    aesthetics of the surroundings, diversions,
    people waiting, and attitude of servers.
  • Suggest ways that management can influence the
    arrival times of customers.
  • What are the benefits of a fast-food employee
    taking your order while waiting in line?

22
(No Transcript)
23
Pronto Pizza
  • Draw a process flow diagram and identify the
    bottleneck operation.
  • Use the ServiceModel computer simulation software
    and the Pronto.pkg file to determine the number
    of drivers that minimizes the total cost of
    salaries and guarantee discounts.

24
Pronto Pizza (cont.)
  • Based on your simulation recommended staffing
    level, what is the probability of paying off on
    the guarantee?
  • What do you think of this service guarantee
    policy?
  • What other design or operating suggestions could
    improve Pronto Pizzas performance and customer
    service?
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