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Endocrine System

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Title: Endocrine System


1
Endocrine System
  • Medical Terminology
  • Chapter 17

2
Function
  • The endocrine system cooperates with the nervous
    system to regulate body activities. This is
    accomplished by endocrine hormones that affect
    various processes throughout the body, such as
    growth, metabolism, and secretions from other
    organs.

3
Anatomy and Physiology
  • The endocrine and nervous systems work together
    to maintain homeostasis
  • Homeostasis is a relative constancy in the
    internal environment of the body
  • Nervous system communicates with the endocrine
    system through nerve impulses.

4
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Endo inside
  • Crine to secrete
  • Endocrine System composed of
  • Many glands scattered throughout the body
  • Glands secrete hormones (chemicals) into the
    blood stream

5
Anatomy and Physiology
  • A gland is an organ that has specialized cells
    that secrete or excrete substances that are not
    related to the glands ordinary metabolism
  • Endocrine
  • Secrete hormones into the bloodstream
  • Exocrine
  • Have ducts that enable them to empty secretions
    onto an internal body surface (sweat gland)

6
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Dysfunction in hormone production
  • Hypersecretion
  • Excess secretion
  • Hyposecretion
  • Deficiency in secretion
  • Target organ

7
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Hormones
  • Proteins
  • Steroids
  • Sex hormones
  • Those secreted by the adrenal cortex

8
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Location of endocrine glands
  • Pituitary gland (Hypophysis)
  • Base of the brain
  • Adrenal gland
  • Above the two kidneys (suprarenal)
  • Ovaries and testes
  • Pelvic region

9
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Location of endocrine glands (cont.)
  • Pineal gland (shaped like a pine cone)
  • Posterior part of the brain
  • Thyroid
  • Front of the neck
  • Parathyroid
  • Embedded on the posterior surface of the thyroid
    gland
  • Pancreas (Islet of Langerhans)
  • ULQ abdomen

10
Anatomy and PhysiologyKey Word Parts
  • Aden(o)
  • Gland
  • Adren(o), adrenal(o)
  • Adrenal gland
  • Gonad(o)
  • Gonad
  • Mamm(o), mast(o)
  • Breast

11
Anatomy and PhysiologyKey Word Parts
  • Pancreat(o)
  • Pancreas
  • Parathyriod(o)
  • Parathyroid glands
  • Pituitar(o)
  • Pituitary gland
  • Thyr(o), thyroid(o)
  • Thyroid gland

12
Anatomy and PhysiologyKey Word Parts
  • Andr(o)
  • Male or masculine
  • Calc(i)
  • Calcium
  • Gigant(o)
  • Large
  • Gluc(o)
  • Glucose

13
Anatomy and PhysiologyKey Word Parts
  • Glyc(o), glycos(o)
  • Sugar
  • Insulin(o)
  • Insulin
  • Iod(o)
  • Iodine
  • Ket(o)
  • Ketone
  • Lact(o)
  • Milk
  • Trop(o)
  • To stimulate

14
Anatomy and PhysiologyKey Word Parts
  • -crine
  • Secrete
  • -dipsia
  • Thirst
  • -physis
  • Growth
  • -tropic
  • Stimulating
  • -tropin
  • That which stimulates

15
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Pituitary
  • Supplies numerous hormones that act directly on
    cells or stimulates other glands that govern many
    vital processes.
  • Hypophysis cerebri (under the cerebrum)
  • Some hormones released in response to the nervous
    system
  • Many endocrine glands respond to hormones
    secreted by the pituitary gland
  • The Master Gland

16
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Posterior pituitary
  • Neurohypophysis
  • Hormones stored in axon endings and are released
    when a nerve impulse travels down the axon
  • Anterior pituitary
  • Adenohypophysis
  • Release of hormones is controlled by regulating
    hormones produced by the hypothalamus

17
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Posterior pituitary hormones
  • Kidneys
  • Breasts
  • Uterus
  • Anterior pituitary hormones
  • Many hormones, several of which act on other
    endocrine glands causing them to secrete hormones

