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The Second Great Awakening

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... Temperance Temperance movement combated widespread evils of alcholism American Temperance Society & Washington Temperance Society led voluntary individual ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Second Great Awakening


1
The Second Great Awakening Antebellum Reform
Movements
2
The Rise of Popular Religion
In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of
religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing
courses diametrically opposed to each other but
in America, I found that they were intimately
united, and that they reigned in common over the
same country Religion was the foremost of the
political institutions of the United States.
Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832
R1-1
3
Moving away from Traditional Anglican Church
  • Many Founding Fathers were Enlightenment Deists
  • Believed in Watch Maker metaphor
  • Believed mans reason could figure everything out
  • Congregational Churches- independent local
    churches
  • Unitarians split Congregational establishment in
    New England
  • Took control of Harvard wealthiest urban
    churches
  • Est. American Unitarian Association in 1826

4
Challenges to Anglican Church
  • Dramatic increases in immigration
  • -Irish Catholic, Scots-Irish Presbyterians,
    German and Northern European Lutherans
  • Transcendentalism emphasized individualism
    emotion/intuition over reason
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson (Self Reliance)
  • Henry David Thoreau (Walden, Civil Disobedience)

5
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6
Changing Societal Conditions
  • Educated clergy out of touch with frontier
    communities
  • Clash of social class
  • Calvinist theology too complex restrictive for
    uneducated poor people
  • Disestablishment 1st Amendment created
    competition among denominations
  • Non seminary ministers needed to meet demands
  • 1775 1,800 ministers (11,500)
  • 1845 40,000 ministers (1500)
  • Revivalists used democratic rhetoric to attack
    aristocratic religious elites- signs of
    Jeffersonian Republic?

7
The Second Great Awakening
Spiritual Reform From Within Religious
Revivalism
Social Reforms Redefining the Ideal of Equality
Education
Temperance
Abolitionism
Asylum Penal Reform
Womens Rights
8
Second Great Awakening Methodists
  • Methodism came over to America after successfully
    transforming Great Britain in the late 1700s
  • John Charles Wesley began reform movement
    within the Anglican Church later became
    Methodist Episcopal Church
  • Francis Asbury was 1st Methodist Bishop in the
    U.S.
  • Peter Cartwright was leading circuit rider
  • preached salvation as a free gift to all
  • Set up Sunday Schools bible studies

John Wesley
Francis Asbury
9
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10
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11
The Spread of Methodism
12
Methodist Camp Meeting
13
Second Great Awakening Baptists
  • Baptists also spread rapidly
  • Rejected Calvinist roots
  • John Leland combined Jeffersonian democracy with
    Christian morality
  • Both groups used popular mass culture
  • Took advantage of cheap printing to produce
    Bibles, tracts, Sunday School curricula, etc.
  • Took popular songs and wrote new lyrics
  • Created interdenominational organizations
  • American Bible Society
  • American Sunday School Union
  • American Tract Society

Leland Monument Cheshire, Mass.
14
Challenging Race Gender Conventions
  • Initially preached racial gender equality
  • Women blacks allowed to preach
  • Later backed off due to concern for
    respectability
  • Richard Allen founded Bethel African Methodist
    Episcopal Church (A.M.E.) after whites tried to
    segregate St. Georges Methodist Church in
    Philadelphia

Richard Allen
Mother Bethel AME Church
15
Revival Preaching
16
Congregationalists Presbyterians
  • Presbyterians Congregationalists adopted
    methods by 1830s-40s, bringing revival to
    Northeast
  • Lyman Beecher traveled around preaching
    conversion
  • Charles G. Finney developed system for revival,
    deliberately playing on emotions
  • Converted 100,000 people in Rochester, NY in 1839

Charles G. Finney
17
Come-Outer Sects Mormons
  • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
    (Mormons)
  • Joseph Smith, Jr. saw angel Moroni found in
    gold tablets in 1823
  • Book of Mormon published in 1830
  • Established utopian communities
  • Kirtland, OH 1831-38
  • Nauvoo, IL 1839-45
  • Hierarchical, male-dominated church
  • Polygamy encouraged
  • Smith killed by mob in Nauvoo, Illinois in 1844
  • Brigham Young led migration to Deseret (Utah) in
    1846-48

Joseph Smith, Jr.
Brigham Young
18
Hill Cumorah, Palmyra, NY
19
Reconstructed Temple Nauvoo, Illinois
20
Mormon Temple Salt Lake City, Utah
21
Come-Outer Sects Shakers
  • United Society of Believers in Christs Second
    Appearing (Shakers) started in England in 1747
  • Mother Ann Lee Stanley claimed to be 2nd, female
    incarnation of Jesus Christ
  • Came to America with 8 disciples in 1774
  • Established 19 communities between 1783-1836
  • 4,000 5,000 members at peak
  • Lived communally practiced celibacy
  • Danced experienced ecstasies in worship
  • Embraced modern technology

22
Shaker Dance
23
Round Barn (1826) Hancock Shaker Village
24
Mill Powered by Water Turbine Hancock Shaker
Village
25
Weave Shop Hancock Shaker Village
26
Elders Bedroom Hancock Shaker Village
27
Oneida Community
  • Oneida Community founded by John Humphrey Noyes
    in 1848
  • Noyes had been converted by Finney, but became an
    antinomian
  • Complex marriage came to be eugenic breeding
    program
  • Noyes fled to Canada in 1879 to avoid adultery
    charge
  • Community became a joint-stock company in 1881

John Humphrey Noyes
Oneida Community Mansion
28
Antebellum Reform Movements Abolition
  • American Colonization Society (1817) favored
    gradual, compensated manumission returning
    freed blacks to Africa
  • Liberia founded in 1821
  • 6,000 immigrants, 1817-67
  • American Antislavery Society (1833) demanded
    immediate, uncompensated emancipation black
    citizenship
  • William Lloyd Garrison began publishing The
    Liberator in 1831
  • Frederick Douglass was escaped slave who became
    eloquent spokesman

William Lloyd Garrison
Frederick Douglass
29
Antebellum Reform Movements Temperance
  • Temperance movement combated widespread evils of
    alcholism
  • American Temperance Society Washington
    Temperance Society led voluntary individual
    reform efforts
  • Parades featured water wagons
  • Teetotalers pledged total abstinence
  • Per capita consumption drastically reduced by
    1850
  • Neal Dow got 13 states to pass Maine laws,
    1851-55
  • Prohibited manufacture sale of intoxicating
    liquor
  • Did not apply to beer, wine or cider

30
Antebellum Reform Movements Womens Rights
  • Womens Rights movement grew out of other reform
    movements
  • Many, like Susan B. Anthony, were Quakers
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton began as temperance
    advocate abolitionist
  • Seneca Falls Convention (1848) issued Womens
    Declaration of Independence

31
Antebellum Reform Movements Penitentiaries
Asylums
  • Criminals, poor, etc. seen as result of societal
    failure
  • Penitentiaries designed to remove criminals from
    corrupting influences provide discipline
    through labor
  • Auburn (1819-23)
  • Ossining (1825)
  • Asylums isolated patients from outside influences
    in order to cure them
  • Mental illness viewed as result of stress
  • Asylums were utopias

Dorothea Dix
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