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What s so special about the social sciences? Peter Burnhill Director, EDINA national academic data centre, University of Edinburgh, Scotland UK – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What


1
Whats so special about the social sciences?
  • Peter Burnhill
  • Director, EDINA national academic data centre,
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland UK
  • Bloomsbury Conference on e-publishing and
    e-publications
  • University College London, 24/25 June 2010

2
short answer Some things but not everything
  • Overview for a longer answer
  • Autobiographic Apologia
  • Yesterday and Yesteryears
  • Research publication and data for research in the
    social sciences
  • some evidence (some old and re-used)
  • all that is digital are not data
  • Societal Big Challenges
  • a sense of place
  • Our shared task
  • ease and continuity of access
  • citation and linking
  • Linked Data Semantic Web anyone?
  • Socio-Informatics the Internet
  • Will not take the full two hours .

3
autobiography as commentary
  • Social Science Research Council now ESRC
  • Scientific Officer for Economic Social
    History and Statistics
  • (left to do MSc Statistics at London School of
    Economics)
  • Scottish Education Data Archive, until mid 80s
  • Survey statistician school leavers, YTS, 16-19
    cohort surveys demand for HE
  • Graduate School, Faculty of Social Science, 1987
    1997
  • Senior Lecturer, teaching quantitative/survey
    methods
  • Edinburgh University Data Library, mid- 1980s
    on
  • Manager set-up and development
  • President of IASSIST, 1997 2001 social science
    data professionals
  • ESRC Regional Research Laboratory for Scotland
    1986/90
  • Co-director early days of Geographical
    Information Systems (GIS)
  • EDINA national data centre, mid-1990s to present
    my day job
  • Director set-up and continuous development

4
What is this digital curation anyway?
Taken from a PPT to JISC in July 2004
  • digital curation ... digital objects and data,
    over their life-cycle, for current future
    generations of use ...
  • f(data curation digital preservation)
  • data curation when high current/ongoing
    interest
  • actions needed to maintain and utilise digital
    data research results over entire life-cycle
  • data creation management adding value
    generating new sources of information
    knowledge, for use
  • digital preservation for longevityfall off in
    interest
  • long-run technological/legal accessibility
    usability
  • storage, maintenance accessibility of
    information content in digital material over the
    long-term, for use
  • OAIS concept of designated community

5
Taken from a PPT to JISC in July 2004
  • The term Digital Curation is a rather recent
    invention.
  • The Digital Data Curation Task Force - Report of
    the Task Force Strategy Discussion Day (2002)
    states
  • Tony Hey took up the term which had been used by
    Dr John Taylor, Director General of the Research
    Councils, to distinguish the actions involved in
    caring for digital data beyond its original use,
    from digital preservation. The concepts reach
    extends beyond libraries.
  • The e-Science Curation Report (2003) proposed the
    following distinctions
  • Curation The activity of, managing and promoting
    the use of data from its point of creation, to
    ensure it is fit for contemporary purpose, and
    available for discovery and re-use. For dynamic
    datasets this may mean continuous enrichment or
    updating to keep it fit for purpose. Higher
    levels of curation will also involve maintaining
    links with annotation and with other published
    materials.
  • Archiving A curation activity which ensures that
    data is properly selected, stored, can be
    accessed and that its logical and physical
    integrity is maintained over time, including
    security and authenticity.
  • Preservation An activity within archiving in
    which specific items of data are maintained over
    time so that they can still be accessed and
    understood through changes in technology.

6
research, learning teaching in UK universities
colleges
acting as platform for network-level services
helping to build the JISC Integrated Information
Environment
JISC Sub-Committees
JISC Collections
UK funding councils
Research Councils UK
7
EDINA Management Board met yesterday to review
its 3-year Strategy and its Budget from JISC for
the coming year
8
Reading Reference Room supporting scholarly
communication
No longer host specialist Abstract Index
databases
SUNCAT UK serials union catalogue whats held
where
  • EDINA Strategy in this area just reviewed
    following
  • RLUK/JISC Resource Discovery Task Force
  • SCONUL Shared Services Business Case
  • EDINA Focus Groups on
  • ease and continuity of access
  • Arts, Humanities Social Sciences
  • new technologies