18
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Hypothalamus (Neurohypophysis)
  • Plays an important role in hormonal regulation
  • Antidiuretic hormone
  • Oxytocin
  • Synthesized in the hypothalamus
  • Transported to the neurohypophysis for storage
  • Released through nervous stimulation

19
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Antidiuretic hormone
  • Affects the volume of urine secreted
  • Acts on the kidneys to reabsorb water from the
    urine, producing concentrated urine
  • Absence of this hormone results in passage of
    large amounts of dilute urine
  • Tea, coffee, and water act as diuretics
  • Diuretics prescribed for people with edema

20
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Oxytocin
  • Released in large quantities just before a female
    gives birth
  • Causes uterine contractions
  • Acts on mammary glands to stimulate the release
    of milk

21
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Adenohypophysis
  • Regulated by the hypothalamus which produces
    regulatory and inhibitory hormones which
    stimulate or inhibit the secretion of hormones
  • Hormones travel through the bloodstream and bring
    about changes in other organs, often another
    endocrine gland

22
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Growth hormone (GH), Somatotropin (STH)
  • Stimulates body growth
  • Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
  • Promotes pigmentation and controls the amount of
    melanin produced
  • Lactogenic Hormone (LTH), prolactin
  • Causes milk production by the mammary glands

23
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Gonadotropic hormones
  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Lutenizing hormone (LH)
  • Stimulate the ovaries and testes

24
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Adrenal gland medulla
  • Receives direct nervous stimulation
  • Adrenal gland cortex
  • Stimulated by the adrenocorticotropic hormone
    (ACTH) brought by the circulating blood
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyrotropin
  • Causes the glandular cells of the thyroid to
    produce thyroid hormones

25
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Thyroid
  • Regulates body metabolism, normal growth and
    development, and the storage of calcium in bone
    tissue
  • Thyroxine, T4
  • Triiodothyronine, T3
  • Synthesized by the thyroid using iodine
  • Thyrocalcitonin (TCT), calcitonin
  • Homeostasis of the blood calcium level

26
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Mammary glands
  • Milk producing glands of the breast
  • Each breast contains 15 to 20 lobes of glandular
    tissue that surround the nipple
  • Lactogenesis
  • Production of milk
  • Lactation
  • Secretion or ejecting of milk

27
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Tactile stimulation of the nipple
  • Impulses from the nipple go to the hypothalamus
  • Hypothalamus stimulates the release of oxytocin
    by the pituitary gland
  • Causes contractions that eject milk from the
    breast

28
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Gonadotropic
  • Stimulating the gonads
  • FSH
  • Stimulates the ovaries to secrete estrogen and
    acts on the follicle
  • Stimulates the production of sperm in the testes
  • LH
  • Stimulates ovulation and production of
    progesterone in the female ovary
  • promotes the growth of the interstitial cells of
    the testes and the secretion of testosterone

29
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Reproduction becomes possible during puberty
  • Onset is triggered by the hypothalamus and the
    anterior pituitary
  • Male sex hormones, androgens (mostly
    testosterone)
  • Ovaries
  • Estrogen
  • Testes
  • Testosterone

30
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Adrenal glands
  • Outer cortex
  • Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
  • Glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone)
  • Androgens and estrogens
  • Inner medulla
  • Epinephrine
  • Norepinephrine

31
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Mineralocorticoids
  • Increases water retention by changing sodium and
    potassium reabsorption in the kidney tubules
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Increases blood glucose levels inhibits
    inflammation and the immune response
  • Androgens and estrogens
  • Secreted in small amounts that the effect is
    generally masked by ovarian and testicular
    hormones

32
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Andr(o)
  • Male or masculine
  • Androgenic
  • Producing masculine characteristics
  • Masculine characteristics in females may become
    apparent after menopause

33
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Epinephrine (adrenaline)
  • Stimulates the heart
  • Norepinephrine
  • Blood vessel constrict
  • Together they prepare the body for strenuous
    activity
  • Fight or flight hormones

