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Reading Apprenticeship Workshop

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Title: Reading Apprenticeship Workshop


1
Reading Apprenticeship Workshop
Dr. Mark Ryan
2
  • What do you remember about your personal reading
    history?
  • When did you learn to read?
  • From whom? One person? Multiple people?
  • Can you recall how that person or people taught
    you to read?
  • Do you remember how you developed phonemic
    awareness?
  • Do you remember how you developed reading
    fluency?
  • Do you remember how you developed comprehension
    skills?

3
True or False
  • After graduation, most students will choose to
    read a textbook on a daily basis.
  • 86 of daily adult reading is nonfiction.
  • Magazines, newspapers, applications, warranties,
    contracts, policy statements, manuals, consumer
    and workplace documents, ballots, menus, coupons,
    and Internet information.

4
True or false
  • Students today read at about the same levels as
    students thirty years ago.
  • However, the literacy demands on our society
    have risen dramatically.

5
True or False
  • The California Department of Education looks at
    fourth-grade reading scores to determine how much
    money the state needs to allocate for building
    future prison space.

6
  • 90 of what is being read in America today is
    read by 10 of the population.
  • As a high school teacher, you may be the
    students last chance to develop a level of
    proficiency that will enable them to fend for
    themselves, to avoid the oppression that often
    afflicts the uninformed in our society.

7
Exploring the RA Framework
8
What Reading Apprenticeship Is NOT . . .
  • A packaged program
  • Just one strategy
  • A once and done deal

9
Reading Apprenticeship
  • RA is an approach to reading instruction that
    helps students develop the knowledge, strategies,
    and dispositions they need to become more
    powerful readers.
  • Partnership of Expertise

Teacher knowledge of as Disciplined-based readers
Students unique strengths As learners
10
RA helps students become better readers by
  • Engaging students in more reading
  • Making teachers discipline based reading
    processes visible to students
  • Making students reading processes, motivations,
    understandings, and strategies visible to the
    teacher
  • Helping students gain insights into their own
    reading processes
  • Helping students develop problem solving
    strategies to improve comprehension

11
The Good Reader's Toolkit
12
Dimensions of Reading Apprenticeship
13
Social Dimension
  • Creating Safety
  • Sharing Book Talk
  • Sharing Reading Processes, Problems, and
    Solutions
  • Noticing and Appropriating Others Ways of Reading

14
Personal Dimension
  • Developing Reader Identity
  • Developing Metacognition
  • Developing Reader Fluency and Stamina
  • Developing Reader Confidence and Range

15
Cognitive Dimension
  • Getting the big picture
  • Breaking it down
  • Monitoring comprehension
  • Using problem solving strategies to assist and
    restore comprehension
  • Setting reading purposes and adjusting reading
    processes

16
Knowledge Dimension
  • Mobilizing and building knowledge structures
    (schema)?
  • Developing content knowledge
  • Developing knowledge of word construction and
    vocabulary
  • Developing knowledge and use of text structures
  • Developing discipline and discourse specific
    knowledge

17
RA Framework
  • 4 Dimensions
  • Social
  • Personal
  • Cognitive
  • Knowledge-Building
  • 2 Pillars
  • Metacognition
  • Extensive Reading

18
Metacognition
Thinking About Thinking
19
Making Thinking Visible
20
Metacognition
Helps students understand that Reading happens
in our minds And not on the page . . .
21
Mapping the Metacognitive Conversation
  • Noticing your thinking
  • Focusing on reading
  • Taking charge of reading
  • Becoming aware of subject area discourse

22
Reading Process Analysis
23
A Think Aloud
Is a way to Model the Complexities Solutions
of Reading
24
Think Aloud
  • As a Think Aloud is modeled, pay attention to
    the thinking that the person is making visible.
  • Jot down a few strategies you see used.

25
Schema
  • Schema refers to the networks of concepts,
    beliefs, expectations, and information that is
    developed from our individual library of past
    experiences.

26
The Knowledge we draw on
  • World Knowledge
  • Text Knowledge
  • Discipline Knowledge
  • Language Knowledge

27
When to Emphasize it?
  • Students need to activate and build schema at
    each stage of the reading process as they
    prepare for and move INTO the reading experience,
    as they move THROUGH the reading, and as they
    move BEYOND the text, linking what they have read
    to other texts and ideas.

28
Scaffolding A strategic instructional support
  • A scaffold provides enough help to allow the
    learner to accomplish the task at hand, but
    offers no more than is needed.
  • Gradually decreasing support while gradually
    increasing the difficulty of the text and task.

29
Reciprocal Teaching
  • RT is an instructional procedure designed to help
    struggling readers improve their reading
    comprehension through interactive dialogue.
  • Reciprocal Teaching provides opportunities in a
    socially supported environment for students to
    practice comprehension strategies good readers
    use to make meaning of text.
  • RT should be used for understanding not for
    learning discreet facts.

30
RT ROLES
  • Discussion Leader/Facilitator
  • Summarizer
  • Questioner
  • Clarifier
  • Predictor

31
Question/Answer Relationship (QAR)
  • A Way Of Questioning
  • What We Read

32
Question-Answer Relationship
33
Just because you may struggle to read the text
does not mean you cant think about what you read.
34
Many readers try to answer questions using ONLY
information from the text. Other readers try to
answer questions using ONLY their background
knowledge.
35
Three Levels of Text Processing
  • Literal getting the facts as stated in a text.
  • Inferential requires readers to determine an
    appropriate answer drawn from the text and what
    they already know.
  • Critical requires readers to think beyond what
    is stated in the text. Readers draw information
    from their prior knowledge to come up with great
    answers.

