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The Age of Jackson

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Title: The Age of Jackson Author: Student Last modified by: Travis Gower Created Date: 10/24/2006 12:48:38 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Age of Jackson


1
The Age of Jackson
2
Election of 1824
  • Only one party, but divisions begin to show
  • Candidates
  • John Quincy Adams
  • Secretary of State, considered cold and unpopular
  • Henry Clay
  • Speaker of the House, the American System
  • Andrew Jackson
  • Little political history, war hero from Tennessee
  • William H. Crawford
  • Secretary of the Treasury, Republican candidate
    from Georgia
  • Results of election
  • Popular vote Jackson wins, but without a clear
    majority
  • Electoral vote Jackson 99, Adams 84, Crawford
    41, Clay 37
  • No clear winner, goes to the House of
    Representatives

Clay
Adams
Jackson
3
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4
The Corrupt Bargain
  • Clay swings his votes to Adams (American system
    would work with Adams Nationalism)
  • Adams becomes President, Clay becomes Secretary
    of State
  • Jackson claims a corrupt bargain and begins a
    four year campaign for the presidency (first ever
    presidential campaign)

5
J.Q. Adams Administration
  • Adams limited in office
  • Jackson leads opposition in Congress
  • Georgia and the Creeks/Cherokees
  • The Panama Conference
  • U.S. sends 2 delegates, one dies, the other is
    late
  • Tariff of 1828
  • Southerners hurt by high prices
  • Tariff of Abominations
  • New two-party system
  • National Republican
  • Later called Whigs (1832)
  • Eventually become Republicans (1854)
  • Democratic Republicans
  • Also called Jacksonian Democrats
  • Foundation of modern Democratic party

6
Election of 1828
  • Popular Politics
  • Election of 1824 300,000 votes
  • Election of 1828 1.1 million votes
  • Mudsling campaign
  • Jackson portrays Adams as a gambler, pimp, and
    politically corrupt
  • Adams portrays Jackson as an adulterer, murderer,
    and stupid
  • the era of the common man
  • Jackson wins easily

7
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8
Rise of Mass Politics
  • White male suffrage increased
  • Party nominating committees.
  • Voters chose their states slate of Presidential
    electors.
  • Spoils system.
  • Rise of Third Parties.
  • Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats,
    etc.)
  • Two-party system returned in the 1832 election
  • Dem-Reps ? Natl. Reps.(1828) ? Whigs (1832) ?
    Republicans (1854)
  • Democrats (1828)

9
Voting Requirements from 1800 to 1830
10
Voter Turn-out from 1820 to 1860 ( of eligible
voters) (2008 56.3, 2004 55.5, 2000 51.3)
11
Jackson the Person
  • Born in South Carolina but raised in Tennessee,
    first President raised west of the Appalachians
  • War Hero
  • War of 1812
  • Seminole Wars
  • Appealed to
  • Planter elite (south)
  • Frontier
  • Immigrants in cities
  • Faith in the Common Man
  • Distrust of Eastern establishment, monopolies,
    special privilege groups
  • Common man was capable of uncommon achievements

12
Jackson as President
  • Spoils System
  • Removal of officeholders
  • Replace with own followers
  • Only removed about 1/5th of officeholders
    (similar to Jefferson)
  • Promoted economic program to reduce the
    government
  • Strongly committed to preserving the union
  • Common Man or King Jackson?

13
Tariff Issue
  • 1828 Tariff of Abominations
  • South Carolina calls for secession if tariff
    isnt reduced
  • John C. Calhoun issues his nullification doctrine
  • Based on Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
  • Peggy Eaton Affair
  • Martin van Burin becomes next in line for
    President

14
Tariff Issue
  • Webster-Hayne Debate
  • Daniel Webster (MA) vs. Robert Hayne (SC)
  • Hayne (Calhoun)
  • The Constitution is little more than a treaty
    between sovereign states
  • Webster
  • Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and
    inseparable.
  • Calhoun The Union, next to our liberty, most
    dear.
  • Jackson Our Federal Union it must be
    preserved.
  • 1832 New Tariff

