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The Eisenhower Era

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Title: The Eisenhower Era


1
The Eisenhower Era
  • 1952-1960

2
AN AFFLUENT SOCIETY 1950s
3
GUIDING QUESTION
  • To what extent did the decade of the 1950s
    deserve its reputation as an age of political,
    social, and cultural conformity?

Conservatism, Complacency, and Contentment
Anxiety, Alienation, and Social Unrest ??
OR
4
The Affluent Society
  • 1950s prosperity
  • Surge of home construction
  • 1 of 4 homes in 1960 built in 1950s
  • 2. Technology- the transistor (1948)revolution
    in electronics (computers).
  • ENIAC- US government computer (large as a small
    house) did basic computations
  • Transistors circuits on silicon
    miniaturization of electronics.
  • IBM- prototype of high tech company
  • Computers transformed billing, printing,
    telecommunications

5
AN AFFLUENT SOCIETY Suburbia
  • Mass-produced housing on the edge of cities
  • Levittown 17,000 mass-produced, low-priced
    homes
  • 1949 ? William Levitt produced 150 houses per
    week.
  • 7,990 or 60/month with no down payment.
  • Effect on inner cities
    increasingly poor and
    racially
    divided

6
ENIAC- US Military computer
7
Affluent Society
  • 3. Aerospace Industry- Eisenhower built up
    Strategic Air Command passenger airline
    businesses.
  • B-52 long range bomber
  • 1957- Boeing Company 1st large passenger jet
    (707)
  • 1959- Air force One
  • 4. Changing workforce- service sector jobs
    offered opportunities to women (1950-1970 40
    million new jobs created many service clerical
  • 1950s celebrated cult of domesticity
  • New opportunities for women social
    psychological shift 1960s, 70s etc.
  • Betty Friedan wrote The Feminist Mystique
    (1963) launched modern feminist movement

8
The 1st Air force One
9
American Consumerism
  • 1950s Middle class expanded greatly
  • More white collar than blue collar jobs
  • Americans have more disposable money leisure
    time
  • 1948- 1st McDonalds opens
  • 1955- Disneyland opens
  • Easy credit, high volume fast food, new
    recreation
  • Television
  • TV- 1951 7million sets sold 1960 almost everyone
    has one movie going shrank
  • Mid-1950s- advertisers were spending 10 billion

10
Impact of TV
  • Televangelists ( Billy Graham, Oral Roberts)-
    used TV to spread the Gospel
  • Commercialization of Sports
  • Movement of sports teams from east to west
    reflected population shifts

11
Popular Culture 1950s
  • Music- Elvis Pressley fused black rhythm blues
    with white bluegrass country rock roll
    crossover
  • Marylyn Monroe- commercialized sensationalized
    new sexuality
  • Playboy Magazine (1955)

12
Critics of Popular Culture Society
  • David Riesman (Harvard sociologist) The Lonely
    Crowd US citizens are pack of conformists
  • William H. Whyte Jr. The Organization Man
  • Sloan Wilson- The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit
    (1955)
  • John Kenneth Galbraith (Harvard economist)
    wrote The Affluent Society questioned relation
    between private wealth public good- called for
    government social spending.

13
The 1952 Election
  • 1.Democrats Party problems
  • Military deadlock in Korea
  • Inflation at home
  • Whitehouse scandals
  • Nominated Adlai Stevenson (Gov. of ILL)
  • 2. Republicans- nominated Dwight Eisenhower (I
    Like Ike)- mostly non-partisan grandfatherly.
  • Running mate- Richard Nixon (Calf. Congressman)-
    red hunter

14
1952 Campaign Ads
15
1952 Presidential Campaign
  • Nixon accused Democrats of corruption,
    ineptitude in Korea, soft on communism.
  • Adlai the appeaser
  • 1st election in which TV played a role
  • THE Checkers Speech- Nixon was accused for
    maintaining a slush fund while holding a seat
    in the Senate.
  • Nixon used TV to address chargesCheckers
    Speech scandal disappeared (candidates could
    bypass traditional party organization speak
    directly to voters).
  • Eisenhower appeared in scripted TV spots (1st
    version of political TV ads)
  • Eisenhower announced that he would personally
    go to Korea to end the war Eisenhower won
    election!