34
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Pineal gland
  • Exact functions have not been established
  • Evidence that it secretes melatonin
  • Diminishes around the age of 7
  • Melatonin
  • Regulatory function in sexual development
  • Influence the sleepiness/wakefulness cycle and
    mood
  • Decrease in skin pigmentation

35
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Homeostasis
  • Direct nervous stimulation
  • Adrenal medulla
  • Secretion of hormones in response to other
    hormones
  • TSH from anterior pituitary causes the thyroid to
    secrete thyroid hormones
  • A negative feedback mechanism
  • Interaction between pancreatic hormones and the
    concentration of glucose in the blood

36
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Pancreas
  • Exocrine
  • Secretes digestive enzymes that are carried
    through a duct to the duodenum
  • Endocrine
  • Secretes hormones into the blood
  • Glucagon
  • Insulin

37
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Glucagon
  • Increase blood glucose levels
  • Secreted in response to a low concentration of
    glucose in the blood
  • Prevents hypoglycemia (less then normal amount of
    sugar in the blood
  • Insulin
  • Promotes the uptake and utilization of glucose
    for energy
  • Secreted in response to a high concentration of
    glucose in the blood

38
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Parathyroid
  • Secretes parathyroid hormone
  • Increases blood calcium levels
  • Antagonistic to calcitonin secreted by the
    thyroid gland

39
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Stomach
  • Gastrin
  • Pepsin
  • Small intestines
  • Stimulate the pancreas and gallbladder
  • Thymus
  • Thymosin
  • Heart
  • Atria produces atriopeptin
  • Placenta
  • HCG, estrogen, progesterone

40
Anatomy and Physiology
  • Prostaglandins
  • Localized, immediate, and short term effect on or
    near the cells where they are produced
  • Smooth muscle contractions
  • Involvement in blood clotting
  • Many aspects of pain and fever

41
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  • Palpation
  • Only thyroid and male gonads can be palpated
  • Assessed for
  • Enlargement
  • Bulging
  • Difference in size
  • Checked for masses

42
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  • Physical indications of endocrine disorders
  • Unusually tall or short stature
  • Coarseness of facial features
  • Edema
  • Hair loss
  • Excessive facial hair in females

43
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  • Laboratory studies
  • Urine tests
  • Blood tests
  • Growth hormone
  • Gonadotropins (FSH and LH)
  • Other hormones

44
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  • MRI
  • Identify tumors involving the pituitary gland or
    hypothalamus
  • Thyroid function
  • TSH
  • Thyroxine
  • T3
  • Radioactive iodine uptake
  • Thyroid scans

45
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  • Parathyroid
  • PTH
  • Calcium
  • Phosphate
  • ACTH
  • Computed Tomography (CT)
  • Tumors of adrenal gland

46
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  • Pancreatic function
  • Blood tests
  • Fasting blood sugar (FBS)
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1C
  • Oral glucose tolerance test
  • Urine tests
  • Sugar glycosuria
  • Ketones ketonuria

47
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
  • Computed Tomography (CT)
  • To identify pancreatic tumors or cysts
  • Breasts
  • Self breast examination
  • Mammography
  • Mammogram

48
Pathologies
  • Adenopathy
  • Any disease of a gland
  • Pituitary dysfunction
  • Hyposecretion
  • Hypersecretion

49
Pathologies
  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Deficiency of ADH
  • Polyuria
  • Polydipsia
  • Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)
  • Usually develops in association with other
    diseases

50
Pathologies
  • Hypopituitarism
  • Decreased activity of the pituitary gland
  • Deficient in one or more pituitary hormones
  • Insufficient growth hormone in childhood
  • Dwarfism
  • Deficiency in somatotropin
  • Pituitary dwarfism

51
Pathologies
  • Adult atrophy of the pituitary gland
  • State of ill health
  • Malnutrition
  • Wasting (pituitary cachexia)
  • Hyperpituitarism
  • Increased pituitary activity

52
Pathologies
  • Overproduction of growth hormone during childhood
  • Gigantism
  • Hypersecretion of somatotropin
  • Pituitary gigantism
  • Adult excessive growth hormone
  • Acromegaly
  • Enlargement of the extremities