the Depot international Open Access facility to
support self deposit of peer-reviewed papers
9
Reading Reference Room supporting scholarly
communication
No longer host specialist Abstract Index
databases
SUNCAT UK serials union catalogue whats held
where
  • EDINA Strategy in this area just reviewed
    following
  • RLUK/JISC Resource Discovery Task Force
  • SCONUL Shared Services Business Case
  • EDINA Focus Groups on
  • ease and continuity of access
  • Arts, Humanities Social Sciences
  • new technologies

the Depot international Open Access facility to
support self deposit of peer-reviewed papers
10
Ensuring researchers, students and their
teachers have ease and continuity of access to
online scholarly resources
continuity
ease
access to content services
post-cancellation back content
usability
preservation
licence to use
restricted
authorisation
Creative Commons licensing
open
Should apply to different types of resource
typically journal articles, but also now OER
learning materials, data etc
discoverability
additional considerations
Search
Share (Issue/Publish)
(Re-)Use
Modify/Combine
P.Burnhill, Edinburgh 2009
11
Finds the agencies looking after e-journal, and
the volumes being preserved
11
12
Geo-spatial resources Map Data Place
13
Multimedia resources Sound Pictures Show
  • platform for search and download of film, video
    and audio
  • wide range of subject coverage, including
    documentary film
  • Llicensed for use in learning, teaching and
    research
  • Being re-worked as the Digital Media Hub,
    combining
  • Film Sound Online
  • initial 600 hours of film, digitised for
    downloading
  • NewsFilm Online
  • 3000 hours of material from ITN Reuters
  • Over 4TBs of clips to download
  • Release of product from JISC Digitisation
    programmes
  • Plus Education Image Gallery of still photography
  • Visual and Sound Materials Portal project
  • Discovering all sorts of audio-visual material
  • Special interest for social science as record on
    non-print record of 20th Century the first A-V
    century
  • With new forms of research material to use and to
    master

14
Defining the Social Sciences
  • a collection of disciplines that variously apply
    theorising and systematic method to the study of
    human society
  • from family to politics, from law/religion to
    economy of what it is to be human and our
    interaction among ourselves and with our
    environment, whether on land, sea or the Internet
  • Teaching draws upon schooling social arithmetic
    of Qualified Empirical Statements
  • We make provisional statements about the world
  • in the language of our theory and the context of
    time place
  • on basis of evidence derived from the real
    world
  • conditioned by our theory and choice of
    systematic method
  • seeking to qualify our statements
  • with imperative to express our measures of
    uncertainty

15
Pattern of research publication in the social
sciences
  • The Four Literatures of Social Science (Diana
    Hicks, 2004) Handbook of Quantitative Science
    and Technology Studies, Henk Moed (Ed)
  • All more trans-disciplinary than comparable
    scientific literatures
  • international journal articles the SSCI indexed
    currency of evaluation
  • books can have a high citation/impact
  • national knowledge developed in context
  • embedded in their society influenced by
    national trends policy concerns
  • non-scholarly publications knowledge into
    application
  • enlightenment or knowledge transfer to the
    non-scholarly public
  • Hicks states Burnhill and Tubby-Hille (1994)
    investigated this issue in some depth with
    publications database from ESRC grant reports
    and survey ..
  • .. Assigning non peer reviewed journals to ..
    enlightenment .. suggests that psychologists,
    statisticians and geographers do not publish much
    in non-scholarly literature. Other fields do.
    Even economics, normally quite scientific in its
    publication patterns, exhibits a healthy
    percentage of articles in non-scholarly venues.
    Linguistics, education and sociology lead in
    share of non-scholarly publications.
  • On measuring the relation between social science
    research activity and research publication
    Research Evaluation 4 (3) December 1994

16
Pattern of research publication in the social
sciences
  • The Four Literatures of Social Science (Diana
    Hicks, 2004) Handbook of Quantitative Science
    and Technology Studies, Henk Moed (Ed)
  • international journal articles
  • books
  • national
  • embedded in their society
  • non-scholarly publications
  • enlightenment or knowledge transfer to the
    non-scholarly public
  • Hicks states Burnhill and Tubby-Hille (1994)
    investigated this issue in some depth with
    publications database from ESRC grant reports
    and survey ..
  • .. Assigning non peer reviewed journals to ..
    enlightenment .. suggests that psychologists,
    statisticians and geographers do not publish much
    in non-scholarly literature. Other fields do.
    Even economics, normally quite scientific in its
    publication patterns, exhibits a healthy
    percentage of articles in non-scholarly venues.
    Linguistics, education and sociology lead in
    share of non-scholarly publications.
  • On measuring the relation between social science
    research activity and research publication
    Research Evaluation 4 (3) December 1994