16
1952 Election Outcome
  • Election of 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower vs. Adlai
    Stevenson
  • Ike won 34 million to 27 million popular votes
    442 to 89 electoral votes.
  • Modern Republicanism
  • Fiscal Conservative sound business principles,
    Reduce federal spending, balance budget and cut
    taxes
  • Social Moderate maintain existing social and
    economic legislation
  • avoid partisan conflicts

President Eisenhower (Courtesy Dwight D.
Eisenhower Library)
Ike with VP Nixon on the Links.
17
Ike Takes Office Ends Korean Conflict
  • Republican s rode Ikes coattails paper thin
    majority in Congress
  • Ike went to Korea (3 days)- Dec. 1952- 7 months
    later- an armistice was signed-ends Korean War.
  • Chinese ended the war because of the cost- mostly
  • War lasted 3 years (54,000 Americans Killed)
  • 1 million Chinese, North Koreans South Koreans
    killed
  • Status quo returned Korea divided at 38th
    parallel (even today)
  • Communism had been contained in Korea

18
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19
Rise Fall of Senator Joseph McCarthy
  • Wisc. Republican- anticommunist crusader
  • Won Senate seat by defeating Robert La Follette
    (called him a red)
  • Feb. 1950- accused Sec. of State Dean Acheson of
    employing 205 known communists stated he had a
    list (never produced)
  • Republicans realized usefulness of communist
    accusations-esp.. against Democrats
  • Accused writers, actors, officials black listed
    could not get work
  • 1954- Army-McCarthy Hearings( televised)-
    McCarthy accused Army officials of being
    communist (20 million Americans watched)
  • Few months later McCarthy formally censured
  • 1957- died an alcoholic

20
The Foundations Civil Rights Movement
  • 1950- African-Americans 15 million (2/3 lived in
    the South)
  • 1896- Plessy v. Ferguson est. separate but
    equal as constitutional Jim Crow laws in the
    South.
  • 1950s 20 of eligible southern African-American
    voters registered (poll taxes still existed
    literacy tests).
  • Deep South (Mississippi, Alabama) only 2
    registered
  • 1960- White southerners sensitive about race
    issues
  • Fear violence used where the Jim Crow laws were
    insufficient
  • 1946- 6 black war veterans claiming civil rights
    were killed.

21
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22
Foundations of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Niagara Falls Conference W.E.B. Dubois others
    met est. NAACP 1909.
  • FDR executive order- forbidding discrimination
    in war factories (FEPC- Fair Employment Practices
    Commission created)
  • Double V Campaign (WWII)
  • CORE- Congress of Racial Equality ( 1942)- used
    sit-ins to protest segregation in public places
    (more militant than NAACP)
  • Post WWII- more racial progress made in the
    north African-Americans secured equal access to
    public accommodations.
  • 1947- Jack Roosevelt Jackie Robinson- 1st
    African-American allowed in the major league
    (Brooklyn Dodgers)

23
Civil Rights
  • Post WWII- Generated a new militancy among
    African-Americans.
  • 1940s NAACP- had pushed to end segregation
  • 1948- President Truman ended segregation in US
    civil service integrated the armed forces
  • 1950- Sweatt v. Painter Supreme Court ruled
    separate professional schools for blacks
    represented unequal treatment (argued by Thurgood
    Marshall for NAACP- later Marshall appointed 1st
    African-American to Supreme Court)

24
The Movement Begins in Earnest
  • 1954- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,
    Kansas- Supreme Court ruled that segregation in
    public schools was unequal unconstitutional-
    must end with all deliberate speed. --Chief
    Justice Earl Warren
  • Border States made efforts to desegregate
  • Deep South resisted (1956- Southern Manifesto
    -101 Southern Congressmen vowed to fight the
    ruling) States diverted public funds to crate
    private schools new segregation

25
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Dec. 1955- Montgomery, Alabama- Rosa Parks
    refused to her seat in the white section of the
    bus.
  • Parks was arrested for breaking segregation laws
  • The Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956)- led by
    Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Martin Luther King Jr.- 27 years old, pastor of
    Dexter Ave. Baptist Church- born to prosperous
    Atlanta family.
  • advocated non-violent protest (influenced by
    Gandhi)

26
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27
Eisenhower Civil Rights
  • Reluctant to promote integration (co-mingling of
    the races).
  • Failed to use his popularity to push civil rights
  • 1. 1957-Little Rock Nine
  • Gov. Orval Faubus used National Guard to block
    admittance of 9 African-American children to
    Little Rock Central High School- a state
    thwarting FEDERAL LAW!
  • Eisenhower sent troops to escort the 9 children
    to class.
  • 2. Civil Rights Act 1957- 1st civil rights act
    since Reconstruction set up Civil Rights
    Commission to investigate abuses authorized
    federal government to issue injunctions to
    protect voting rights

28
Little Rock Nine
101st Airborne escorting Little Rock Nine
29
The Sit-In Movement
  • 1957- Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    (SCLC)- founded by MLK mobilized black
    churches.
  • AP writers know that you know MLK know he
    headed SCLC
  • The Sit-In Movement
  • Feb. 1960- Greensboro ,NC 4 black freshmen from
    NC ATT demanded service at Woolworths lunch
    counter-black waitress refused service.
  • Next day-19 students returned to Woolworths
  • Next Day 85 students end of week 1000 students
  • inspired other students across the south to
    conduct sit-ins, pray-ins,
  • Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
  • Organized April 1960
  • Often were at odds with SCLC

