Section 1: The Roots of American Democracy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Section 1: The Roots of American Democracy PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 69a78c-ZTA5N


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Section 1: The Roots of American Democracy


Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Information Technology Last modified by: Jenifer Limb Created Date: 1/20/2005 6:32:35 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:168
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 75
Provided by: Information2207
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Section 1: The Roots of American Democracy

(No Transcript)
Chapter 2 Origins of American Government
  • Section 1 The Roots of American Democracy
  • Section 2 American Independence
  • Section 3 Articles of Confederation
  • Section 4 The Constitutional Convention
  • Section 5 Ratification and the Bill of Rights

Section 1 at a Glance
  • The Roots of American Democracy
  • The English political heritage of representative
    government, limited
  • government, and individual rights influenced
    the development of
  • government in the United States.
  • From the start, the English colonies in North
    America experimented with forms of
  • The English colonists were influenced by ideas
    from various intellectual traditions, ranging
    from republicanism to natural rights theory,
    Judeo-Christian ideals, and the work of
    Enlightenment thinkers.

The Roots of American Democracy
Main Idea American democracy was shaped by our
English political heritage, colonial experiments
in self-government, and a range of intellectual
  • Reading Focus
  • Which American political ideas derived from an
    English political heritage?
  • How did colonial governments give English
    colonists experience in self-rule?
  • What intellectual influences shaped the
    development of American political philosophy?

Cradle of American Democracy
English Political Heritage
Colonial government would never be an exact copy
of the British system. Colonial leaders adapted
old ideas, based on English traditions, to a new
English Political Heritage (contd.)
  • Individual Rights
  • 1628 King Charles required to sign Petition of
  • Required monarchs to obtain Parliamentary
    approval before levying new taxes, also could not
    unlawfully imprison people or establish military
    rule during times of peace
  • Extended conflict between Charles and Parliament
    erupted into civil war in 1642.
  • Charles defeated, beheaded
  • 1685 renewed conflicts and rebellion between the
    Crown and Parliament
  • 1689 William and Mary chosen to rule, but had to
    govern according to statutes of Parliament
  • 1689 English Bill of Rights passed
  • Free speech and protection from cruel and unusual
    punishment guaranteed
  • Glorious Revolution established constitutional

(No Transcript)
Summarizing How did limited government develop
in England?
Answer(s) through the Glorious Revolution and
the English Bill of Rights
The English Colonies
English colonists began to settle parts of North
America in the early 1600s, bringing English
political theories and methods of governance.
(No Transcript)
Contrasting How were charter colonies and royal
colonies different?
Answer(s) charter colonieslargely
self-governing royal coloniesdirectly
controlled by the Crown through an appointed
Intellectual Influences In addition to English
traditions, ideas were key to transforming loyal
English colonists first into revolutionaries and
then into founders of a new nation.
  • Republicanism
  • Idea of representative government going back to
    Greece and Rome
  • Highly values citizen participation, public good,
    civic virtue
  • Influences included Aristotle, Machiavelli, de
    Montesquieu, others
  • Judeo-Christian Influences
  • Religious heritage common to both Christianity
    and Judaism
  • Law and individual rights of divine origin

Intellectual Influences (contd.)
  • Enlightenment Thinkers
  • EnlightenmentIntellectual movement in 18th
    century Europe
  • Classical liberal concerns addressed in
  • Framers of U.S. Constitution believed in peoples
    natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
  • Social contractPeople form a government to
    protect their rights
  • Philosophers John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    important contributors
  • Economic and civil liberties important as well
  • Other influences included Adam Smith, Voltaire,
    William Blackstone.

Summarizing What intellectual influences shaped
the Framers views on republicanism?
Answer(s) Greece and Rome Machiavellis
Discourses on Livy Montesquieus Spirit of the
Section 2 at a Glance
  • American Independence
  • After the French and Indian War, the colonists
    rebelled against British attempts to assert
    control over the colonies and against new British
  • In 1775 the Second Continental Congress called
    for the writing of a formal Declaration of

American Independence
Main Idea The British imposed new policies on
their American colonies, sparking rebellion and,
in time, the American Revolution.
  • Reading Focus
  • How did British colonial policies lead to
    American independence?
  • What were the aims of the Continental Congress?
  • Which ideas and events inspired the Declaration
    of Independence?
  • How did the first state governments reflect the
    conflict that led to the American Revolution?

