ENDOCRINE GLANDS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

ENDOCRINE GLANDS

Description:

ENDOCRINE GLANDS Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Hormones are chemical messengers traveling through the bloodstream Target cells: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:244
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 11
Provided by: FoxValley
Learn more at: https://fvlweb.fvlhs.org
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: ENDOCRINE GLANDS


1
ENDOCRINE GLANDS
  • Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the
    bloodstream.
  • Hormones are chemical messengers traveling
    through the bloodstream
  • Target cells
  • Bodies response to hormones are slower and longer
    lasting
  • Glands (fig. 42-3)
  • organ that produces a secretion and released
    from that cell
  • Endocrine glands Produce secretions and
    release directly
  • Exocrine glands Release secretions through
    ducts sweat glands
  • THYROID GLAND (see fig. 42-5)
  • Wraps around the upper part of the trachea
    just below the larynx
  • Produces the hormone, thyroxine need iodine
    in your diets
  • affects most cells of the body by
    regulating metabolic rates
  • Hyperthyroidism too much thyroxine is
    produced
  • Hypothyroidism too little thyroxine is
    produced

2
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  • Hypothyroidism is associated with goiter and
    cretinism
  • The thyroid gland also secretes calcitonin
  • Parathyroid Gland
  • Attached or embedded to the back of the
    thyroid gland
  • Secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    (reabsorption of Ca in kidneys)
  • Regulates the calcium levels (removal results
    in muscle spasms)
  • Works with calcitonin and vitamin D for muscle
    and nerve function
  • When removed injections of PTH are necessary
    or tetany sets in

3
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  • Adrenal Glands
  • Sits on top of each kidney
  • Adrenal Cortex 80 mass of the gland
  • corticosteroids essential for normal body
    functions
  • aldosterone- regulates reabsorption of
    Na and excretion of K
  • cortisol- controls the rate of
    metabolism of carbos, lipids, and
    proteins, helps us cope with stress.
  • Decreased activity results in Addison
    Disease
  • weight loss, low blood pressure and
    possible death
  • treatment doses of adrenal cortical
    hormone
  • Increased activity results in Cushing
    syndrome
  • obesity, increase blood sugar,
    weakening bones

4
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Produces neurohormones
  • adrenaline- Increases heart rate, blood
    pressure, and blood to skeletal muscles.
    Increases conversion of glycogen to glucose and
    stimulates the rate of metabolism during
    stressful situations
  • noradrenaline- stimulates the heart muscle
  • These actions get us ready for fight or
    flight
  • Reproductive Glands
  • gonads- bodys reproductive glands
  • ovaries- produces eggs
  • estrogen- development of ova and physical
    characteristics such as reproductive system,
    widening hips, and breast development.
  • progesterone- Prepares the uterus for the
    arriving embryo

5
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  • Testes- produce sperm
  • androgens- Normal sperm development and
    production, growth of facial hair, increase body
    size, and deepening voice.

6
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  • Pancreas
  • Both an exocrine and endocrine gland
  • islets of Langerhans
  • Each islet is composed of beta cells that
    secrete insulin and alpha cells that secrete
    glucagon which regulate glucose level in the body
  • Insulin Results from glucose levels
    rising.Beta cells release insulin and target
    cells of the liver, muscles, fat tissue.
  • Glucagon 1-2 hrs. after eating, blood glucose
    drops, alpha cells release glucagon. This
    stimulates cells to break down glycogen and
    increase glucose levels.
  • Fat cells break down fats to be used to make
    carbohydrates
  • Diabetes Mellitus undersecretion of insulin
    (Fig. 42-9)
  • Glucose in the blood is so high the kidneys
    cant absorb all the glucose, so it is excreted
    it the urine.
  • Two Types Juvenile-onset (Type-I) Adult-onset
    (Type-II)

7
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

8
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  • Pituitary Gland Hypothalamus
  • Why known as the Master Gland?
  • Place where nervous system and endocrine
    interact
  • Secretes 9 hormones that directly regulate
    body functions
  • Controls the release of hormones by several
    other glands
  • Divided into two parts anterior and
    posterior pituitary
  • Posterior secretes antidiuretic hormone
    (ADH) and oxytocin
  • ADH-reabsorb water from kidneys
  • Oxytocin- contraction of uterus, release
    of breast milk
  • In males ?????????????????
  • Anterior follicle stimulating and
    luteinizing hormones control the growth,
    development and functioning of ovaries and testes
  • thyroid stimulating, adrenocorticotropic,
    growth (somatatropin,) melancocyte-stimulating
    prolactin, (SEE FIG. 42-11)

9
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  • Pituitary Gland Disorders
  • giantism, dwarfism
  • acromegaly no height increase due to bones
    ossifying but diameter of toes and fingers
    increases, enlarged jaw
  • treatment surgery, radiation, /or
    hormone therapy
  • treatment surgery, radiation, or
    hormone therapy
  • Hypothalamus Attached to the posterior pituitary
  • controls secretions of the pituitary,
    influenced by levels of hormones in the blood.
  • Neurosecretory cells extend axons into
    posterior pituitary
  • vesicles release contents (ADH oxytocin)
  • so it controls the posterior pituitary
    the activity of the body
  • Produces releasing hormones which are secreted
    directly into capillaries and then into veins,
    and more capillaries. It enters the anterior
    pituitary, affecting the production of pituitary
    hormones.

10
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com