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Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

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Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci Presented by Yuyan Xue 11-30-2005 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey


1
Wireless Sensor Networks A Survey
  • I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and
    E. Cayirci
  • Presented by Yuyan Xue
  • 11-30-2005

2
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Applications of sensor networks
  • Factors influencing sensor network design
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Conclusion

3
Introduction
  • A sensor network is composed of a large number
    of sensor nodes, which are densely deployed
    either inside the phenomenon or very close to it.
  • Random deployment
  • Cooperative capabilities

4
Introduction
  • Sensor networks VS ad hoc networks
  • The number of nodes in a sensor network can be
    several orders of magnitude higher than the nodes
    in an ad hoc network.
  • Sensor nodes are densely deployed.
  • Sensor nodes are limited in power, computational
    capacities and memory.
  • Sensor nodes are prone to failures.
  • The topology of a sensor network changes
    frequently.
  • Sensor nodes mainly use broadcast, most ad hoc
    networks are based on p2p.
  • Sensor nodes may not have global ID.

5
Applications of Sensor networks
6
Applications of sensor networks
  • Military applications
  • Monitoring friendly forces, equipment and
    ammunition
  • Reconnaissance of opposing forces and terrain
  • Battlefield surveillance
  • Battle damage assessment
  • Nuclear, biological and chemical attack detection

7
Applications of sensor networks
  • Environmental applications
  • Forest fire detection
  • Biocomplexity mapping of the environment
  • Flood detection
  • Precision agriculture

8
Applications of sensor networks
  • Health applications
  • Tele-monitoring of human physiological data
  • Tracking and monitoring patients and doctors
    inside a hospital
  • Drug administration in hospitals

9
Applications of sensor networks
  • Home and other commercial applications
  • Home automation and Smart environment
  • Interactive museums
  • Managing inventory control
  • Vehicle tracking and detection
  • Detecting and monitoring car thefts

10
Factors Influencing Sensor Network Design
11
Factors influencing sensor network design
12
Factors influencing sensor network design
  • Fault Tolerance
  • Scalability
  • Hardware Constrains
  • Sensor Network Topology
  • Environment
  • Transmission Media
  • Power Consumption

13
Factors influencing sensor network design
  • Fault tolerance
  • Fault tolerance is the ability to sustain sensor
    network functionalities without any interruption
    due to sensor node failures.
  • The fault tolerance level depends on the
    application of the sensor networks.

14
Factors influencing sensor network design
  • Scalability
  • Scalability measures the density of the sensor
    nodes.
  • Density (R) (N R2)/A R Radio
    Transmission Range

15
Factors influencing sensor network design
  • Production costs
  • The cost of a single node is very important to
    justify the overall cost of the networks.
  • The cost of a sensor node is a very challenging
    issue given the amount of functionalities with a
    price of much less than a dollar.

16
Factors influencing sensor network design
  • Hardware constraints

17
Factors influencing sensor network design
  • Sensor network topology
  • Pre-deployment and deployment phase
  • Post-deployment phase
  • Re-deployment of additional nodes phase

18
Factors influencing sensor network design
  • Environment
  • Busy intersections
  • Interior of a large machinery
  • Bottom of an ocean
  • Surface of an ocean during a tornado
  • Biologically or chemically contaminated field
  • Battlefield beyond the enemy lines
  • Home or a large building
  • Large warehouse
  • Animals
  • Fast moving vehicles
  • Drain or river moving with current.

19
Factors influencing sensor network design
  • Transmission media
  • In a multihop sensor network, communicating
    nodes are linked by a wireless medium. To enable
    global operation, the chosen transmission medium
    must be available worldwide.
  • Radio
  • infrared
  • optical media

20
Factors influencing sensor network design
  • Power Consumption
  • Sensing
  • Communication
  • Data processing

21
Communication architecture of sensor networks
22
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Combine power and routing awareness
  • Integrates date with networking protocols
  • Communicates power efficiently through the
    wireless medium
  • Promotes cooperative efforts among sensor nodes.

23
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Physical layer
  • Address the needs of simple but robust
    modulation, transmission, and receiving
    techniques.
  • frequency selection
  • carrier frequency generation
  • signal detection and propagation
  • signal modulation and data encryption.

