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TEXTILES - Theory paper Main format of the examination paper - Eight questions 2 hours 40% Use this guide along with your Revision guidebook: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Main format of the examination paper -


1
TEXTILES - Theory paper
Main format of the examination paper -
Eight questions 2 hours 40
Use this guide along with your Revision
guidebook KEY pages 8-12 types of research
and specification heading and types. 13- 15
colour primary, secondary, monochromic,,
complementary, harmonious, warm, cold, pattern
and texture. 18- 23 recycling and
sustainability. 26 27 mood boards and trend
forecasting 32 33 types of specifications
2
Fibres and yarns 36 51 is a key area that you
must learn. What are fibres and yarn. Different
types of fabrics - knitted, woven and bonded
fabrics. Weave types. Properties of fabrics p41
and how fabrics can be combined. Special fabrics
p43 elastane, Kevlar, microfibres. Finishes
there three types physical, biological and
chemicals know about three different types for
each type. P 44 47. Smart fabrics 49 -51
Read p 54 58 about different ways of
decorating fabric Pattern making lay planning
construction techniques 60-63 key pages to
learn. . Quality control and quality assurance.
- p68 Fabric testing p67 often there is a
question on this. Regulation and standards p68
69 NB BSI and CE symbol Production planning
p74 -75 key area Production plans and use of
computer in textiles p 76 79 Industrial
clothes manufacture 80 81 important area.
Labelling p86- 87
3
Question 1 Product analysis 15 marks
Read the question carefully and respond as fully
as possible. .
You may be given a product and asked to
critically analyse it take this opportunity to
show off your technical knowledge and language.
Questions will be similar to the design
specification relating points to target group,
material properties, aesthetics, safety
4
Question 1 Product analysis 15 marks
  • You need to be able to write a specification
  • Look at the aesthetics of a product
  • Study the function of a product
  • Quality issues relating to the product
  • Safety issues relating to a product
  • Consider the scale of manufacture
  • How it is made
  • Safety considerations when making a product

5
Write a specification for a weekend bag you may
want to write about the following
  • Size
  • Cost
  • Production
  • Manufacture
  • Aesthetics
  • How it is made

6
Mass vs Batch Production
  • If your product were to be sold commercially do
    you think it would be produced in high volume
    (mass production) or low volume (Batch
    production).
  • Mass produced products would be made in a factory
    with a dedicated production line especially set
    up just to make your product. Mass produced
    products would generally be sold in huge numbers
    in order to reduce the production set up costs.
  • Batch produced items would be made in
    significantly smaller numbers. A batch would be
    made in a more versatile production set up as
    this type of manufacturer may make different
    items every day.
  • Mass-High volume production likely to be less
    labour intensive due to CAD/CAM use of automated
    machinery.
  • Batch-Smaller volumes of production, likely to be
    more labour intensive.

7
Question 2 is about the general issues of Design
and Technology. It is worth a total of 10marks.
  • Environmental issues
  • 6 Rs
  • Labelling - Kitemark. C E marking
  • Children's goods and toys Lion mark.
  • Care labelling codes using symbols.

8
Sustainability
  • How can we achieve a sustainable future as
    designers and manufacturers?
  • Use environmentally friendly materials
  • Use materials that can be recycled or reused
  • Use materials that do not use a lot of power to
    produce.
  • Use materials that are easy to recycle

9
Sustainability
  • Why are sustainability issues and environmental
    issues important.
  • Global warming due to industry and carbon
    emissions (polar ice caps melting, sea levels
    increasing changes to global weather)
  • The planet has not got an infinite supply of
    materials. It is estimated that we have 30yrs of
    oil supplies left. Plastic is made from oil.
  • Landfill costs us millions of pound a year and we
    are running out of places to put our rubbish.
  • Designers have a duty to limit the impact of
    their products and prevent a negative
    environmental impact.
  • Sustainability is more than using recycled or
    recyclable materials to manufacture their
    products.
  • It is the total impact that the process of
    designing has on the environment.