The Colonies Become States
The Road to Independence
The road that led the American colonies to
unite with one another and break with Great
Britain was long and fraught with conflict.
(No Transcript)
  • Changes in British Policies
  • British victorious in French and Indian War, but
    incurred massive debts
  • Parliament looked to colonies to offset cost of
    war, defense of colonies
  • Enforced trade restrictions benefiting Britain,
    including series of taxes
  • Colonists resented being taxed without their
  • The Stamp Act Congress
  • 1765 Stamp Act Parliaments first attempt to
    tax colonists directly
  • Required tax stamp on paper goods such as legal
    documents and newspapers
  • Angry colonists responded with protests in 1765,
    delegates from 9 colonies sent strong protest to
    king declaring power to tax should remain with
    colonial assemblies.
  • Colonial Protests
  • 1766 Stamp Act repealed colonies protested,
    organized resistance Boston Massacre
  • 1773 Boston Tea Party protested American tea
    trade given to one British company.
  • 1774 New harsh laws, Intolerable Acts, ended all
    forms of self-rule in Massachusetts.

(No Transcript)
Summarizing What forms of protest did the
colonists use to oppose British policies?
Answer(s) boycotts, rallies, pamphlets,
letter-writing campaigns
The Continental Congress
  • Compromise
  • Most colonists held out hope for compromise to
    roll back taxes.
  • Virginia and Massachusetts assemblies called for
    meeting of colonies in Philadelphia.
  • First Continental Congress
  • 1774 First Continental Congress passed
    Declaration and Resolves demanding repeal of
    Intolerable Acts.
  • 1775 British rejected demands British troops
    clashed with colonial militia at Lexington and
    Concordthe first armed resistance by colonists.
  • Second Continental Congress
  • 1775 Second Continental Congress organized
    Continental Army, named George Washington as
  • Revolutionary War began as colonists sought
    independence from Britain
  • Common Sense of Democracy
  • 1776 The Common Sense pamphlet argued case for
    break with England.
  • Thomas Paine independence was the only common
    sense for colonists
  • Saw history of world hanging on outcome of
    colonies rebellion

Making Inferences According to Paine, why was
independence common sense?
Answer(s) It was common sense to break away
from the abuse of English rule.
The Declaration of Independence
  • Armed conflict continued for months before
    independence officially declared
  • June 7, 1776 resolution proposed to Second
    Continental Congress to officially declare
    independence from Great Britain resolution
    passed July 2
  • Committee appointed to write formal statement
    justifying resolution
  • Thomas Jefferson wrote most of document, drawing
    on Virginia Declaration of Rights adopted by
    Virginia House of Burgesses one month earlier
  • Virginia declaration declared all men are by
    nature equally free and independent and have
    certain inherent rights that cannot be denied.
  • Echoed philosophy of John Locke that people have
    rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of
  • Also echoed idea of government as social contract
    based on consent of the people
  • July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence was
    adopted. Britains thirteen colonies ceased to
    exist as new nation emerged.

(No Transcript)
Summarizing How did John Lockes ideas inspire
the Declaration of Independence?
Answer(s) Lockes beliefs in natural rights and
that a government must have the consent of the
The State Constitutions
By 1780, each of the 13 newly independent states
had adopted its own written constitution. Each
tested ideas about how to design a republican
government that protected individual rights.
The State Constitutions (contd.)
  • Limited Government
  • Strong legislative bodies reflected general
    mistrust of monarchy.
  • Colonists did not grant unlimited power to
  • Annual elections, term limits, separation of
    powers established as checks
  • Kept powers of governors deliberately weak,
    limited term
  • Individual Rights
  • Protecting peoples rights seen as way to protect
    from excesses of government
  • 1780 Massachusetts constitution included bill of
    rights to protect individual liberties.
  • Liberties included trial by jury, freedom of
    assembly, and speech.