15
Nullification Crisis
  • South Carolina on verge of secession
  • Calhoun resigns as Vice President and elected
    Senator in South Carolina
  • 1833 Jackson convinces Congress to pass the
    force bill
  • Authorized use of military to keep South Carolina
    from secession
  • 1833 Henry Clays Compromise
  • Gradually reduced tariff over 10 years
  • Clays Compromise and Force Bill signed on same
    day
  • South Carolina accepts compromise and nullifies
    the force bill

16
John C. Calhoun Hottest American Vice President?
17
Native American Policy
  • Jacksons Goal
  • Remove Indians from areas of white settlement
  • Black Hawk War
  • Five Civilized Tribes
  • Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, Choctaw
  • 1830 Indian Removal Act
  • 1831 Cherokee Nation v. GA
  • domestic dependent nation
  • 1832 Worcester v. GA
  • Jackson
  • John Marshall has made his decision, now let him
    enforce it!

18
Trail of Tears
  • 1830 1835 Removed to the Indian Territory
    (later Oklahoma)
  • 1830 Choctaws
  • 1832 1833 Black Hawk War
  • 1836 Creek
  • 1837 Chickasaw
  • 1838 Cherokee
  • North Carolina
  • Seminole War (1835 1842)
  • Chief Osceola

19
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20
Opposition to the 2nd B.U.S.
  • Soft (paper)
  • State bankers felt it restrained their banks from
    issuing bank notes freely.
  • Supported rapid economic growth and speculation.
  • Hard (specie)
  • Felt that coin was the only safe currency.
  • Didnt like any bank that issued bank notes.
  • Suspicious of expansion and speculation.
  • Jackson tended to support hard money.

21
Jackson and The Bank of the U.S.
  • 1830 Jackson vetoes Maysville Road Project
  • Road was completely in Henry Clays Kentucky
  • Nicholas Biddle
  • President of the 2nd B.U.S.
  • Convinced by Daniel Webster and Henry Clay to
    re-charter the 2nd B.U.S. in 1832 (4 years early)
  • Clay runs for president as a National Republican
    with the Bank as the main issue
  • Jackson easily win election of 1832

22
The Monster is Destroyed
  • Jackson puts govt. money in pet banks
  • 1832 Jackson vetoes extension of the 2nd B.U.S.
  • 1833 Czar Nicholas calls in loans to
    stabilize B.U.S.
  • 1836 2nd B.U.S.s charter expires
  • 1841 the bank went bankrupt

23
Downfall of Mother Bank
24
Democrats and Whigs
  • Jacksonian Democracy
  • Govt should be limited
  • Protect opportunity
  • Encourage expansion
  • End privilege and monopolies
  • Constituents
  • Small merchants and workers in Northeast,
    southern planters against industry, westerners
    with southern roots
  • Irish and German Catholics
  • Whigs
  • Taken from English political party that was
    against the king
  • Expand federal govt
  • Encourage industrial and commercial growth
  • Constituents
  • Northeast merchants and manufactures, Southern
    planters in favor of industry, Westerners with
    northern roots
  • Evangelical Protestants

25
The Specie Circular (1836)
  • Wildcat banks
  • Buy future federal land with gold or silver only
  • Goal was to limit speculation
  • Results of Specie Circular
  • Banknotes loose their value.
  • Land sales plummeted.
  • Credit not available.
  • Businesses begin to fail.
  • Unemployment rose
  • The Panic of 1837

26
Martin Van Buren
  • Election of 1836
  • Easily wins as Whigs have 3 candidates
  • Inherits financial problem created by Jackson and
    Whigs fight over B.U.S.
  • Does little to fix Panic of 1837
  • Lowers tariffs
  • Independent Treasury passes in 1840, has little
    effectiveness
  • Caroline Affair (Canada)
  • Supervised the Trail of Tears
  • Denied Texas admission as a state

27
Rise of the Whigs
  • Election of 1840
  • Whigs
  • William Henry Harrison (Indian fighter from
    northwest)
  • John Tyler (Virginia) for V.P.
  • Democrats
  • Martin Van Buren, but no V.P. candidate
  • Log Cabin Campaign
  • Tippecanoe and Tyler too!
  • Harrison wins, dies one month later
  • John Tyler
  • Refused to re-charter B.U.S.
  • 1844 ran as a Democrat

28
Whig poster
29
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