Network Architecture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Network Architecture

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Network Architecture & Standards Unit 2, Chapter 3 & 4 Why Standards? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Network Architecture


1
Network Architecture Standards
  • Unit 2, Chapter 3 4
  • Why Standards?

2
Objectives
  • Explain the importance of network architecture.
  • Identify 802.x LAN standards as described by
    IEEE.
  • Match the seven layers of the OSI model to
    network equipment and their role in
    cross-platform interoperability
  • Describe the function of a network access PDU.
  • Differentiate between connectionless and
    connection-oriented protocols.
  • Describe selected basic functions of a protocol.

3
Architectures Standards
  • Networks Architecture Principles in the design
    and implementation of a network
  • Reduction in complexity, common solution
  • Isolate network complexities from users
  • Ability to connect different types of devices
  • Management of the network
  • Communications Standards Rules to establish
    compatibility among similar products
  • View Points
  • Vendor IBM, DEC, Microsoft, Novell
  • Industry IEEE, ANSI, NIST

4
Vendor Technologies
  • Systems Network Architecture (SNA)
  • Digital Network Architecture (DNA)
  • Burroughs Network Architecture (BNA)
  • Novell (IPX/SPX - XNS)
  • Banyan Virtual Integrated Network Services(Vines
    - XNS)

5
IEEE 802 StandardsInstitute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers
6
International Telecommunications Union
  • Most important telecommunications standards
    setting body
  • V. Standards Connection of digital equipment to
    analog PSTN lines
  • X. Standards Connection of digital equipment to
    digital lines
  • Development of the Open System Interconnect Model
    with International Standards Organization
  • Basis for interconnecting dissimilar systems

7
Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) Model
8
OSI Model Layers
  • Application Layer (7)
  • Where user works with at a terminal
  • Presentation Layer (6)
  • Code conversion data reformatting from
    application - network
  • Session Layer (5)
  • Establishing the communications rules(pacing,
    accounting)
  • Turns communications on off
  • Transport Layer (4)
  • Identifies the actual address of recipient of the
    message
  • Responsible for ensuring data is transmitted
    (retransmission)
  • Network Layer (3)
  • Routing message to recipient
  • Establishes, maintains and terminates
    communications
  • Data Link Layer (2)
  • Establishing link between 2 points packing
    data, block transfers
  • Physical Layer (1)
  • Electrical components for the communication
  • http//www.reskit.net/MCTFAQS/The20OSI20Model20
    as20explained20by20Laura.htm

9
More OSI
  • X.25 standard for data transmission
  • Used in packet switching networks
  • 1st 3 OSI layers (physical, data link, network)
  • Encapsulation process that surrounds the
    original data or requests with control characters
    for routing and error checking

10
Protocol Data Unit
11
Internet Architecture Principles
  • Multiplexing
  • Multiple Independent data streams on one physical
    communication line
  • Survivability
  • Message gets through no matter what
  • Service Generality
  • Useful for multiple purposes
  • Diverse Network Technologies
  • Accommodate previous network technologies
    (Arpanet, Satellite-based networks.)

12
TCP/IP
  • Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
  • Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA)
  • Arpanet
  • TCP/IP 4 or 5 layers of OSI Model

13
OSI TCP/IP Models
  OSI Model OSI Model TCP/IP
L7 Application Application Application
L6 Presentation   Application
L5 Session   Application
L5 Session   Transport
L4 Transport   Transport
L3 Network   Internet
L2 Data Link   Internet
L2 Data link Data link Data link (Network interface)
L1 Physical Physical (Hardware)
14
Protocol Stack
  • Protocol Set of rules used for communication
    between 2 points on a network
  • What does the transportation header contain? Pg
    76

15
Protocol Examples
16
Protocol Functions
  • Encapsulation control information (Where going?
    Is it right? Which protocols to use?)
  • Fragmentation (Segmentation) Re-assembly
  • Error Control using a check character to
    determine an error in the network access layer
  • Synchronization
  • Ordered Deliver (Sequencing)
  • Addressing
  • Multiplexing
  • Transmission Services

17
Other Protocol Functions
  • Connection Control
  • Connection Oriented TCP
  • Established and maintained before successful
    transmission
  • Connectionless UDP
  • Communication without establishing a connection
    (PING)
  • Ordered Delivery
  • Important to maintain order of packets
    connection oriented
  • Flow Control Control data rate sent by
    transmitter

18
Other Protocol Functions
  • Error Control Error Detection Error
    Correction
  • Check Sum, retransmit
  • Sequence Numbering, retransmit
  • Addressing
  • Network, Application
  • Layer dependent
  • Transmission Services
  • Message priority

19
Protocols
  • Transport
  • Ensure messages are exchanged reliably
  • Arrival of all data at the destination
  • Presentation in the same order as sent
  • Virtual Circuit Route between sender Receiver
  • Data Link
  • Communication Startup
  • Character Identification
  • PDU identification, how to process
  • Error Control, what scheme to use
  • Termination

20
Review Questions
  • 1. Communications standards define what needs to
    be done but not how to do it.
  • a. True
  • b. False

21
Review Questions
  • 2. Which field in a header tells the destination
    of a message or PDU?
  • a. address
  • b. flag
  • c. byte
  • d. none of the above

22
Review Questions
  • 3. It is more difficult for a machine to process
    a code if all of the bits are of the same
    duration.
  • a. True
  • b. False

23
Review Questions
  • 4. The combination of the first three layers of
    the OSI model is the standard for the
    ______________.
  • a. X.25 standard for data transmission
  • b. V. standard
  • c. consolidated transmission standard
  • d. Consolidated Transmission Protocol

24
Review Questions
  • 5. When data or a request from one layer is
    passed down to another layer, the data are
    surrounded by control characters or other
    information. This process is called
    _____________.
  • a. enclosure
  • b. encapsulation
  • c. isolation
  • d. permutation

25
Review Questions
  • 6. The process of reassembling a message a TCP/IP
    packetized stream of data that has been
    fragmented is called __________.
  • a. reassembly
  • b. reconstitution
  • c. segmentation
  • d. togetherness

26
Review Questions
  • 7. It is much easier for a machine to process a
    code if ____________________.
  • a. it is a true binary code
  • b. all of the characters have the same number of
    bits
  • c. all of the bits are the same duration
  • d. all of the above

27
Review Questions
  • 8. An example of a communications medium is
    ____________.
  • a. a telephone
  • b. a personal computer
  • c. a teleprinter
  • d. a copper wire

28
Review Questions
  • 9. The PSTN is an example of a _____________.
  • a. mesh network
  • b. star network
  • c. bus network
  • d. ring network

29
Review Questions
  • 10. The OSI layer responsible for establishing
    the communication rules between certain machines
    or applications is the ______________.
  • a. network layer
  • b. transport layer
  • c. session layer
  • d. data link layer

30
Homework
  • Assignment Due Next Week
  • Review
  • Chapter 3, pp. 48-66
  • Chapter 4, pp. 72-82
  • Read
  • Chapter 5, pp. 90-101
  • Chapter 14, pp. 376-411
  • Complete
  • Assignment 2.1 Chapter 3 4 Multiple Choice
    Questions
  • Assignment 2.2 Binary Exercise
  • Assignment 2.3 Draw OSI Model (pg 57) by Hand
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