Summarizing What ideas about government did
state constitutions experiment with?
Answer(s) Self-government, limiting the power
of the executive branch, separation of powers,
and individual rights
Section 3 at a Glance
  • Articles of Confederation
  • In 1777 the Second Continental Congress passed
    the first official plan for national government,
    the Articles of Confederation.
  • After the Revolutionary War, weaknesses in the
    Articles led to conflicts among the states,
    sparking calls for a stronger national government.

Articles of Confederation
Main Idea The states first attempt to build a
national government, the Articles of
Confederation, proved too weak to last.
  • Reading Focus
  • How was the first national government organized
    under the Articles of Confederation?
  • What were the weaknesses of the Articles of
  • What events convinced some American leaders that
    a stronger national government was needed?

States Become Nation
First National Government
  • Articles of Confederation
  • June 1776 new model of government crafted to
    build firm league of friendship among states,
    retaining sovereignty, freedom and independence
  • June 12, 1777 Articles of Confederation adopted
  • Had to be ratified before going into force
  • A Delay in Ratification
  • Disputes over control of western lands delayed
    the ratification process.
  • Small states feared large states with claims to
    western lands would overpower them.
  • Articles were changed to allow Confederation
    control over western lands.
  • Articles finally ratified in 1781

First National Government (contd.)
  • Powers of the National Government
  • Created weak national government did not provide
    for national court system
  • One-house Congress power to act on matters of
    common interest admit new states settle
    disputes coin money raise army declare war
    conduct foreign policy
  • State Powers
  • States retained all powers not specifically given
    to Congress
  • Powers included ability to collect taxes,
    enforce national laws
  • States required to contribute funds to national
    government as they saw fit

(No Transcript)
Summarizing How did national and state powers
differ under the Articles?
Answer(s) National powers were limited and
specifically cited in the Articles of
Confederation. State powers were all the other
powers that were not specifically cited.
Weaknesses of the Articles
  • Articles gave Congress key responsibilities, but
    placed limits that kept it from effectively
    enforcing laws and policies
  • Without executive branch, national government
    lacked means to carry out Congresss laws
  • Without national court system, Congress had to
    rely on state courts to apply national laws
  • Mostly importantly, Articles denied Congress
    power to tax
  • Difficult to raise funds to repay money borrowed
    during Revolution
  • Lacked authority to regulate trade
  • Congress had power to coin money, but not sole
    power to do so created barrier to trade, major
    obstacles to economic development
  • Congress required to have 9 of 13 states to
    ratify laws, while only one state could raise
    objections to block changes in Articlesweakened
    Congresss ability to act swiftly and decisively

Summarizing What were the weaknesses of the
Articles of Confederation?
Answer(s) It had no executive or judicial
branch the Confederation could not levy taxes,
enforce its laws, or regulate commerce between
states all states had to agree before the
Articles could be changed.
Pressures for Stronger Government
Its independence secured with the Treaty of
Paris in 1783, the United States faced a range of
challenges that the national government was
ill-equipped to meet. The shortcomings of the
government created by the Articles of
Confederation would lead to calls for a new plan
of government.
(No Transcript)
Pressures for Stronger Government (contd.)
  • Shays Rebellion
  • September 1786 rebellion of Massachusetts
    farmers facing prospect of losing land
  • Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays led
    attacks on courthouses to prevent judges from
    foreclosing on farms.
  • Shays Rebellion swelled to nearly 2,500 by 1787.
  • Massachusetts legislature asked Congress for
    help Congress had no money or forces
  • Shays Rebellion showed how feeble the
    Confederation Congress was and hastened moves to
    revise the Articles.
  • Calls to Revise the Articles
  • March 1785 Washington invites representatives
    from Virginia and Maryland to his home at Mount
    Vernon to discuss resolving trade dispute.
  • Led to meeting to discuss regulating commerce
    between all the states
  • February 1787 James Madison persuades the
    Confederation Congress to endorse meeting for
    purpose of revising the Articles of
  • May 1787 meeting to strengthen Articles held in

Identifying Cause and Effect What events caused
leaders to want to revise the Articles of
Answer(s) Shayss Rebellion interstate trade
disputes inability to levy taxes and pay war
Section 4 at a Glance
  • The Constitutional Convention
  • At the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia,
    delegates debated competing plansthe Virginia
    Plan and the New Jersey Planfor how the new
    government should be organized.
  • To finalize the Constitution, delegates
    compromised on key issues.

