15.4: Taxonomy (Classification) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – 15.4: Taxonomy (Classification) PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 69b656-ZTgyN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

15.4: Taxonomy (Classification)

Description:

15.4: Taxonomy (Classification) Objectives: State the goals of taxonomy. Describe how evolutionary and molecular biology influence classification. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:31
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 21
Provided by: Audrey103
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: 15.4: Taxonomy (Classification)


1
15.4 Taxonomy (Classification)
  • Objectives
  • State the goals of taxonomy.
  • Describe how evolutionary and molecular biology
    influence classification.
  • Summarize the meaning of a cladogram.
  • Compare and use the domain and kingdoms in
    various classification schemes.
  • Vocabulary
  • Taxonomy
  • Binomial nomenclature
  • Phylogenetic tree
  • Derived character
  • Cladogram

2
Why Classification?
  • Dr. Terry Erwin Insect Study, Ecuador

3
Species Identification Classification
  • Measure biodiversity and ecosystem health.
    (diversity healthy can withstand stresses and
    change)
  • Keep track of endangered species/ecosystem
    recovery.
  • Determine evolutionary relationships.

4
Megatransect Walk Africa
  • Goal Take a census on populations to establish a
    baseline. Which are intact? Which are
    endangered? Measures the health of a larger
    ecosystem.

5
Maple? Oak? Ash? Elm? Buckeye?
6
Dichotomous Keys Help Identify Species
  • Use observable traits that are present or absent.
  • Choices reduced until ID is reached.

7
Dichotomous Keys
8
Taxonomy - Old School
  • Taxonomy system of identification, naming, and
    classifying species.
  • Linnaus (1700s) Father of Taxonomy
  • 2 part Latin name for each species (binomial
    nomenclature)
  • Genus species (Canis lupus)
  • Hierarchy of groupings
  • Kingdom - Most Inclusive
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species - Least inclusive/ Most specific

9
Taxonomic Groups
  • Linnaus - groupings based on appearance many
    errors
  • After Darwin - Groups try to show evolutionary
    relationships
  • Regroup using HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES (more
    homologous structures closer related)

10
Phylogenetic Trees
  • Classification diagrams that show evolutionary
    relationships.
  • Branches (CLADES) meet _at_ common ancestors.
  • Closer branches closely related

Cladogram Phylogenetic diagram that specifies
derived characters (hair, claws, etc.)
11
Modern Classification
  • Based on evolutionary relationships
  • Supported by MOLECULAR SIMILARITIES (DNA, amino
    acids, proteins, etc.)

12
Old Scheme Classification 5 Kingdoms
  • Based on structure, development, modes of
    nutrition

13
Modern Classification 3 Domains 6 Kingdoms
  • Todays Classification
  • Domain
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

3 Domains Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryote
14
(No Transcript)
15
Domain Archaea
  • Extremophiles - live in extreme environments
    (acidic lakes, deep sea vents, etc.)
  • Oldest life forms
  • Prokaryotic (like bacteria)
  • No nuclear membrane
  • Few organelles (ribos)
  • Cell wall
  • Different fr. Bacteria
  • Different DNA/RNA enzymes (more like
    eukaryotes) have introns not affected by many
    antibiotics

16
Domain Bacteria
  • Prokaryotic
  • No nuclear membrane
  • Few organelles (only ribos)
  • Cell wall Capsule peptidoglycan (protein
    carbs)
  • No introns in DNA
  • Flagellum (mobitility)

17
Prokaryotes (bacteria) v. Eukaryotes
18
Domain Bacteria Structure
  • Cell Shape
  • 1, Cocci (spherical)
  • pnemonia, streptococcus
  • 2. Bacilli (rod-shaped)
  • E. coli (intestinal)
  • Spirochetes (spiral)
  • sphilis, lymes

19
Domain Eukaryotes
  • Nuclear membrane
  • Many organelles
  • Include Kingdoms
  • Protist
  • Fungi
  • Plants
  • Animals

20
3 Domains
6 Kingdoms
About PowerShow.com