10
The six Rs Sustainability You need to know
these!!
  • Rethink
  • Reuse
  • Recycle
  • Repair
  • Reduce
  • Refuse

Read information on page 22 of your revision
notes for further details
11
Sustainability
  • Life cycle analysis look at the impact of these
    products, what will happen to them in the future
  • Cheap cotton clothing huge use of chemicals,
    land and water. Cheap labour 50p a day for use
    to wear nearly disposable clothes. The 2
    t-shirt is costing the earth
  • Clothes are now such poor quality they cannot be
    recycled to Africa etc where there is a big
    demand.
  • Traditionally patchwork
  • Shoe soles (tyres)
  • Play mats (tyres)
  • Plastics (benches)
  • Glass various
  • Metal various

Products made from recycled materials
12
Responsibility in designing and making
  • Social Enjoyment that product may give and
    effect on quality of life. Does the product have
    a positive effect on life.
  • Economic Cost, is it value for money and
    commercially viable. Does it use too much non
    renewable resources in the production process.
  • Environmental- How much co2 does it give off in
    production. Can it be re-cycled. Can it be
    re-used. Does the process by which it is made
    give off bad by-product (noise, smell,
    pollution).
  • Designers need to think about the environmental
    impact of their products after they have ended
    their useful period. Well known designers who are
    up cycling e.g. Junkystyling, Treepeople.
  • Will they end up in landfill, can they be
    recycled reused, look at the 6 Rs.

13
Question 3 is about the designers you have
studied. It is worth a total of 10 marks. John
Galliano Vivienne Westwood
You will need to know key aspects about these
designers
You need to study these two designers and
understand the following aspects (a) the range
of work that they have produced over time (b)
how to identify the work of each of the
Designers (c) the innovations and/or new ideas
that the two Designers have introduced over
time (d) the influence that each of the two
Designers has had on the world of Design and
Technology
Be prepared to compare the two designers!
14
Select 20 keywords that describe or personify
Vivienne Westwood
flashy
eccentric
original
provocative
inspiring
rebellion
elegance
rebel against tasteless casual wear
passion
provocative
there can be no good taste without elegance
rebels
Malcolm McLaren
one of the most influential British fashion
designers
provocative prints
intellectual observation
zipper, safety pins, razor blades
anarchist
Sex Pistols
punk
studying their cuts
Malcolm McLaren
bustles
plundering the old
Englands aristocracy
crinoline
hooped skirt Mini Crini 1985
Anglophilia
new tartan 1993 MacAndreas
15
Vivienne Westwood
Trends by fashion designers
16
WJEC information marking scheme info.
Vivienne Westwood Vivienne Westwood has been
at the centre of British fashion for 34 years and
is one of its most inventive and influential
designers. Vivienne Westwood first started
selling her outrageous clothes in the shop Let
it Rock owned by her partner Malcolm McClaren.
The punk style gained notoriety when clothes
designed and made by Westwood were worn by groups
such the Sex Pistols and the New York Dolls.
Punk Style clothing featured skin tight leather
clothing with tons of zips trimmed with items
such as safety pins, bicycle chains and spiked
dog collars worn as jewellery. She combined
traditional elements of British design, such as
tartan and Harris Tweed, alongside the more
unusual elements of her style, which made the
overall effect more shocking. A historical
influence has always shown in her work, such as
the corset and crinoline taking original
cutting principles and modernising them. Other
influences in her work include ethnic Peruvian
influences, feminine figure, velvet and
knitwear. Her Ready-to-Wear collections feature
style details such as ripped hems and torn
seams. The tube skirt is one of her most
successful and commercial designs. Westwood
re-launched the corset, which Karl Lagerfeld
described as one of the most important fashion
ideas of the 20th century.
17
Key looks of Vivienne Westwood Mini Crini
collection 1985
elegance
plundering the old
heritage
Englands aristocracy
heritage an endless inspiration source
traditional materials patterns
dismantled uniforms costumes
studying their cuts
bustles
experimenting with new combination
Anglophilia
rejection attraction
intellectual observation
crinoline
hooped skirt Mini Crini 1985
took womens bodies hostage in the name of
fashion
18
WJEC information marking scheme info.
John Galliano One of the most influential
designers of our time. He is known for creating
some of the most spectacular fashion shows in
recent years. John Gallianos varied life has
had a direct influence on the vivid colours he
uses in his collections. He launched his own
label before becoming chief designer of France's
haute couture flagship, Christian Dior, in
Paris. John Galliano found his first signature
mark through strong and personal collections.
His sense of elegance and his proud tender vision
of women made him a popular designer. His
collections have always been considered as
romantic, this is evident in his Autumn/winter
collection 2001 which was a combination of
high-tech modernity and romance. Features of
some of his earlier collections include jackets
worn upside down and inside out, with romantic
organdie shirts. He accessorised his
collections with everything from magnifying
glasses, smashed and worn as jewellery to
rainbow-coloured ribbons sewn onto the insides of
coats. Galliano reinvented the 1930s-line
bias-cut dress and made it modern, he is also
known for creating narrow, very feminine
tailoring.
19
Question 4 is about the design process and how it
is used. and also the design question - 25 marks.
Design Question
You will have design based questions on Key
terms from your coursework What is an
evaluation? ongoing and summative What is a
specification? design specification and product
or manufacturing specification How can we use CAD
when designing? Why do we do product
analysis? Why do you develop your design ideas?
20
Exemplar question
Study the mood board below and use it as
inspiration to design a co-ordinated two piece
summer outfit for either male or female young
adults.
MOOD BOARD
21
Your design must be suitable summer wear for
either males or females reflect the theme and
colours of the mood board include specific
named style details include details of the
imaginative use of a named decorative
technique be made of suitable specific named
materials. Circle key words so you can focus on
the where the marks are. Marks will be awarded
for (i) a co-ordinated two piece design based on
the images and colours of the mood board which is
suitable summer wear for either male or female
young adults 6 (ii) the imaginative use of a
named decorative technique 3 (iii) labelling
three specific style details 3 (iv) labelling
two specific suitable materials 2 (v) quality
of communication. 4 Analyse where the BIG
marks are
22
Drawing in PENCIL add colour with coloured
pencils only
Do not spend too much time colouring in add a
splash of colour to indicated colour and texture
Justify detail or any thoughts use as much
technical language as possible.
Name style features if you can
  • Make sure you are specific about components,
    construction and style details e.g.
  • open zips, closed zips, velcro, straps, buckets,
    buttons and buttonholes
  • single dart, double dart
  • tucks, gathers drawn or elasticated,
    drawstrings, casing
  • seams open name the neatening overlocked,
    zig-zag, double stitched (jean seam) french seam
    for delicate fabrics and underwear.
  • Finishing edges hems, facing, frills, piping,
    binding.