53
Pathologies
  • Thyropathy
  • Any disease of the thyroid gland
  • Inflammation
  • Enlargement
  • Hyposecretion
  • Hypersecretion

54
Pathologies
  • Thyroiditis
  • Inflammation of the thyroid
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Excitable, nervous
  • Moist skin
  • Rapid pulse
  • Increased metabolic rate
  • Weight loss
  • Exophthalmos

55
Pathologies
  • Graves disease
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Exophthalmos
  • Goiter
  • Thyrotoxicosis (Thyroid storm)
  • Fever
  • Fast pulse
  • Hypertension
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms
  • Agitation
  • Anxiety

56
Pathologies
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Decreased activity of the thyroid gland
  • Childhood (Cretinism)
  • Arrested physical and mental development
  • Myxedema
  • Adult hyposecretion of thyroxin and T3
  • Water retention
  • Edema

57
Pathologies
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Below normal level of parathyroid function
  • Hypocalcemia
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Abnormally increased activity of the parathyroid
  • Hypercalcemia

58
Pathologies
  • Hypogonadism
  • Decreased functional activity of the gonads
  • Adrenopathy
  • Any disease of the adrenals
  • Adrenomegaly
  • Enlargement of one or both adrenals

59
Pathologies
  • Hyperadrenalism
  • Increased secretory activity of the adrenals
  • Cushings syndrome hyper secretion of the
    adrenal cortex
  • Increased blood glucose levels
  • Edema
  • Masculinization in female individuals

60
Pathologies
  • Hypersecretion of androgens or estrogens before
    puberty
  • Androgenital syndrome
  • Males
  • Rapid onset of puberty and sex drive
  • Females
  • Masculine distribution of body hair develops and
    the clitoris enlarges and takes on the appearance
    of a penis

61
Pathologies
  • Hirsutism
  • Excessive growth and male distribution of body
    hair in the female
  • Andropathy
  • Any disease peculiar to the male gender
  • Gynecomastia
  • Excessive growth of male mammary glands

62
Pathologies
  • Hypoadrenalism
  • Decreased adrenal activity
  • Hyposecretion
  • No significant effect
  • Hypersecretion
  • Continued fight or flight mode

63
Pathologies
  • Addisons disease
  • Hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex
  • Dehydration
  • Low blood glucose levels
  • Bronzing of the skin
  • General ill health

64
Pathologies
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Pancreatitis
  • Inflammation of the pancreas
  • Hypoinsulinism
  • Deficient secretion of insulin by the pancreas

65
Pathologies
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Resistance to insulin
  • Deficiency or complete lack of insulin secretion
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Greater than normal blood glucose level
  • Polyphagia
  • Polyuria
  • Polydipsia

66
Pathologies
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Type I
  • Type 2
  • Gestational

67
Pathologies
  • Type I
  • Genetically determined
  • Absolute insulin deficiency
  • Type 2
  • Genetic and environmental contributing factors
  • Aging, obesity
  • Gestational
  • Recognized during pregnancy
  • Disappears after birth

68
Pathologies
  • Complications of Diabetes
  • Diabetic neuropathy
  • Heart disease
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Peripheral vascular disease

69
Pathologies
  • Hyperinsulinism
  • Excessive insulin in the blood
  • Hyperinsulinism results in hypoglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Below normal blood glucose level

70
Pathologies
  • Mammalgia
  • Mastodynia
  • Mastalgia
  • Breast pain
  • Fibrocystic breast disease
  • Single or multiple benign cysts
  • Mastocarcinoma Breast cancer
  • The most common cancer among women in the U.S.

