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Introduction to Ski Racing: Competition Official - Alpine

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Katie Perhai Last modified by: THoessler Created Date: 2/11/2013 6:19:54 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Ski Racing: Competition Official - Alpine


1
Introduction to Ski Racing Competition Official
- Alpine
  • To be used in conjunction with Introduction to
    Ski Racing Competition Official - Alpine
    Reference Guide and Gate Judge training
    materials. Viewing this presentation may not be
    used as a substitute for attendance at a
    USSA-approved Alpine Officials Clinic.

2
Purpose
  • Provide an introduction to ski race officiating
  • Fulfill Competition Official (CO) prerequisite
    for specialty area certifications
  • Chief of Course (CC)
  • Chief of Race (CR)
  • Data Management (DM)
  • Jury Advisor- Start and Finish Referees (JA)
  • Race Administrator (RA)
  • Referee (RF)
  • Timing Calculations (TC)
  • Technical Delegate (TD)
  • Part of Referee Training

3
AO Education Goals
  • To support and produce events that are
  • Responsible
  • Fair
  • Fun

4
AO Education Strategy
  • Recruit, develop, retain competent officials
  • through

- Education - Training - Experience
5
What is a Competition?
  • A competition is made up of events
  • - Slalom (SL)
  • - Giant Slalom (GS)
  • - Super G (SG)
  • - Downhill (DH)
  • - Alpine Combined (AC)
  • - Kombi (K)
  • These events form the discipline of alpine ski
    competition

6
Where Do You Best Fit?
  • New Competition Officials should work one to two
    days in each of these areas
  • Gate Judge
  • Course Maintenance
  • Timing Assistant
  • Race Administrator Assistant
  • Data Manager Assistant
  • With Chief of Race
  • Working in different areas will help you decide
    your best fit as an Alpine Race Official

7
Rules of Ski Racing
  • International Competition Rules (ICR or Blue
    Book) establishes the standards updated
    editions are posted on the FIS website
  • Precisions to the ICR are published bi-annually
    in the summer for the Southern Hemisphere and in
    the winter for the Northern Hemisphere
  • The USSA Alpine Competition Regulations (ACR)
    contains rules specific to competition at USSA
    events. When possible, numbering mirrors ICR
    numbering USSA exceptions are identified with a
    U preceding the rule number. The U is part
    of the rule number.
  • Additional Regional, Divisional, or State rules
    contain adjustments for age or competition level
    in the respective area
  • Local rules
  • Lift access,
  • Bib deposit requirements,
  • Equipment
  • Ski area rules, etc.

8
Age Classes
  • USSA competitions are structured by age as of
    December 31, 2014
  • U8, U10, and U12 Instructional
  • (Youth Non-Scored Membership)
  • Teaches the fundamentals of ski racing and
    emphasizes fun
  • U8 Under 8 years of age (7 years old and
    younger).
  • U8 category is for the purpose of awards,
    and is subject to U10 Course Setting
    Specifications
  • U10 Under 10 years of age (8 and 9 years old)
  • U12 Under 12 years of age (10 and 11 years old)
  • U14 - Competitive - Scored in Some Divisions
  • (Youth Non-Scored or Competitor Scored
    Membership)
  • Focuses on improvement of skills
  • U14 Under 14 years of age (12 and 13 years old)
  • U16, U18, U21 and Senior - Scored Competition
  • (Competitor Membership)
  • Competitors earn points in all events
  • U16 Under 16 years of age (14 and 15 years old)
  • U18 Under 18 years of age (16 and 17 years old
    first year FIS)

9
Collegiate, Adaptive and Masters
  • Collegiate Competition Opportunities
  • - NCAA
  • - FISU (FIS University)
  • Other Competition Opportunities
  • - USCSA (U.S. Collegiate Ski Association)
  • - High School Leagues
  • Adaptive Competition
  • - Organized by impairment and equipment.
  • - Adaptive athletes are entitled to Golden
    Rule
  • - Start after the first group, both runs
  • Masters Competition - racers 18 years or older