17
Pattern of research publication in the social
sciences
Table from Burnhill and Tubby-Hille (1994)
reproduced in Vasilakos et al (2007) Evaluating
the Performance of UK Research in Economics,
sponsored by the Royal Economic Society Keele
Economics Research Papers, ISSN1740-231x
www.keele.ac.uk/depts/ec/kerp
18
Pattern of research publication in the social
sciences
from Burnhill and Tubby-Hille (1994), not yet
reproduced by anyone
19
Pattern of research publication in the social
sciences
  • Following the trace to
  • Keele Economics Research Papers, ISSN1740-231x
    www.keele.ac.uk/depts/ec/kerp
  • led me to

20
Whats special about social sciences policy
action
  • philosophers have only interpreted the world,
    the point is to change it
  • Karl Marx (1845), Thesis 11 published in 1924 in
    German Russian translation in English in 1938
    appeared in Engels edited version in 1888, as
    Theses on Feurbach
  • Not the moment to debate origins of social
    science of Hume, Ferguson, Smith, Hegal, Marx,
    Kant, Jung, Parsons, Durkheim, Popper etc even
    Jeremy Bentham (UCL), nor of modern theorists,
  • but along with development and shifts in theory
  • what is key is that
  • the practice of social science, and the modality
    of peer communication and publication in the
    discipline, has much to do its connection to the
    urgency of interaction with agencies of civil
    society

21
UK ESRC Strategic Plan Societal Big Challenges
  • Six Strategic Challenges
  • Global Economic Performance, Policy Management
  • Health Well-being
  • Environment, Energy Resilience
  • Security, Conflict Justice
  • Social Diversity Population Dynamics
  • New Technology, Innovation Skills

22
UK ESRC Strategic Plan Societal Big Challenges
  • Six Strategic Challenges
  • Global Economic Performance, Policy Management
  • Health Well-being
  • Environment, Energy Resilience
  • Security, Conflict Justice
  • Social Diversity Population Dynamics
  • New Technology, Innovation Skills

7. Public Debt the ConDem Government
23
Data as scholarship a cultural shift?
You are not finished until you have done the
research, published the results, and published
the data, receiving formal credit for everything.
Preserve or Perish
Mark A. Parsons (2006) International Polar Year
A scholars positive contribution is measured by
the sum of the original data that he contributes.
Hypotheses come and go but data remain.
in Advice to a Young Investigator (1897) Santiago
Ramón y Cajal (Nobel Prize winner, 1906)
24
Whats special about social sciences third party
data
  • Demand for data to carry out secondary data
    analysis
  • Social sciences do not generate all the data they
    need to address their research questions
  • Do not command the resources (funding/expertise)
  • few research groups and Government could get
    funding to manufacture original data
  • ESRC-led National Data Strategy, 14 Actions
  • potential research value of new types of data
    (transactions data and tracking records)
  • new data infrastructures via EU and Euro
    Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures
  • improved access to Census of Population data
  • a geo-spatial resources advisory service
    (JISC/ESRC)
  • collaborative agreements with agencies within and
    outside UK
  • sharing of data resources across North/South
    global networks
  • Explains why data libraries and archives have
    been around so long
  • IASSIST International Association for Social
    Science Information Service Technology
  • annual conference since 1974 www.iassistdata.org
  • DISC-UK a group of data libraries in UK
    universities (including EUDL)
  • Providing ease of access to data held elsewhere
    (including UKDA)
  • Datashare project to support institutional
    responsibilities for data
  • alongside Institutional Repositories