The Constitutional Convention
Main Idea Delegates at the Constitutional
Convention compromised on key issues to create a
plan for a strong national government.
  • Reading Focus
  • Why did the Constitutional Convention draft a new
    plan for government?
  • How did the rival plans for the new government
  • What other conflicts required the Framers to

Crafting a More Perfect Union
Drafting a New Constitution
  • The Convention Meets
  • May 25, 1787 convention gets underway with
    representatives of 12 of the 13 states
  • Rhode Island, fearing weaker state powers, sent
    no delegation.
  • Delegates worked to draft the framework for a new
  • Meetings were held in strict secrecy without
    press or public.
  • Framers of the Constitution
  • 55 delegates, known as Framers of the
  • One-third had served in the Continental Army.
  • 8 had signed Declaration of Independence
  • George Washington, president of convention
  • James Madison a major influence

Delegates gathered in Philadelphia to revise the
Articles of Confederation, but ended up with an
entirely new plan for government.
(No Transcript)
Drawing Conclusions Why did the delegates want
to keep the proceedings quiet?
Answer(s) so delegates would be able to speak
their minds freely
Rival Plans
  • The Virginia Plan
  • One of two rival plans for creating a new form of
    government which emerged at the convention
  • Based on the ideas of James Madison, The Virginia
    Plan called for a central government divided into
    three brancheslegislative, executive,
    judicialeach branch with power to check the
  • Called for strong national government with power
    to make laws, levy taxes, control interstate
    commerce, override state laws
  • Called for bicameral legislature with membership
    based on states population lower house members
    elected directly by the people upper house
    members selected by state legislatures

Rival Plans
  • The New Jersey Plan
  • Delegates from small states concerned that
    Virginia Plan gave too much power to large states
  • The New Jersey Plan called for a strong central
    government made up of three branches, but was
    designed to stick closer to the Articles of
  • Called for unicameral legislature
  • Each state would have one vote, with equal
    representation regardless of its population.
  • Despite support from small states, the plan was
    ultimately rejected at the Convention.

(No Transcript)
Contrasting How did the Virginia Plan and the
New Jersey Plan differ?
Answer(s) Representation in both houses in the
Virginia Plans legislature was based on
population, whereas each state received one vote
in the New Jersey Plans unicameral legislature.
Conflict and Compromise
For weeks after the rejection of the New Jersey
Plan, the Convention was deadlocked. Tempers
flared, and at times it seemed the Convention
would fall apart. In the end, a series of
compromises saved the Convention.
(No Transcript)
Conflict and Compromise (contd.)
  • Presidential Election
  • Some wanted president elected directly by the
    people others by the state legislatures or the
    national legislature
  • Compromise state electors
  • Number of state electors equal to number of
    representatives in both houses of Congress
    chosen by popular vote
  • If no candidate received majority vote, House of
    Representatives would choose president
  • Finalizing the Constitution
  • Debated issues, settled disputes, made key
    decisions during summer of 1787
  • Benjamin Franklin said document was as close to
    perfect as possible, to overlook parts they did
    not like and act heartily and unanimously in
    signing Constitution
  • Some delegates refused to sign because it did not
    include a bill of rights.
  • 39 delegates from 12 states signed Constitution
  • Convention adjourned September 17, 1787