23
You can make magnified views to help explain
your thinking
Justify your fabric choice - time to show off
your fabric properties knowledge e.g. Medium
weight knitted cotton cool and absorbent will
also stretch with use to allow movement, also use
any Smart Materials to max your marks. Water
proofed nylon , just naming cotton will not get
you high marks.
24
Name style features if you can
Identify and use style details which reflect
current trends and which are Sleeves raglan,
set-in, dolman, gathered, short/long.
25
Name style features if you can
Identify and use style details which reflect
current trends and which are Necklines
square/round, sweetheart, boat. Collars tunnel,
sailor, shirt, rever, roll, shawl.
26
Name style features if you can
27
Name style features if you can
Identify and use style details which reflect
current trends and which are Pockets patch,
welt, shaped, in side seam. Fastenings zips,
buttons, buckles, Velcro, eyelets, ties,
poppers. Pleats knife, box, inverted, kick.
28
Name style features if you can
Identify and use style details which reflect
current trends and which are Necklines
square/round, sweetheart, boat.
29
Question 5 is about Commercial Manufacturing
Practices. It is worth a total of 10 marks.
30
Production methods Different scales of textiles
production call for different production methods.
The main ones are One-off production One-off
production is designing and making a single
textile product to a client's specification. The
garment design is developed from a basic block
pattern, with a prototype made from inexpensive
fabric to test the drape, fit and assembly of the
garment. Batch production Batch production is
manufacturing set quantities of a textile product
to order. The prototype is made up in a medium
size from the intended fabric. The prototype is
checked for quality of design and manufacture,
then put into production in a range of standard
sizes. The quantity of products can vary from a
set of four cushions made by a designer-maker, to
20,000 jumpers made for a department store. Mass
production Mass production is industrial-scale
manufacture of large quantities of products,
usually on a production line. Mass production is
suitable for products that seldom need to be
redesigned and are needed in very large numbers,
eg socks or jeans. The following table explains
how these production methods are used in the
textile industry
31
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32
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33
7 - Batch vs Mass production on a greater scale.
  • If your product were to be sold commercially do
    you think it would be produced in high volume
    (mass production) or low volume (Batch
    production).
  • Mass produced products would be made in a factory
    with a dedicated production line especially set
    up just to make your product. Mass produced
    products would generally be sold in huge numbers
    in order to reduce the production set up costs.
  • Batch produced items would be made in
    significantly smaller numbers. A batch would be
    made in a more versatile production set up as
    this type of manufacturer may make different
    items every day.
  • Mass-High volume production likely to be less
    labour intensive due to CAD/CAM use of automated
    machinery.
  • Batch-Smaller volumes of production, likely to be
    more labour intensive.