30
Greensboro Sit-In-beginning of a nationwide
sit-in movement
31
Eisenhowers Domestic Agenda
  • dynamic conservatism- in all things that deal
    with people-be humanwhen it comes to peoples
    money, or the economybe conservative.
  • Worried about creeping socialism-
  • Cut back on Trumans military spending (MOVED
    FROM 13-10 of GNP)
  • Control of off-shore oil from federal government
    to states
  • Tried to curb power of TVA

32
Eisenhowers Domestic Agenda
  • Operation Wetback- deported about 1 million
    illegal Mexicans.
  • Termination Policy
  • Cancelled FDRs Indian New Deal terminated
    Indian tribes as legal entitiesgoal is
    assimilation (Dawes Act 1887)
  • Legitimatization of New Deal Programs
  • Eisenhower knew that all New Deal Programs could
    not be scaled back

33
The Interstate Highway Act-1956
  • 27 Billion to build 42,000 miles of interstate
    highway
  • Effects
  • Created construction jobs
  • Sped up suburbanization of America
  • Increased growth of trucking, auto oil, travel
    businesses.
  • Hurt RR
  • Hurt air quality
  • Crated energy consumption issues we still deal
    with today
  • Deteriorating cities

34
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35
Eisenhowers Foreign Policy
  • A. new look- containment negative, futile,
    immoral wanted to roll back communist gains
    liberate.
  • Promised to cut military spending balance
    budget
  • Promoted by Eisenhower Sec. of State John
    Foster Dulles
  • Cut spending on conventional troops (army
    navy) spent more on super bombers (B-52s)
  • build up of nuclear weapons cheaper than
    conventional more bang for the buck
  • massive retaliation- with increased strength
    of Strategic Air Command.
  • Negotiations with new Soviet leader (Nikita
    Khrushchev-1953)
  • The Hungarian Uprising (1956) showed limits of
    massive retaliation as a threat to the Soviets

36
Vietnam
  • 1950s Western Europe was mostly secure from
    communist threat (NATO, MARSHALL PLAN)
  • Vietnam (French Indo-China)
  • Nationalists had wanted independence from French
    colonial rule for decades
  • 1919- Ho Chi Minh tried to appeal at Post WWI
    Paris Conference to Wilson-no success
  • Post WWII-Indochina turned back over to French
    control faced resistance from HO CHI MINH
    Vietminh
  • 1954- US supported French (to get French support
    to rearm West Germany) with 80 of costs (1
    billion/year) about 150 military advisors
    (starting with Truman).

37
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38
The French leave Indochina
  • 1954- Dienbienphu (French military stronghold)
    attacked taken by communist forces.
  • The Geneva Conference (1954)
  • meeting of multiple nations
  • Agreed to divide Vietnam in half at the 17th
    parallel
  • Ho Chi Minh agreed if Vietnam wide elections
    would be held in the future
  • North Vietnam Communist led by Ho Chi Minh
  • South Vietnam Democratic led by Ngo Dinh Diem
    (supported by the US)

39
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40
Eisenhower the Middle East
  • The Iranian Crisis (1953)- Iranian government
    (backed by Soviets?) began to resist Western
    owned oil companies operating on Iranian soil.
  • 1953- CIA- engineered a coup (overthrow) of the
    Iranian government.
  • US placed the shah of Iran (Mohammed Reza
    Pahlevi) in charge.
  • Iranian resentment 26 years later the shah is
    overthrown Iranians take US embassy workers
    hostage for 444 days (CARTER PRESDIENCY)

41
Eisenhower the Suez Crisis
  • Egyptian leader Gamal Nasser (plays the US
    Soviets against each other)
  • Nasser wanted to build a dam (US Britain
    reluctantly agreed support )
  • Nasser started flirt with Soviets US withdrew
    support for the dam.
  • Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal (owned by
    British French companies)
  • Britain France carried out an attack on Egypt
    (Oct. 1956)
  • Soviets threaten nuclear attack on Paris London
  • US did not support French or British (why??)
  • Troops evacuated Egypt
  • UN POLICE FORCE sent to Egypt (1st time)
  • Last time US could use oil as a weapon

42
The Eisenhower Doctrine
  • 1940- US produced 2/3 of worlds oil (5 from
    Middle East)
  • 1948- US was a net importer of oil (Middle East)
  • Eisenhower Doctrine (1957)- pledged US military
    economic aid to Middle Eastern nations
    threatened by communism.
  • 1960- OPEC (Oil Producing Exporting Countries)
    formed (Saudis, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Venezuela)