Summarizing What compromises made the
Constitution possible?
Answer(s) Compromises included the Three-fifths
Compromise, the Great Compromise, compromises
over the Atlantic slave trade, and the election
of the president.
(No Transcript)
Section 5 at a Glance
  • Ratification and the Bill of Rights
  • Ratification of the Constitution involved a
    heated debate between those who supported the
    Constitution and those who opposed it.
  • Antifederalists opposed the Constitution because
    it lacked a bill of rights.
  • The Federalist Papers outlined the key ideas of
    the Federalists, who supported the Constitution.
  • The struggle for ratification took place in every

Ratification and the Bill of Rights
Main Idea Before the Constitution could take
effect, a heated debate between those in favor of
the Constitution and those who opposed it took
place in all the states.
  • Reading Focus
  • What were the main points of the disagreement
    between the Antifederalists and the Federalists?
  • What were the main arguments made by the authors
    of the Federalist Papers?
  • Why was the Bill of Rights important to the
    ratification of the Constitution?

The Fight for Ratification
Antifederalists versus Federalists
  • Constitutional Convention adjourned September 17,
  • Drastic changes in plan for government surprised
    some, angered others
  • New national government would
  • Greatly reduce powers of state legislatures
  • Completely restructure Congress
  • Framers outlined process for ratifying
  • Voters in each state to elect representatives to
    state ratifying convention
  • To become law, Constitution had to be ratified by
    9 of 13 states
  • Two factions
  • Federalists supported Constitution
  • Antifederalists opposed Constitution

(No Transcript)
  • The Antifederalists
  • Recognized need for stronger national government
    but thought Constitution betrayed ideals of
    American Revolution
  • Saw document as assault on state sovereignty,
    republicanism, liberty of the people
  • Believed national government would become too
  • Strongest criticismConstitution lacked bill of
    rights guaranteeing civil liberties
  • The Federalists
  • Enthusiastic supporters of powerful, vigorous
    national government
  • Feared central government that was too strong,
    but feared weak government more
  • Believed sufficiently powerful national
    government would strengthen fragile union,
    promote public good
  • Government would be empowered to defend against
    foreign enemies, regulate trade, and put down
    internal disturbances.
  • Believed separation of powers in Constitution put
    limits on government power

Contrasting Over what issues did Antifederalists
and Federalists disagree?
Answer(s) strength of federal government
restructuring of Congress power of executive
branch necessity of bill of rights
The Federalist Papers
  • Writing Team
  • Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay
  • Wrote under pen name, Publiusone of founders of
    Roman Republic
  • Authored 85 essays total
  • Best Commentary
  • Circulated throughout the states
  • Classic statement of American political theory
  • Collectively called the Federalist Papers
  • Defended Constitution
  • Papers 10 and 51 argued Constitution would
    balance influence of different factions
  • Others explained how principles of government
    would limit national authority, preserve liberty
  • Rebuttal Essays
  • Antifederalists published own essays
  • Protecting liberty a chief concern
  • Certain unalienable and fundamental rightsought
    to be explicitly ascertained and fixed.

(No Transcript)
Making Inferences Why were the Federalist Papers
Answer(s) to win public support for ratification
of the Constitution
The Fight for Ratification
Because they did not trust government, the
Antifederalists wanted the basic rights of the
people spelled out in the Constitution. The
struggle over the Bill of Rights became a key
focus in the fight over ratification.
(No Transcript)
Making Inferences How did the promise to add a
bill of rights to the Constitution influence the
ratification process?
Answer(s) Some states would not agree to
ratification without the promise of a bill of
Landmark Supreme Court CasesSchenck v. United
States (1919)
Why It Matters Are the rights outlined in the
Bill of Rights guaranteed absolutely? The Supreme
Courts decision in Schenck v. United States
considered what limits, if any, could be set on
free speech without violating the individual
freedoms outlined in the First Amendment.
We the People The Citizen and the Constitution
  • Individual Rights and the U.S. Constitution
  • The Framers of the Constitution believed that
    individual rights had to be protected from
    government interference. To ensure the adoption
    of the Constitution, they promised to add a bill
    of rights that would safeguard individual rights.
  • Who may hold rights?
  • What are common categories of rights?
  • What kinds of rights does the Bill of Rights
  • What are the meaning and importance of the
    Ninth and Tenth Amendments?