36
Question-Answer Relationships
Right There Text explicit Think Search Text
implicit Author Me Text implicit/experienced
based On My Own experienced based
37
Question-Answer Relationships
Right There The answer is directly stated in
the text. In fact, the words from the question
and the answer are included in the same
sentence.
38
I Love to Do My Homework
I love to do my homework, it makes me feel so
good.
I love to do exactly as my teacher says I
should. I love to do my homework, I never miss a
day.
I even love the men in white who are
taking me away.
What do I love to do?
39
I Love to Do My Homework
I love to do my homework, it makes me feel so
good.
I love to do exactly as my teacher says I
should. I love to do my homework, I never miss a
day.
I even love the men in white who are
taking me away.
What do I love to do? My Homework
40
Question-Answer Relationships
Think Search- The answer is in the text, but
the words from the question and the answer are
not in the same sentence.
41
I Love to Do My Homework
I love to do my homework, it makes me feel so
good.
I love to do exactly as my teacher says I
should. I love to do my homework, I never miss a
day.
I even love the men in white who are
taking me away.
How do I feel when I do what my teacher says I
should?
42
I Love to Do My Homework
I love to do my homework, it makes me feel so
good.
I love to do exactly as my teacher says I
should. I love to do my homework, I never miss a
day.
I even love the men in white who are
taking me away.
How do I feel when I do what my teacher says I
should? So good
43
Question-Answer Relationships
Author Me- The answer is not in the text, but
the text provides information to use in the
answer.
44
I Love to Do My Homework
I love to do my homework, it makes me feel so
good.
I love to do exactly as my teacher says I
should. I love to do my homework, I never miss a
day.
I even love the men in white who are
taking me away.
Where are they taking me?
45
I Love to Do My Homework
I love to do my homework, it makes me feel so
good. I love to do exactly as my teacher says I
should. I love to do my homework, I never miss a
day. I even love the men in white who are taking
me away.
Where are they taking me? Hospital, Mental
facility, etc. (answer must make sense and be
supported by the text)
46
Question-Answer Relationships
On My Own- The answer is not in the text it must
come from the readers own experiences.
47
I Love to Do My Homework
I love to do my homework, it makes me feel so
good.
I love to do exactly as my teacher says I
should. I love to do my homework, I never miss a
day.
I even love the men in white who are
taking me away.
Why is homework an important part of school?
48
I Love to Do My Homework
I love to do my homework, it makes me feel so
good. I love to do exactly as my teacher says I
should. I love to do my homework, I never miss a
day. I even love the men in white who are taking
me away.
Why is homework an important part of school? It
helps you learn new concepts, Gives the teacher
an idea of how well you understand the concept,
etc.
49
Jerry picked up his bat, ball, and his glove. He
went to the playing field. Some boys were
already hitting and catching fly ball.
  1. What did Jerry pick up?
  2. Where did Jerry go?
  3. What game is Jerry going to play?
  4. What is your favorite game?

50
How can this strategy be used to study new
material?
  • Read the material thoroughly.
  • Determine the main idea(s) you want to know.
  • Develop questions from all four levels.
  • Reread the material and complete the study guide
    in order to ensure correct question levels.

51
Talking to the Text
  • Writing down your thoughts, questions,
    visualizations, connections, etc. as you read.
  • Think aloud on paper
  • A written record of your thoughts as readings.

52
Advantages of Talking to the Text
  • Allows students to feel safer and better prepared
    to discuss texts
  • Allows time to analyze personal reading processes

  • Allows students to choose which comments to share
  • Leaves an enduring record of the students
    thinking

53
Tips for Talking to the Text
  • Be sure to have plenty of white space in which
    to have students write.
  • When copying is an issue, try using post it
    notes.
  • Try using pre-written post it notes to save
    students from writing repeated comments.
  • Try folding a piece of paper lengthwise for
    students to place next to the text with their
    comments.
  • Set expectations for a variety and quantity of
    questions and comments.
  • Allow yourself the luxury of taking time It
    does take time for the students to use TttT
    initially.

54
Before Reading
  • Before students read a piece of text, they
    should
  • preview it to determine what type of text they
    will be reading (fiction, non-fiction, poem, news
    article, etc.).
  • examine the title for any clues it may give.
  • look at pictures, captions, headlines, and words
    that jump out at them.
  • make predictions regarding what the text will be
    about.

55
During Reading
  • As students are reading, they should make
    notations about
  • any questions they have about the text.
  • comments they have about the piece.
  • any unfamiliar words and try to figure out their
    meanings using context clues.
  • what they wonder about while they read.
  • what confuses them as they read.

56
During Reading (cont.)
  • As students are reading, they should make
    notations about
  • anything that reminds them of another text, their
    personal experiences, or how these connections
    help them to understand the text.
  • words, phrases, or sentences they find
    interesting.
  • big ideas that seem important to the text as a
    whole.
  • summary thoughts that capture the authors main
    point.
  • any inferences or predictions made from clues in
    the text.

57
After Reading
  • Once students have finished talking to their
    texts,
  • they can discuss their notes/findings/questions
    in small groups first. This will allow
    classmates to help one another figure out word
    meanings, answer questions, and make connections.
  • Then, bring the whole class together to continue
    and eventually wrap up this discussion.
  • Students can also orally summarize the text or
    write their summaries down.

58
Word Walls
Key academic vocabulary Consider such things
as -etymology -word in a sentence -definition
in own words -picture/image to help remember the
meaning Once up, they stay up for the year and
are referenced in class discussions and activities
59
Sentence Frames
60
THIEVES
61
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