71
Pathologies
  • Mastitis
  • Inflammatory condition of the breasts
  • Occurs frequently in lactating women
  • Typically bacterial infection
  • If untreated an abscess may develop

72
Surgical Therapeutic Interventions
  • Pituitary tumor
  • Surgery
  • Radiation
  • Administration of deficient hormones
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Surgery
  • Radioactive materials
  • Antithyroid drugs

73
Surgical Therapeutic Interventions
  • Adrenalectomy
  • Excision of an adrenal gland

74
Surgical Therapeutic Interventions
  • Diabetes Treatment
  • Administration of insulin or oral agents
  • Subcutaneous injection
  • Insulin pump
  • Proper diet
  • Exercise

75
Surgical Therapeutic Interventions
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Administration of glucose
  • Breast cancer
  • Lumpectomy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormone manipulation
  • Mastectomy (surgical removal of the breast)

76
Surgical Therapeutic Interventions
  • Mastoptsosis
  • Sagging or prolapsed breasts
  • Mastopexy
  • Surgery to correct pendulous breasts (breast
    lift)
  • Mammoplasty
  • Plastic surgery of the breast
  • Augmentation mammoplasty
  • Reduction mammoplasty

77
Class Exercises
  • Chapter 17

78
Define the Terms
  • Aden(o)
  • Gland
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Increase blood calcium
  • Goiter
  • Enlarged thyroid
  • Gonad(o)
  • Ovaries, testes

79
Define the Terms
  • Trop(o)
  • To stimulate
  • Mast(o)
  • Breast
  • Lact(o)
  • Milk
  • Ex(o)
  • Outside

80
Define the Terms
  • End(o)
  • Inside
  • -crine
  • To secrete
  • Tetra-
  • Four
  • Home(o)
  • Sameness, constant

81
Write the Meaning For
  • Thry(o)
  • Thyroid gland
  • Tetra-
  • Four
  • Mast/o
  • Breast
  • Pro-
  • Before or for

82
Write the Meaning For
  • Mamm/o
  • Breast
  • Andr/o
  • Male or masculine
  • Exo-
  • Outside or outward
  • Adren/o
  • Adrenal gland

83
Give Definitions for the Following
  • Adrenalin?o
  • Adrenalin
  • -tropic
  • Stimulates
  • -tropin
  • That which stimulates
  • -physis
  • growth

84
Give Definitions for the Following
  • Iod/o
  • Iodine
  • Gigant/o
  • Large
  • Megal/o
  • Large
  • Macr/o
  • Large

85
Give Definitions for the Following
  • Gonad/o
  • Gonad
  • Home/o
  • Sameness

86
Write Definitions for the following Terms
  • Andromegaly
  • Enlargement of the adrenal glands
  • Androgenic
  • Producing masculine characteristics
  • Homeostasis
  • Stability in the normal body state
  • Periadenitis
  • Inflammation of tissues around a gland

87
Write Definitions for the following Terms
  • Gonadal
  • Pertaining to the ovaries or testes
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Excessive calcium in the blood
  • Hypothryoidism
  • Decreased activity of the thyroid gland

88
Write Definitions for the following Terms
  • Enlargement of the adrenal glands
  • Adrenomegaly
  • Producing masculine characteristics
  • Androgenic
  • Stability in the normal body state
  • Homeostasis
  • Inflammation of the tissues around a gland
  • Periadenitis

89
Write Definitions for the following Terms
  • Decreased activity of the thyroid gland
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Excessive calcium in the blood
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Pertaining to the ovaries and testes
  • Gonadal

90
Write Definitions for the following Terms
  • Mastopexy
  • Surgical correction of pendulous breasts
  • Exophthalmos
  • Abnormal protrusions of the eyeball
  • Periadentitis
  • Inflammation of tissues around a gland
  • Homeostasis
  • Stability of the internal functions of the body

91
Write Definitions for the following Terms
  • Pancreas
  • The gland where insulin is produced
  • Gonadectomy
  • Excision of the ovaries or testes
  • Hypogonadism
  • Decreased functional activity of the gonads

92
Write Definitions for the following Terms
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • A disorder of carbohydrate metabolism
    characterized by hyperglycemia and glycosuria
  • Cachexia
  • A condition of ill health, malnutrition and
    wasting
  • Colostrum
  • The cloudy fluid secreted by the mammary gland
    that serves as a reservoir for milk

93
Write Definitions for the following Terms
  • Duct
  • The dilated portion of a vessel in the mammary
    gland that serves as a reservoir for milk
  • Periappendicitis
  • Inflamed condition of the appendix and its
    surrounding tissues
  • Gynecomastia
  • Excessive development of the male breasts