10
Competition Events Technical
  • Slalom (SL) all age classes
  • Technical Event -- quick and short turns
  • Variety of gate combinations to test skill and
    strategy
  • 2 runs times are combined. Fastest combined time
    determines finish
  • Giant Slalom (GS) all age classes
  • Technical Event -- Fewer gates and further apart
    than Slalom
  • 2 runs times are combined. Fastest combined time
    determines finish
  • Special rules apply for U16 younger

11
Competition Events Speed
  • Super Giant Slalom (SG) Senior, U21, U18, U16,
    U14, U12
  • Speed Event (Hybrid of DH and GS)
  • 1 run event .. training run scheduled only for
    Youth
  • Special rules apply
  • Downhill (DH) Senior, U21, U18, U16, U14
  • Speed Event Fewest number of gates racers find
    the fastest line
  • One run unless lack of vertical drop requires two
    Runs
  • Must include training runs
  • Special rules apply
  • Alpine Combined (AC)
  • Consists of 1 speed event DH or SG and 1 run of
    SL
  • Both runs are held on the same day
  • The first run may be either DH/SG or SL

12
KOMBI EVENTS
  • Kombi (K) is an internationally recognized event
    for youth competitions.
  • Kombi events consist of a mixture of standard
    turns and gates
  • Kombi events meet development needs by creating
    tactical awareness by blending sections of
    different gates in a flowing, rhythmical,
    constantly changing pattern

13
TYPES OF KOMBI EVENTS
  • Technical This is a SL/GS format, setting with
    stubbies, SL gates and GS gates or colored ground
    indicators
  • Speed This is a GS/SG format, setting with GS
    and SG gates or colored ground indicators
  • Competitors and Forerunners in Kombi events must
    wear helmet required for faster portion of event
    being contested.

14
What are Points?
  • SEED POINTS Calculation based on competitors
    prior results and indicating their standing among
    other competitors in an event 0.00 is the best
    and 999.99 is assigned to competitors new to the
    seeding system.
  • - USSA Points for nationally-scored events
  • - FIS Points for internationally-scored
    events
  • (FIS points are calculated 0.00 to
    999.00)
  • RACE POINTS A calculated number that compares an
    individuals time to the winner's time in a
    particular race. The winners Race Points are
    always 0.00.
  • PENALTY POINTS A numerical indicator that allows
    an event at one site to be compared/equalized to
    the same type of event held at another site.

15
What is a Race Result?
  • A racers score for a given event is
  • RACE POINTS
  • PENALTY POINTS
  • RACE RESULT
  • When a Race Result is equal to current Seed
    Points, a competitor is skiing their points
  • When a Race Result is lower than current Seed
    Points, a competitor is showing improvement

16
How is a Race Organized?
  • Race Organizing Committee (ROC)
  • Chief of Race (Chairman)
  • Secretary (Sometimes but not always the Race
    Administrator)
  • Additional members may include Chairs of
    Finance, Lodging, Transportation, Medical
    Services and Awards
  • Upon appointment, the following become members of
    the
  • ROC
  • Technical Delegate
  • Referee when appointed by Technical Delegate or
    FIS (WC, OWG, WSC)
  • Assistant Referee (at speed events) when
    appointed by Technical Delegate or FIS (WC, OWG,
    WSC)
  • Forerunners when appointed by existing ROC

17
Membership/Certification Requirements
  • All Jury members and Jury Advisors, Chief of
    Course, and Course Setters must be current Coach
    or Official members of USSA
  • Referees, Assistant Referees and Course Setters
    must be certified Referees for all
    USSA-sanctioned events
  • Start and Finish Referees (Jury Advisors) must be
    a certified Jury Advisor, Referee or Chief of
    Race for USSA scored events should be a
    certified Jury Advisor, Referee or Chief of Race
    for USSA non-scored events
  • When online Competition Official certification
    becomes available, Jury Advisors at non-scored
    events must at a minimum be certified
    Competition Officials
  • Coaches must have Coach membership in order to
    participate in any capacity at USSA events, e.g.
    on-hill coaching
  • Competitors must have appropriate membership
    Competitor (12 older or Youth (13 younger)
  • Forerunners must meet membership requirements
    e.g. Youth, Competitor, Masters, USSA Club
    Participant

