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CHAPTER 9

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CHAPTER 9 Joints COMMON COURSE OBJECTIVES: Joints: Structural and functional classification Structure of a typical synovial joint Types of synovial joints – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 6 November 2019
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Title: CHAPTER 9


1
CHAPTER 9Joints
  • COMMON COURSE OBJECTIVES
  • Joints Structural and functional classification
  • Structure of a typical synovial joint
  • Types of synovial joints
  • Terms for descriptions of movements

2
JOINTS
  • Defined any place where two bones come together
  • General Function of Joints
  • - Hold the skeleton together
  • - Allow for increased mobility and flexibility
    of skeleton

3
CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS
  • Joints can be classified based on
  • -function (what kind of movement they allow)
  • -structure (what material is found in the joint
    and if is there a joint cavity present).
  • You are required to know each of these
    categories.

4
Functional classification
  • Synarthroses joints that have NO movement.
  • Examples sutures of the skull, gomphoses- teeth
  • Amphiarthroses partially movable joints.
  • Examples intervertebral disc and pubic symphysis
  • Diarthroses freely movable joints.
  • The most common type of functional joint in
    the body.
  • Examples knee joint, shoulder joint,finger
    joints,ankle and wrist joints, etc.

5
Structural Classification
  • Bony joints (synostoses) immovable joint formed
    when the gap between 2 bones ossifies.
  • Fibrous joints (synarthroses) adjacent bones are
    joined by collagen fibers. 3 kinds
  • - sutures, gomphoses and syndesmoses.
  • Cartilaginous joints (amphiarthroses) two bones
    are joined by cartilage. 2 kinds
  • - synchondroses and symphyses
  • Diarthroses freely movable and most common joint
    in the body. Synovial joints are diarthrodial.

6
Fibrous joints (synarthroses)
  • Suture immovable fibrous joints that fuse skull
    bones
  • Syndesmoses fibrous joint where 2 bones are
    joined by longer collagen fibers more movable.
  • Gomphoses attachment of teeth to tooth socket by
    a periodontal ligament.

7
Synovial Joints (diarthroses)
  • this type of joint is defined by the presence of
    a joint cavity filled with fluid.
  • Most joints of the body fall into this class.
  • Examples knee joint, elbow joint, shoulder and
    hip joints and the phalanges of hands and feet,
    etc.

8
Structures in a Synovial Joint
  • articular capsule external and internal
  • joint/synovial cavity filled with synovial
    fluid
  • articular cartilage Hyaline cartilage
  • synovial fluid viscous/ clear colorless fluid
  • ligaments give the joint reinforcement and
    strength
  • Nerves provide feelings of pain and stretch
  • 7. Vessels - provide nutrients to joint

9
Typical Synovial Joint

10

11
Additional joint structures
  • Ligaments- join bones to bones
  • Consists of dense regular connective tissue.
  • Tendons- join muscles to bone
  • Consists of dense regular connective tissue.
  • Bursae- fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane
    and containing synovial fluid
  • Occurs between bones and tendons or muscles
  • Acts to decrease friction during movement

12
Accessory joint structures
  1. fatty pads - cushioning
  2. menisci tough fibrocartilage
  3. bursae -flattened fibrous sac lined by synovial
    membrane.
  4. tendon sheaths -fibrous tissue connecting a
    muscle to a bone

13
Knee joint structures
  1. Articular capsule
  2. Synovial membrane
  3. Medial and lateral menisci
  4. Suprapatellar, infrapatellar and prepatellar
    bursae
  5. Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments
  6. Tibial and fibular collateral ligaments
  7. Patellar capsule
  8. Articular cartilage
  9. Tendon of quadriceps femoris

14
Knee Joint

15

16
Types of Synovial Joints
  1. Plane (gliding) Joints
  2. Hinge Joints
  3. Pivot Joints
  4. Condyloid Joints
  5. Saddle Joints
  6. Ball and Socket Joints

17

18
Movements allowed by Synovial Joints
  • 1. gliding - bony surfaces of bone slide or
    glide over each other
  • 2. flexion - bending movement that decreases the
    angle
  • 3. extension movement the increases the angle,
    opposite of lexion
  • 4. abduction moving away from longitudinal axis
  • 5. adduction movement toward the longitudinal
    axis
  • 6. circumduction movement of the limb such that
    it describes a cone
  • 7. rotation turning the bone or limb around its
    long axis
  • 8. supination rotating the forearm laterally
    such that the palm faces superiorly

19
Movements allowed by Synovial Joints
  • 9. pronation - rotating the forearm medially
    such that the palm faces inferiorly
  • 10. inversion - sole of the foot faces or turns
    medially
  • 11. eversion - sole of the foot turn laterally
  • 12. protraction -juttting out of the jaw
  • 13. retraction - moving the jaw backward
  • 14. elevation - lifting the limb or body
    superiorly
  • 15. depression - moving the body part inferiorly
  • 16. opposition - to bring the thumb and index
    finger tips together

20
Body movements

21
  • Extension and flexion

22
  • Abduction and adduction

23
  • Elevation/Depression Protraction/Retraction
  • Inversion/Eversion Pronation/Supination

24
  • Circumduction
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