94
Write Definitions for the following Terms
  • Fibrocystic breast disease
  • A disorder characterized by single or multiple
    benign tumors of the breast
  • Glands
  • Structures that have the ability to manufacture
    chemical substances that are discharged and used
    in some other part of the body

95
Give Definitions for the Following Terms
  • Lactation
  • Secretion of milk
  • Mammogram
  • Film produced in a diagnostic procedure that uses
    x ray to study the breast
  • Augmentation mammoplasty
  • Plastic surgery to increase the size of the breast

96
Give Definitions for the Following Terms
  • Mastectomy
  • Removal of a breast
  • Target gland/organ
  • The organ or structure towards which the effects
    of a hormone are directed
  • Goiter
  • An enlarged thyroid

97
Give Definitions for the Following Terms
  • Lactogenesis
  • Production of milk
  • Androgenic
  • Producing masculine characteristics
  • Diuretic pertains to increasing urination
  • Exocrine
  • Gland that has ducts and empties its secretions
    onto an internal or external surface

98
Give Definitions for the Following Terms
  • Hormones
  • The chemical secretions of endocrine glands
  • Pituitary
  • The master gland
  • Oxytocin
  • A pituitary hormone that stimulates uterine
    contractions and milk ejection

99
Give Definitions for the Following Terms
  • Mammalgia or mastodynia
  • Painful breast
  • Hirsutism
  • Abnormal hairiness

100
Define the Following Terms
  • Hepatitis
  • Inflammation of the liver
  • Pericerebral
  • Around the rain
  • Peripancreatitis
  • Inflammation around the pancreas
  • Mastoptosis
  • Sagging breasts

101
Define the Following Terms
  • Thyroid
  • Gland secretes thyroid hormones
  • Thyrotropin
  • Stimulates the synthesis and secretions of
    thyroxine
  • Thyroxine
  • Iodine containing hormone secreted by thyroid
    gland

102
Define the Following Terms
  • Cachexia
  • General ill health and malnutrition, marked by
    weakness and emaciation or excessive leanness
    caused by disease or lack of nutrition
  • Hypopituitarism
  • Decreased activity of the pituitary gland
  • Hormones
  • Come from endocrine glands secreted into the
    blood stream

103
Define the Following Terms
  • -physis
  • Suffix means growth
  • Pro-
  • Prefix means before
  • Adrenal glands
  • Located above each kidney secretes steroids
    epinephrine and norepinephrine

104
Define the Following Terms
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Above normal blood sugar
  • Glycosuria
  • Sugar in urine
  • Polydipsia
  • Excessive thirst
  • Polyuria
  • Frequent urination
  • Hyperinsulinism
  • Excessive insulin in the blood

105
Define the Following Terms
  • Exophthalmos
  • Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball
  • Adrenomegaly
  • Enlargement of the adrenal gland
  • Mastodynia
  • Painful breast
  • Anti-diuretic hormone
  • Affects the volume of urine excreted

106
Define the Following Terms
  • -tropin
  • Suffix means that which stimulates
  • Somatotropin
  • Substance that stimulates bodys growth
  • Andropathy
  • Any disease peculiar to males
  • Homeostasis
  • Stability in the normal body parts

107
Define the Following Terms
  • Gonadotropin
  • Substance that stimulates the gonads
  • Thyrotropin
  • Substance that stimulates the synthesis and
    secretion of thyroxine
  • Hypogonadism
  • Decreased functional activity of the gonads with
    deterioration of sexual development

108
Define the Following Terms
  • Gonadopathy
  • Any disease of the ovaries and testes
  • Gonadectomy
  • Removal or excision of ovaries or testes
  • Periadenitis
  • Inflammation of tissues around a gland
  • Androgenic
  • Producing masculine characteristics

109
Write Medical Terms for the Following
  • Hemorrhage from a breast
  • Mastorrhagia
  • The organ or structure toward which the effects
    of a hormone are directed
  • Target gland/organ
  • An enlarged thyroid
  • Goiter
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