25
Note Not all that is digital are data ( vice
versa)
  • Data derive importance from their evidential
    value
  • the empirical base for (scholarly) statement
    decision-making
  • Provenance (how data are derived) is very
    important
  • Differences in ways that disciplines in
    Humanities Social Sciences assess scholarship
    and evidence
  • in what they regard as data, as value for their
    subject
  • mix of approach to epistemology, inc document
    tradition
  • Data represented (encoded) as numbers or words -
    often derived from observation (with issues of
    phenomenology!)
  • or as pictures or sounds (not encoded -
    pre-data?)
  • access to (now digitally/digitised) record of
    experience
  • or algorithmic models (as with physical life
    sciences)
  • modelling is widespread in economics, psychology,
    social statistics, geography etc

26
Our shared task
  • To ensure ease continuing access to record of
    scholarship
  • research publications and research data
  • Consider at least three types of (research) data
  • Supplementary data enhanced publication
  • multimedia files part of the published article
    that presents research argument and conclusions
  • more than linear text, limited tabular and
    graphical display
  • enhances user experience with various multimedia
    objects
  • Research dataset(s) upon which conclusions based
  • check analysis of those data to support
    statements made
  • Database(s) from which datasets were assembled
  • for reproducibility (exposure to refutation) and
    new work via alternative analysis and updates to
    the database(s)
  • these are curated in situ by data centres /
    originators

27
Citation and linking
  • Citation of the datasets used (Type B data)
  • verification of analysis, that the figures and
    conclusions accurately reflect those data
  • Citation of database(s) (Type C data)
  • for reproducibility (exposure to refutation)
  • to prompt new work via alternative analysis and
    updates to the database(s)
  • to credit those who curate the data needed for
    scholarship
  • Plus hyperlink to the database from the published
    article
  • and back again from the database to the
    published article
  • Links to presentations, blogs, websites, funders
    etc related to the same research activity and
    same researcher(s) (Type D data?)

28
Obtaining the citation at source
  • CIESIN
  • Most of our datasets and products contain a
    suggested citation on the Web site as to where
    the data was obtained
  • Whenever possible, we urge you to cite the use
    of data and web resources in the reference
    section
  • http//sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/citations/
  • How to Cite Statistics Canada Products
  • This guide has been developed for authors,
    editors, researchers, academics, students,
    librarians and data librarians.
  • It describes, in three steps, how to build your
    reference when citing Statistics Canada
    products
  • http//www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/12-591-x/12-591-x2006
    001-eng.htm

Get it from those who make the data available
the data publishers cf Cataloguing in
Publication!
29
Link remains the key verb
  • But need to shift attention from
  • Linking resolver (unidirectional)
  • From metadata reference to full text of article
  • SICI-Citation Z39.50
  • DOI OpenURL http
  • to
  • Linked Data (relational, bi-directional)
  • Between resources in the weave of the Web
  • Using URIs as names for things
  • Not just URLs (the addresses on the web) but the
    URIs
  • Using RDF/XML to define the relationships between
    the resources
  • RDF triples subject / relationship / object

30
Resource Description Framework (RDF)
  • Resource Description Framework (RDF), and URIs
  • framework for representing information in Web
    identifiers
  • http//www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/
  • http//www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/

31
RDF graph Article Supplementary Data
http//www.emeraldinsight.com/fig/0350570303002.pn
g
  • Build and publish as metadata in XML format to be
    found on the web
  • Publishing text and data/multimedia content in
    XML will delight researchers
  • Researchers want to access article as data, via
    computational algorithm

32
uses Linked Data
33
uses Linked Data
34
Parse to mark up archaeological site record
(metadata)
35
(No Transcript)
36
(No Transcript)
37
Enriching resources with contextual metadata
  • Overcoming sparse metadata problem that inhibits
    discoverability
  • using ancillary information in the metadata
  • evoking has Event relation
  • Initial focus on (digitised) 20th Century
    newsfilm footage

Sparse Metadata
  • The only data we have
  • 1st October 1995
  • Cyprus
  • Disturbance (street disturbance)
  • British soldiers
  • Broadcast on TV News

38
finding related text for mining and so
auto-creating metadata to improve
discoverability and provide/enhance context
39
(No Transcript)
40
Digital Library as applied Information Science
  • Michael Buckland, Presidential Address, American
    Society for Information Science, JASISs 50th
    (1998)
  • 2 traditions/mentalities co-exist in Information
    Science
  • Document tradition signifying record-ness
  • Computational tradition various uses of formal
    techniques
  • non-convergent mentalities working to build the
    digital library
  • modernisation of library services
  • infrastructure to access complex databases
  • Aside first met Clifford Lynch when visiting
    Professor Buckland in UC Berkley on occasion of
    IASSIST Conference in 1994