18
USSA ONLINE MEMBERSHIP
  • After creating a USSA User Account on the USSA
    website, USSA membership applications may be
    completed through a link on the USSA website
  • Registration must be submitted only by those 18
    older parent/legal guardian must submit
    registration for those under 18
  • Primary medical/accident insurance information
    must be submitted
  • Non-certified Coaches must review and complete
    Fast Start Coaching Course
  • USSAs Assumption of Risk and Release of
    Liability must be reviewed and accepted
  • USSAs Concussion Policy must be reviewed and
    accepted
  • USSAs Child Protection Safe Sport Guidelines
    must be reviewed and accepted
  • Upon acceptance of the membership by USSA,
    individuals whose membership application requires
    completion of Fast Start Coaching Course and/or
    background screening will be directed to a link
    to initiate the required process
  • For more information or to start the membership
    process, go to http//my.ussa.org/membership/start

19
USSAS CONCUSSION POLICY
  • Any USSA athlete including those with the new
    USSA Club Participant membership suspected of
    having sustained a concussion must be removed
    immediately from participation in USSA sporting
    events (e.g. sanctioned training, practice,
    camps, competitions or tryouts)
  • The athlete will be prohibited from further
    participation until evaluated and cleared in
    writing to resume participation in USSA sporting
    events by a qualified health care provider
    trained in the evaluation and management of
    concussive head injuries
  • The official or member coach making the removal
    must inform USSA Competition Services
  • Athletes who have subsequently been medically
    cleared to resume participation must provide such
    medical clearance (as described above) to USSA
    Competition Services in order to be permitted to
    participate in USSA sporting events
  • For athletes under the age of 18, a request to be
    allowed to return to competition/training must be
    made by parent/legal guardian
  • Medical clearance may also be accepted by the
    he on-site competition Jury

20
More about Concussions
  • For all athletes competing in a FIS event, refer
    to current edition of the USSA Concussion
    Policy and the FIS Medical Guide containing
    Medical Rules and Guidelines.
  • The USSA Concussion Policy requirements must be
    followed. However many states have also enacted
    head injury laws that may include additional
    requirements/restrictions. Please review the law
    for your state and, if required, contact USSA for
    direction.
  • This is a developing area of responsibility and
    it is important to be aware that USSA may provide
    further guidance in the future.
  • Additional USSA Concussion Policy information is
    available at
  • http//ussa.org/alpine-programs/athletes/resources
    /concussion-policy

21
USSA BACKGROUND SCREENING
  • Over 75 of USSAs membership is under the age of
    18. In order to help ensure that these members
    are in a secure environment, USSA is implementing
    a strict policy that is in keeping with the
    standards of many youth sports organizations,
    schools and recreational programs in the US. All
    USSA employees, member coaches and officials are
    subject to the background screening
  • process. Following procedures are to be
    followed
  • Apply for your USSA coach or officials
    membership using either online or paper
    application.
  • If using online process, create a USSA User
    Account (read all instructions first!)
  • Upon receipt and processing of your online
    membership application and credit card payment,
    if required, the USSA website will direct you to
    a link in order to initiate the online procedures
    for Fast Start Coaching Course and background
    screening.
  • If you are unable to use the online membership
    application, upon receipt and processing of your
    paper copy membership application, signed Waiver
    and applicable membership fees, USSA will contact
    you and advise you of the specific online
    requirements.
  • For background screening, you must register
    online with NCSI within 10 days for screening.
    Your screening will be processed within an
    additional 10 days. (Site is https similar to
    that used by financial institutions.)
  • During Fast Start Coaching Course and
    background screening processes, a coach or
    official will be shown as PENDING in USSAs
    online membership information and they must not
    be assigned as Referee, Assistant Referee, Jury
    Advisor (Start/Finish Referee), Chief of Course
    or Course Setter. Coaches are further enjoined
    from participating in any capacity at any
    USSA-sanctioned event, e.g. on-hill coaching.
  • When USSA receives a green light from NCSI,
    your membership will be finalized and a USSA
    membership card can be printed from the USSA
    website.
  • Program is more fully explained in Member
    Announcements on the USSA website.
  • Approximate background screening approval for
    those residing in the U.S. for 7 years or more it
    can take as long as 2-3 weeks turnaround for
    foreign coaches and officials or for those who
    have lived abroad can take several months.