24
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Propagation Effects Minimum output power
    (dn 2ltnlt4) Ground reflect Multihop in dense
    sensor net work
  • Power Efficiency Modulation Scheme M-ary
    Modulation scheme Ultra wideband(impulse radio)

25
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Open research issues
  • Modulation schemes
  • Strategies to overcome signal propagation effects
  • Hardware design transceiver

26
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Data link layer
  • The data link layer is responsible for the
    multiplexing of data stream, data frame
    detection, the medium access and error control.
  • Medium Access Control
  • Power Saving Modes of Operation
  • Error Control

27
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Medium access control
  • Creation of the network infrastructure
  • Fairly and efficiently share communication
    resources between sensor nodes
  • Existing MAC protocols (Cellular System,
    Bluetooth and mobile ad hoc network)

28
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • MAC for Sensor Networks
  • Self-organizing medium access control for sensor
    networks and Eaves-drop-and-register Algorithm
  • CSMA-Based Medium Access
  • Hybrid TDMA/FDMA-Based

29
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Power Saving Modes of Operation
  • Sensor nodes communicate using short data packets
  • The shorter the packets, the more dominance of
    startup energy
  • Operation in a power saving mode is energy
    efficient only if the time spent in that mode is
    greater than a certain threshold.

30
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Error Control
  • Error control modes in Communication Networks
    (additional retransmission energy cost) Forward
    Error Correction (FEC) Automatic repeat request
    (ARQ)
  • Simple error control codes with low-complexity
    encoding and decoding might present the best
    solutions for sensor networks.

31
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Open research issues
  • MAC for mobile sensor networks
  • Determination of lower bounds on the energy
    required for sensor network self-organization
  • Error control coding schemes.
  • Power saving modes of operation

32
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Network layer
  • Power efficiency is always an important
    consideration.
  • Sensor networks are mostly data centric.
  • Data aggregation is useful only when it does not
    hinder the collaborative effort of the sensor
    nodes.
  • An ideal sensor network has attribute-based
    addressing and location awareness.

33
Communication architecture of sensor networks
Energy Efficient Routes
  • Maximum available power (PA) route Route 2
  • Minimum energy (ME) route Route 1
  • Minimum hop (MH) route Route 3
  • Maximum minimum PA node route Route 3
  • Minimum longest edge route Route 1

34
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Interest Dissemination
  • Sinks broadcast the interest
  • Sensor nodes broadcast the advertisements
  • Attribute-based naming The areas where the
    temperature is over 70oF The temperature read
    by a certain node

35
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Data aggregation
  • Solve implosion and overlap Problem
  • Aggregation based on same attribute of phenomenon
  • Specifics (the locations of reporting sensor
    nodes) should not be left out

36
Communication architecture of sensor networks
Several Network Layer Schemes for Sensor Networks
37
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Open research issues
  • New protocols need to be developed to address
    higher topology changes and higher scalability.
  • New internetworking schemes should be developed
    to allow easy communication between the sensor
    networks and external networks.

38
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Transport layer
  • This layer is especially needed when the system
    is planned to be accessed through Internet or
    other external networks.
  • TCP/UDP type protocols meet most requirements
    (not based on global addressing).
  • Little attempt thus far to propose a scheme or to
    discuss the issues related to the transport layer
    of a sensor network in literature.

39
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Open research issues
  • Because acknowledgments are too costly, new
    schemes that split the end-to-end communication
    probably at the sinks may be needed.

40
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Application layer
  • Management protocol makes the hardware and
    software of the lower layers transparent to the
    sensor network management applications.
  • Sensor management protocol (SMP)
  • Task assignment and data advertisement protocol
    (TADAP)
  • Sensor query and data dissemination protocol
    (SQDDP)

41
Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Sensor management protocol (SMP)
  • Introducing the rules related to data
    aggregation, attribute-based naming, and
    clustering to the sensor nodes
  • Exchanging data related to the location
  • finding algorithms
  • Time synchronization of the sensor nodes
  • Moving sensor nodes
  • Turning sensor nodes on and off
  • Querying the sensor network configuration and the
    status of nodes, and reconfiguring the sensor
    network
  • Authentication, key distribution, and security in
    data communications

42
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43
Some Other Interesting Applications
  • MIT d'Arbeloff Lab The ring sensor
  • Monitors the physiological status of the wearer
    and transmits the information to the medical
    professional over the Internet
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  • Nose-on-a-chip is a MEMS-based sensor
  • It can detect 400 species of gases and transmit a
    signal indicating the level to a central control
    station

44
iButton
  • A 16mm computer chip armored in a stainless steel
    can
  • Up-to-date information can travel with a person
    or object
  • Types of i-Button
  • Memory Button
  • Java Powered Cryptographic iButton
  • Thermochron iButton

45
iButton Applications
  • Caregivers Assistance
  • Do not need to keep a bunch of keys. Only one
    iButton will do the work
  • Elder Assistance
  • They do not need to enter all their personal
    information again and again. Only one touch of
    iButton is sufficient
  • They can enter their ATM card information and PIN
    with iButton
  • Vending Machine Operation Assistance

46
iBadge - UCLA
  • Investigate behavior of children/patient
  • Features
  • Speech recording / replaying
  • Position detection
  • Direction detection / estimation(compass)
  • Weather data Temperature, Humidity, Pressure,
    Light

47
iBadge - UCLA
48
Conclusion
  • Applications of sensor networks
  • Factors influencing sensor network design
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
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