41
Time for me to stop
  • Hoping that I have left some space/place for
    questions
  • Thank you
  • Acknowledgements
  • p.burnhill_at_ed.ac.uk
  • http//edina.ac.uk
  • Tel. 44 (0)131 650 3302
  • Fax 44 (0)131 650 3308

42
Pattern of research publication in the social
sciences
from Burnhill and Tubby-Hille (1994), not yet
reproduced by anyone
43
Abstract Data Model Figure 1 in reference paper
in Serials, March 2009
SERVICES user requirements
E-J Preservation Registry Service
Piloting an E-journals Preservation Registry
Service
E-Journal Preservation Registry
METADATA on preservation action
(b)
(a)
Digital Preservation Agencies e.g. CLOCKSS,
Portico BL, KB UK LOCKSS Alliance etc.
METADATA on extant e-journals
Data dependency
ISSN Register
44
Challenge to Ensure Continuing Access
Long term digital preservation
Fo rma E c onomy
Continuity of access
Author (article)
E-prints
Licensed Online Access
peer review
Publisher article serial issue
learned society
ILL/ docdel
Licence
peer exchange
Institutional arrangement
Library (serial)
Reader (article)
Informal invisible college and the gift
economy
45
Increasing dominance of The Web
Fo rma E c onomy
Author (article)
Publisher article serial issue
Licence
Institutional arrangement
Library (serial)
Web 2.0/3.0 Semantic web mash-ups, Blogs. RSS
feeds, Wikis
free to web access
Role of Institutional Repositories?
peer to peer exchange
Reader (article)
Informal invisible college and the gift
economy
46
Research Data
Creator
Generates (curates) data for own purpose, or as
part of team wants/has to put it
somewhere for use by others (perhaps to be
recognised by a peer community)
Key User (Researcher) Verbs Discover data of
interest Locate service on that data with
documentation on provenance etc Request
permission to use service Access to
service/data,
Evidential value of data in analysis as object of
desire
Researcher
47
..
  • The term curation builds on our understanding
    of the word curator, somebody who keeps
    something for the public good, whose value often
    needs to be brought out by the curator.
  • Firstly, this open context implies more support
    for explicit policies with regard to data
    sharing, and it has major implications for
    structuring and tools.
  • Secondly, the digital curator is store-keeper but
    he is also closely linked to promoting new
    science, making sure that his user-base is solid,
    sufficient, and looking forward to identify new
    ways to serve present and future researchers. The
    digital curator should take an active role in
    promoting and adding value to his holdings, hold
    exhibitions, run joint events he should manage
    the value of his collection.

48
More definitions
  • There does seem to be a lack of clarity. Some
    terms worth distinguishing are
  • data preservation a general term probably
    equivalent to digital preservation in this
    context
  • digital preservation could be, and probably is,
    interpreted as simply ensuring the original bits
    and bytes are accessible
  • digital information preservation this is what
    is referred to in the OAIS standard - what is
    important is not the original "bits and bytes"
    but the content. An OAIS ensures that the content
    is accessible, understandable and usable.
  • curation general term - taking care of things
  • if someone currently calls themselves a curator
    do we accept their definition?
  • data curation looking after and adding value to
    data
  • digital curation looking after and somehow
    "adding value" to digital data. This probably
    implies creating some new data from the existing,
    in order to make the latter more useful and "fit
    for purpose".
  • information curation not seen in the wild
  • evidence bit preservation plus authenticity and
    trust?

49
Ensuring researchers, students and their
teachers have ease and continuity of access to
online scholarly resources
continuity
ease
access to content services
location registry/discovery
post-cancellation back content
usability
preservation
licence to use
restricted
licence registry
entitlement history
archiving registry
open
who/WAYF authentication
Suncat Zetoc
OpenURL Router
UKAMF registry
content registry
Use case articlelength work published in
e-journals ISSN Register as a key content
registry need registry of ToC
P.Burnhill, Edinburgh 2009
Curation is additional but has relation to ease
and continuing access.
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