22
The Jury Its Advisors
23
Jury Responsibilities
  • Duties ACR for USSA or ICR for FIS
  • Makes decisions on issues not clarified by the
    rules
  • Receives reports of rule infractions
  • Tenure begins before first Team Captains meeting
    and ends with expiration of protest period and
    approval of Official Results

24
Technical Delegate
  • Official representative of the governing body
    USSA or FIS
  • Upon assignment, becomes a member of the
    Organizing Committee
  • Chairman of the Jury with tie-breaking vote
  • Assures that the rules and regulations of the
    governing body are adhered to
  • Assists that the event runs efficiently
  • Advises the organizers of the scope of their
    duties

25
Chief of Race
  • Member of the Organizing Committee
  • A voting member of the Jury
  • Responsible for the management of the entire event

26
Referee
  • Appointed by the TD (except WC,OWG, WSC)
  • Competitors/Coaches representative on Jury
  • A voting member of the Jury
  • Represents all competitors and coaches
  • Receives bib s and names of competitors who
  • Did Not Start (DNS) from Start Referee, and
  • Did Not Finish (DNF) from Finish Referee
  • Checks Gate Judge cards for Faults
  • Prepares a timely Report to be posted after each
    run listing Bib Numbers of racers who
  • Did Not Start - DNS
  • Did Not Finish - DNF
  • Disqualified with Gate or Rule for DSQ name
    of responsible official

27
Report by the Referee
  • This form must be completed for each
    classification gender for each run
  • Posted on Scoreboard/ Official Notice Board with
    date and time of posting as well as expiration
    time
  • Bib as well as named athlete must be reviewed
    by Team Captains regardless of whether or not
    they feel one of their competitors may have
    committed a fault (DSQ)

28
Assistant Referee
  • Appointed by TD for Speed events (DH and SG) only
  • An assistant Referee may be appointed for
    educational purposes at GS or SL (non-voting)
  • Member of the Organizing Committee and Voting
    member of the Jury at Speed events
  • Has all rights and responsibilities equal to
    those of the Referee
  • Competitors/Coaches representative on Jury

29
Start Referee
  • At the Start
  • Must be present in the start area at the
    beginning of course inspection and remain through
    training and the race
  • Must have reserve bibs with unassigned numbers in
    case a replacement is needed
  • Must be able to communicate by radio with the
    Jury at all times
  • Assures that Manual/Hand Timekeepers are able to
    perform their duties without distraction
  • Verifies that start rules are enforced
  • Allows delayed provisional starts in cases of
    force majeure
  • In cases of doubt defers to the Jury
  • Forwards requests for provisional reruns to Jury
  • Reports names and bib numbers of competitors who
    did not start to Referee
  • Reports rule violations to Jury
  • Closes start in START STOP situations
  • Provisional starts/provisional reruns are not
    valid until ratified by the Jury

30
Finish Referee
  • At the Finish
  • Must be present in the finish area at the
    beginning of course inspection and remain through
    training and the race.
  • Supervises the condition of the finish area
  • The finish should be plainly visible to
    approaching racer
  • Marked horizontally with a colored line
  • Gently sloped with sufficient room to stop
  • Fenced to prevent unauthorized entry
  • Receives the course reports from forerunners,
    relays them to the jury
  • Assures that Manual/Hand Timekeepers are able to
    perform their duties without distraction
  • Is available to submit a request for a
    provisional rerun to Jury
  • Reports names and bib numbers of competitors who
    did not finish to the Referee
  • Reports names and bib numbers of competitors who
    violated rules to the Jury
  • Must be able to communicate by radio with the
    Jury at all times

