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APA Style in writing

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Writing a report in you own words shows that you understand the concepts you are writing about. Quotations should be used to illustrate a point that you are making. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: APA Style in writing


1
APA Style in writing
2
  • Writing a report in you own words shows that you
    understand the concepts you are writing about.

3
  • Quotations should be used to illustrate a point
    that you are making.
  • Do not let quotations make your point for you. If
    you do, you are not writing the paper, the person
    quoted is.

4
  • Quotations are to illustrate a point or provide
    evidence for a statement.

5
  • I write Ninety percent of minimum wage earners in
    Alberta are women with no attribution. Is it OK
    to do this?
  • The figure could be wrong.
  • How do you know Im not just making it up?
  • Search women minimum wage Alberta on Google.

6
  • I write Women accounted for almost two-thirds of
    minimum wage workers, but less than half of all
    employees. with no attribution. What is wrong
    with this?
  • I am quoting a website without giving credit.
    This is plagiarism.

7
  • Go to the Portage College Library website
  • Look for Write a Paper
  • See ALA and MLA style guides
  • See Knight Cite

8
APA Style
  • APA style was developed by social and behavioural
    scientist to standardize scientific writing.
  • See Basics of APA Style Tutorial at bottom of APA
    Style page on the Portage College Library
    website.

9
Font styles
  • Times New Roman (serif typeface) for text
  • Arial (sans serif typeface) for figure labels

10
Formatting
  • Double-space the entire manuscript.
  • Double-space between lines of body text and
    titles, heading and block quotations.
  • Double-space the reference list and figure
    captions. Indent the first line of every
    paragraph one-half inch.
  • Align the text to the left-hand margin, leaving a
    ragged right margin.

11
When you submit the manuscript, number the pages
consecutively starting with page 1.
  • Put the pages in the following order
  • Page 1, Title page
  • Page 2, Abstract
  • Page 3, Beginning of text
  • References begin on a new page after the last
    page of text.
  • Each table begins on a new page. Tables show
    numerical or textual information.
  • Each figure begins on a new page. Include the
    figure caption on the same page as the figure.
    (non-textual).
  • Each appendix begins on a new page.

12
Citing references in text
  • Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas,
    theories or findings have directly influenced
    your work, even if you are paraphrasing or
    describing someone elses idea.
  • If I write Midodrine can cause a marked
    elevation in supine arterial blood pressure I
    must cite the source of that information.

13
  • To avoid plagiarism and make your life easier,
    take careful notes as you research to keep track
    of all sources and collect the information you
    need to cite them properly.

14
Citing references in text
  • APA style uses the author-date citation system.
    This system allows readers to find the sources
    cited in text in the reference list, where each
    source is listed alphabetically.
  • In text, this can look like this (Smith, 2013).
  • If quoting, use (Smith, 2013, p.42).

15
Citing references in text
  • If a document uses paragraph numbers, cite them
    using the abbreviation para.
  • If the document includes headings and no
    paragraph numbers, cite the heading and the
    number of the paragraph following it.

16
Citing references in text
  • Here are some examples of author-date citation
    when paraphrasing.
  • Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological
    samples...
  • Early onset results in a more persistent or
    severe course (Kessler, 2003).
  • In 2003, Kesslers study of epidemiological
    samples showed that...

17
The Reference List
  • The purpose of a reference list is to help
    readers find the sources you used. Therefore, the
    reference list should be as accurate and complete
    as possible.
  • All citations should be used in the reference
    list with the exception of personal
    communications and classical works.
  • Put references in order of the authors surname,
    or the first authors surname if there is more
    than one author.

18
The Reference List
  • Use the hanging indent paragraph style.
  • Double-space the entire reference list.
  • View specific reference examples

19
The Reference List
  • References contain the following components
  • Author name or names,
  • publication date,
  • title of the work, and
  • publication data.

20
The Reference List
  • When you are citing a source you found on the web
    or in an electronic database follow these general
    guidelines
  • Include journal volume number and inclusive page
    numbers if this information is available.
  • Type or use the copy-paste function of your word
    processor to capture the article DOI and place it
    at the end of the reference.
  • If there is no DOI, cite the home page URL or
    database name.

21
Using Citation Generators
  • Knight Cite
  • On Library website, find Knight Cite under Write
    a Paper.
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