43
The Space Race
  • 1956- Eisenhower re-elected lost control of
    Congress.
  • Oct. 1957- Soviets launch Sputnik -184 lbs.
    ball that beeped.
  • Nov. 1957- launched Sputnik II- 1,120 lbs.
    carrying a dog into space.
  • Effect- fear in the US!
  • Soviets with ICBMS could place a warhead on
    one hit the US
  • US created NASA- to compete against the Soviets
    1958 US launched its 1st satellite.
  • By late 1950s US had tested its own ICBMs
  • 2. 1958- (NDEA) National Defense Education
    Act- 887 million on math science education
    loans for college.

44
Sputnik I
Laika 1ST ANIMAL IN SPACE-Sputnik II
45
Eisenhower Khrushchev
  • Goal- discuss détente- easing of tensions, arms
    limitations, testing restrictions.
  • March 1958- Soviets US announce a halt to
    underground atmospheric atomic testing.
  • 1959- Eisenhower Khrushchev met in NY
    Khrushchev appeared before the UN general
    assembly proposed disarmament
  • CAMP David- Khrushchev demands evacuation of
    Berlin
  • Paris Summit (MAY 1960)
  • Eisenhower Khrushchev met
  • US spy plane (U-2) shot down (pilot survived-Gary
    Powers)
  • Ike denied at first-then admitted to it
  • Later Powers was released

46
The Cuban Revolution
  • Latin Americans resented US aid to Europe
  • 1954- CIA directed coup in Guatemala
  • US supported dictators in Latin America
  • Cuba
  • 1930s-1960- US supported Cuban dictator
    Fulgencio Batista
  • Encouraged US investment
  • 1959- Fidel Castro ousted Batista denounced the
    US NATIONALIZED US businesses redistributed
    property.
  • US cut off imports of Cuban sugar
  • Castro aligned Cuba with the Soviet Union threat
    90 miles off US coast!!
  • 1960-2000- almost 1 million Cubans escaped
    communist Cuba came to the US
  • 1961- US broke diplomatic relations with Cuba
  • Soviets declare Monroe Doctrine dead-threatened
    nuclear attack for US INTERVENTION.

47
Eisenhowers Legacy
  • Limited to 2 terms by 22nd Amendment (1951)
  • universally admired respected
  • Cemented some New Deal policies
  • Failure to address civil rights
  • Alaska Hawaii added as US states
  • Prosperity real income increase

48
Election of 1960
  • Democrats-nominate John F. Kennedy/Lyndon Johnson
  • Republicans-nominate Richard Nixon
  • Campaign Issues
  • Kennedy accused Republicans of falling behind the
    Soviets missile gap
  • Kennedy Nixon called themselves Cold Warriors
  • Kennedy's Catholicism- many Americans still
    hesitant about electing a Catholic to the WH.
  • Kennedy allayed many fears in a speechnorthern
    dems gravitated to Kennedy in big numbers.

49
The Nixon-Kennedy Debates
  • Both candidates agreed to a series of 4 debates
  • audiences of 60 million or more watched
  • Kennedy held his own against the seasoned Nixon
  • 1st Debate was a clincher- Kennedy appeared to be
    more relaxed confident
  • JFK won by 100,000 popular votes (303-219)
  • 1st Catholic elected President (youngest man
    elected)-workers, Catholics, AA
  • Democrats swept both houses of Congress
  • Called Americans to a New Frontier

50
Election of 1960 TV Campaign ADS
51
Literature- Realism- Psychedelic Prose
  • Hemingway, Steinbeck, Mailer gave way to
  • Searing Realism gave way to fantastic
    psychedelic prose
  • 1961- Joseph Heller- Catch 22- antics anguish
    of WWII Mediterranean among US airmen.
  • Kurt Vonnegut Jr. Slaughterhouse Five (1969)-
    dark, comedy war tale.
  • New Mobility Affluence created dilemmas
  • John Updike- Rabbit, Run 1960
  • John Cheever- The Wapshot Chronicle (1957)
  • Playwrights- Tennessee Williams Arthur Miller
  • Disintegrating forces of modern American life
    search for values
  • Jewish Authors J.D. Salinger A Catcher In the
    Rye E.L. Doctorow
  • Black Authors- Richard Wright- Native Son
  • Ralph Ellison- Invisible
    Man

52
The Beats
  • Poets /writes disillusioned with materialism,
    conformity establishment of Eisenhower era
  • AP TIP Most similar to the 1920s lost
    generation poets
  • Jack Kerouac- On the Road
  • Allen Ginsberg- Howl
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