31
START/ FINISH REFEREE RECORDING FORM
  • START REFEREE
  • Accounts for all competitors
  • Records DNS
  • Records DNF (if within view of Start)
  • Notes Early/Late Starts, Delayed Starts, Start
    rule infractions, Possible equipment violations
  • FINISH REFEREE
  • Accounts for all competitors who approach or
    cross finish line
  • Records DNF (if within view of Finish)
  • Notes Rule infractions that occur within view
    of Finish
  • Forms must provide a record of actual
    occurrences so they must not be pre-numbered!

32
START/FINISH REFEREE RECORDING FORM

33
Race Administrator -
  • Also called Race Secretary or Secretariat.
    Because of wide range of responsibilities is a
    key official!
  • Receives entries
  • Is responsible for preparation of draw (scored
    events)
  • Is responsible for data management or works with
    Data Manager to prepare entry list
  • Supervises publication of all notices schedules,
    local rules, etc.
  • Supervises publication of all official documents
  • Start Lists, Results, Minutes of Jury Decisions,
    etc.

34
Chief of Course
  • Responsible for Course Preparation and
    Maintenance
  • Under direction of the Jury
  • Must be familiar with
  • Local snow conditions
  • Terrain
  • Usually a ski area employee or member of the host
    club
  • Supervises the on-course work done by course
    maintenance staff

35
Chief Gate Judge
  • Assembles the Team of Gate Judges (GJ)
  • Uses available materials (video) for
    training/review of duties
  • Verbally clarifies duties of the Gate Judge
  • Counts and numbers the gates
  • Assigns Gates to each GJ
  • Checks that each GJ understands the rules for
    proper passage
  • Checks that each GJ has the necessary materials
  • Checks that each GJ has good sight lines
  • Establishes procedure for collection of GJ cards
    after each run for delivery to the Referee
  • In the event a Fault is recorded, makes sure
    that the GJ is available after the race to meet
    with the Jury

36
Additional Officials
  • Ski Patrol
  • Present for competitors course inspection,
    training and the race
  • Announcer
  • Announces bib number and name of racer in the
    start gate, who is on course, who has just
    finished, and the finishers unofficial time
  • Announces schedule changes
  • Announces disqualification data Bib , Name,
    Team and protest period expiration time
  • Scoreboard Recorder/Poster
  • Posts unofficial times as provided by Announcer,
  • Electronic Scoreboard, or
  • Electronic Time Recording form

37
Ski Racing Officials
Start Manual/Hand Timekeeper Start Recorder
Start Referee
Starter Assistant Starter
Chief of Course Course Setters Course
Maintenance Course Equipment
Chief Gate Judge Gate Judges
Technical Delegate Chief of Race Referee Assista
nt Referee
Finish Manual/Hand Timekeeper Finish Recorder
Finish Referee Finish Controller
Chief of Timing/Calc Electronic timer
operator Electronic timer recorder Backup timer
operator Computer operator Runners
Announcer
Scoreboard Poster
Race Administration
Bib Collector
38
Day of the Race
  • Activities
  • Competitors and race workers will be required to
    register
  • USSA membership will be verified
  • Non-USSA race workers will be required to sign
    Volunteer Competition Worker Registration
  • Bib distribution and collection of bib deposit
    may occur
  • Lift tickets will be distributed
  • Start Lists and local rules will be available

39
Course Setter- First and Second Run
  • Must be familiar with current requirements of the
    ACR at USSA events or the ICR at FIS events
  • For all USSA events, must be current member of
    USSA and must also be a USSA-certified Referee
  • For USSA FIS events, a member of a foreign
    Federation recognized by FIS may also serve as a
    Course Setter
  • Nominated at or before the Team Captains
    meeting first run often set by host area
  • Assisted by Chief of Course
  • Concerning snow conditions
  • Terrain
  • Competitor Security
  • May be accompanied by Jury members, Team Captains
    and for speed events by the USSA-assigned
    Technical Advisor

40
Course Maintenance Workers
  • In accordance with the instructions from the
    Jury
  • Carries gates, panels, drills, gate keys, timing
    equipment, shovels, rakes
  • Sets protective fencing, Willy bags, spectator
    fencing
  • Clears loose snow from the course
  • Spreads chemicals
  • Sets outside gates

41
Chief of Timing and Calculations
  • Coordinates officials at the start and finish
  • Verifies synchronization of the timing
  • Manual/hand timekeeping
  • Electronic timekeeping
  • Is responsible for the accuracy of the timing
  • Responsible for the accuracy of the official
    times
  • Completes and signs the Timing Data Technical
    Report (TDTR)
  • (scored events and non-scored Championship
    events)
  • Oversees electronic transmission of TDTR xml file
  • (FIS events only)
  • Delivers Technical Timing Data Report to RA for
    TDs signature
  • Are under the Chief of Timing and Calculations
  • Starter
  • Assistant Starter
  • Start Recorder
  • Chief Timekeeper
  • Assistant Timekeepers (Manual/Hand Timekeepers)

42
Chief of Calculations
  • Calculate equivalent electronic time (EET) from
    electronic time obtained from System B
  • Or from manual/hand times
  • Verifies accuracy of second run start order
  • Verifies accuracy of race points or race penalty
    correct F value!
  • Duties may be combined with those of Chief of
    Timing and Calculations

43
Chief Timekeeper
  • Is in direct communication with the Starter
  • Verifies proper intervals are being maintained
  • Aware of what competitor is finishing
  • Aware of what competitor is starting
  • Aware of what competitor is in the gate
  • Communicates DNS and DNF information to Chief of
    T C
  • Verifies tape record (tapes from official
    electronic timing equipment) is available for
    each start and finish

44
Timing Assistants Start Manual/Hand Timekeeper
and Recorder
  • Start manual/hand timekeeping is totally
    independent of electronic timekeeping
  • Used in case of failure of both electronic
    systems - A and B
  • Uses a continuously running, synchronized,
    handheld stopwatch or hand operated battery
    operated timer
  • Timing devices must read to the hundredth of a
    second (MMSS.ss)
  • When competitors lower leg crosses the start
    line
  • Timekeeper pushes the button and freezes the
    display
  • Reads display to Manual/Hand Time Recorder
  • Is consistent
  • Start Manual/Hand Time Recorder writes the bib
    number and time-of-day start or finish for each
    racer
  • Records the time heard and then, repeats the time
    to the timekeeper for verification

45
Timing Assistants Finish Manual/Hand Timekeeper
and Recorder
  • Finish manual/hand timekeeping is totally
    independent of electronic timekeeping
  • Provides manual backup in case of failure of both
    electronic systems - A and B
  • Uses a continuously running, synchronized,
    handheld stopwatch or hand operated battery
    operated timer
  • Timing devices must read to the hundredth of a
    second (MMSS.ss)
  • When first part of competitors body crosses the
    finish line
  • Timekeeper pushes the button and freezes the
    display
  • Reads display to HT Recorder
  • Finish Manual/Hand Time Recorder should operate a
    second watch as a backup
  • Finish Manual/Hand Time Recorder writes the bib
    number and time-of-day finish for each racer

46
START / FINISH TIMEKEEPER RECORDING FORM
  • START TIMEKEEPER
  • Obtains/records a manual time for all
    competitors who start.
  • FINISH TIMEKEEPER
  • Obtains/records a manual time for all
    competitors who cross the finish line.
  • Manual Timekeepers do not make decisions on
    validity of start/finish/gate passage failing to
    record a manual time because of a perceived
    disqualification is a major error!
  • Documents have to provide a record of actual
    occurrences so they must not be pre-numbered!

47
START/FINISH TIMEKEEPER RECORDING FORM
48
Starter and Assistant Starter
  • Starter
  • Has direct communication with Chief Timekeeper
  • Informs Chief Timekeeper of bib number of
    competitor who has started
  • Informs Chief Timekeeper of bib number of
    competitor in the start gate
  • Verifies proper start intervals are observed
  • Starts competitors
  • Assistant Starter
  • Lines up competitors according to Start List
  • Calls both bib number and name to avoid
    possibility of switched bibs

49
Start Intervals
  • Minimum intervals between consecutive competitor
    starts in a regular (fixed) interval event are
  • DH not less than 40 seconds, includes DHT
  • SG not less than 40 seconds
  • GS not less than 30 seconds
  • SL is a irregular (non-fixed) interval event.
  • Jury, in agreement with Chief of Timing or
    Assistant determines this start interval

50
Start Commands Fixed Intervals
  • Regular (fixed) Interval Commands (DH, SG, GS)
  • Starter begins sequence with a warning
  • 10 seconds
  • After a 5 second pause, starter counts down
  • 5, 4 3, 2, 1, Go
  • Racer may start 5 sec before until 5 sec after
    Go
  • Failure to start within that 10 second window
    will result in DSQ.
  • Start Referee will record the failure to start
    properly and report to Jury

51
Start Commands Non-Fixed Intervals
  • Irregular (non-fixed) Interval (SL)
  • Starter announces Ready
  • Followed, a few seconds later, by Go
  • As in regular interval event, racer has 10
    seconds to start
  • Failure to start within about 10 seconds results
    in DSQ

52
COURSE FREEZE
  • All disciplines require that movement on course
    be limited.
  • Speed events require that, with the exception of
    the racer on course, there is
  • NO MOVEMENT!
  • This is called a Course Freeze
  • Course Freeze time is noted on the daily
    schedule.

53
Gate Judges - Most Important People on the Hill!
  • Supervises one or more gates
  • Determines if both ski tips and boots passed the
    gates correctly
  • Verifies that the racer did not receive outside
    assistance
  • Replaces missing gates in dye spots, straighten
    leaning gates, replace panels
  • Maintains the race surface
  • Controls spectators and coaches who may crowd or
    interfere with the course
  • Course maintenance workers assist with these
    duties

54
OH OH, FAULT?
55
OH OH AGAIN!
56
SINGLE POLE GATE HIKING (Left click photo to
play/page down to advance)
57
YELLOW FLAG ZONES
  • By rule, Downhill and Super G courses have
    designated YELLOW FLAG ZONES
  • These are areas designated by the Jury for
    stopping on-course competitors who are
    approaching a START STOP situation
  • Jury may designate Yellow Flag Zones for Giant
    Slalom courses

58
STOP START
  • The Technical Delegate is responsible for
    confirming that all Jury members, Jury Advisors,
    and Eyes of the Jury have reviewed and are aware
    of the start stop/ start stop/ yellow flag
    stop procedures.
  • START STOP! is called via radio by a Jury
    member, Eyes of the Jury (a coach positioned at a
    yellow flag zone) or Jury Advisor when it is
    necessary to control the departure of the next
    racer usually because the preceding racer has
    fallen and the racer or racers equipment is
    blocking the course.
  • When this command is issued, the Start Referee
    must immediately close the start.

59
START STOP YELLOW FLAG STOP
  • The command START STOP, YELLOW FLAG STOP! is
    called via radio by a Jury member, Eyes of the
    Jury or Jury Advisor
  • when it is necessary to control the departure of
    the next racer and
  • to yellow flag (stop) a racer who is already on
    course because the preceding racer has fallen and
    the racer or racers equipment is blocking the
    course.
  • When this command is issued, the Start Referee
    must immediately close the start.

60
Start Referee MUST
  • The Start Referee must immediately, and in a
    concise manner, respond via radio that start is
    closed, and
  • Must state the start number of the last
    competitor to have started as well as
  • The start number of the competitor held at the
    start.
  • Example
  • START STOP confirmed, 23 on course, 24 in the
    gate
  • Extra verbiage not recommended because Jury
    channel must be kept open!

61
WHEN A START STOP or START STOP/YELLOW FLAG
IS CALLED
  • Ski Patrol assigned to the event and in radio
    contact with the Jury, is now on alert that a
    competitor may require medical assistance.
  • If the Jury / Eyes of the Jury / Jury Advisor
    call for medical assistance, Ski Patrol assigned
    to the race first verifies that the course is
    clear,
  • i.e. no racer is on course!
  • Once Ski Patrol assigned to the race has verified
    that it has a clear course, it responds to the
    call for medical assistance.
  • SKI PATROL ASSIGNED TO THE RACE ARE
  • THE FIRST RESPONDERS -
  • NOT THE COACHES / TRAINERS / OFFICIALS /
  • PARENTS / OTHER ATHLETES!

62
Reopening the Course
  • The individual (Jury member, Eyes of the Jury or
    Jury Advisor) who called the START STOP or
    START STOP/YELLOW FLAG STOP is responsible for
    releasing the course hold.
  • The course is reopened at the direction of the
    Jury
  • - either from top to bottom,
  • - bottom to top or
  • - from the position where the incident
    requiring the
  • START STOP/YELLOW FLAG STOP occurred.

63
Racer Overtakes another at the Finish
  • The following is a suggested procedure
  • If a racer is overtaken near the finish
  • primary manual/hand timekeeper should record the
    first racer
  • Using the backup watch, the secondary manual/hand
    timekeeper or recorder should record the second
    racer
  • In many cases, no secondary watch will be
    present. In the case of a single watch, it is
    recommended that the time of the first racer be
    taken, noted visually and spoken out loud. The
    watch button may then be pressed for the passage
    of the second racer, but not viewed until after
    the time of the first racers passage has been
    recorded.
  • Important that every attempt be made to provide
    every racer with both an electronic and manual
    time
  • If a Racer falls in the immediate finish area,
    the time is taken when any part of competitors
    body crosses the finish line
  • Once a racer has crossed the finish line, the
    racer has finished the race. If a gate has
    been missed, the racer may not cross back over
    the finish line in order to complete correct gate
    passage

64
Subtracting Electronic Times A RACERS
ELECTRONIC TIME IS NEVER ROUNDED OR AVERAGED!
HINT 1 Minute 60 Seconds Start on the left
Cross a colon borrow 60 cross a decimal
borrow 10
102.019 Truncate to gt 102.01
  • Start Here
  • 361
  • 150401.891
  • -150259.871
  • 102.020
  • Truncate to gt 102.02

Start Here 361 150401.891 -150259.872
102.019 Truncate to gt 102.01
65
Replacement Times (Equivalent Electronic Times -
EET)
  • When the electronic time is missed on the primary
    system (System A), it will be necessary to
    calculate a replacement time from the secondary
    system (System B)
  • If both the primary and secondary systems fail,
    you must calculate a replacement time from the
    manual/hand timekeeping
  • A replacement time is a valid time!

66
Second Run Start Order
  • For scored events, racers are ranked according to
    First Run Time
  • The order for a pre-determined number of racers
    is then reversed 30 or 15 this is a bibbo
  • 30 is standard Jury may limit to 15 announced
    1 hour prior to start of race
  • Special rules for Second Run Start Order apply
    for
  • USSA non-scored events, i.e. Age Class, YSL
  • Bibbo with a tie at the pre-determined flip
    position
  • Collegiate events
  • Golden Rule adaptive seeding for USSA events
    only

67
Summary
  • A large number of volunteers are required in
    order to organize an alpine skiing event
  • Each position requires a simple understanding of
    the position within the event
  • Each person has a responsibility to understand
    their individual job and how that job relates to
    the entire event
  • With experience, a Competition Official will be
    able to move between assignments and train for
    advancement into a specialty area
  • Volunteers are valuable AND essential!
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