34
Progressive Bundle System                       
With the progressive bundle system, the sewing
operations are laid out in sequence. Each
operator receives a bundle, does his/her work,
reties the bundle and passes it to the next
operator. There is usually a storage facility
such as rack, bin or table for storing the
inter-process work between each operation. The
work is routed by means of tickets. This system
is the most widely used system in the garment
industry today. It is used in shirt factories,
jeans factories, jacket factories, etc.
Progressive bundle system A system used in
clothing production where the task of assembling
the garment is broken down into small operations,
and bundles of work are progressed down the
production line through each operation in
sequence until the assembly process is complete
35
Progressive Bundle System                       
  • Advantages
  • High productivity
  • 2. A uniformly high standard of work can be
    achieved.
  • 3. Training time and costs can be reduced.
  • 4. Semi-skilled labour can be used. 6.
    Individual performance can be monitored and
    incentives offered.
  • Disadvantages
  • Machine investment costs are high.
  • 2. The system is not very adaptable for short-run
    production and frequent style changes, as these
    require rearrangement of the workstations.
  • 3. It involves high handling costs for bundle
    handling and transportation.
  • 4. It requires a high level of management skill
    to arrange the workflow and decide on    the
    number of operators for each operation.

36
JIT Just in time
  • Producing parts and products just before they are
    needed.
  • This means that valuable parts and equipment is
    not left sitting on the shelf as costing money in
    storage and unsold product.
  • Producing components without a buyer costs the
    business money to hod stock
  • Danger of not selling the product becoming
    obsolete.

37
Question 6 is about Materials and Components. It
is worth a total of 15 marks
38
How fabric is constructed Weaving plain,
twill, satin, herringbone, pile. Knitting
weft knit and a warp knit. Bonding sticking
with adhesives heating thermoplastic fibres
stitching a web of fibres. Laminating.
Felting. Types of fibres and sources Natural
polymers Animal polymers wool/fleece
mohair, cashmere, angora, alpaca, camel (hair).
Insect polymers silk. Plant polymers cotton,
linen hemp, jute. Manufactured polymers
Natural rayon, viscose, rubber, metal, glass.
Synthetic polyester, polypropylene, nylon,
elastane, lycra, aramid fibres. Microfibres
Tactel, Tencel (Lyocell).
39
The properties of the main natural and
manufactured fibres/fabrics including strength,
elasticity, absorbency, durability,
insulation, flammability, water repellency,
anti-static and resistance to acid, bleach,
sunlight. Blending and mixing fibres improves
the properties and uses of yarns and Bonding
breathable water proof membranes to outer fabrics
for allweather wear (Gore-Tex, Permatex).
Quilting polyester wadding between an outer and
lining material
40
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41
Smart fabrics are a must learn
See page 49-51
42
Smart fabric
Smart fibres and fabrics that respond to the
environment or stimuli Micro-encapsulation. Photo
chromic properties. Thermochromic properties.
Interactive textiles that function as electronic
devices and sensors Circuits integrated into
fabrics such as heart rate monitors. Wearable
electronics such as mobile phones or music
player. Wearable electronics integrated into the
fabric itself. The impact of biotechnology.
Micro fibres in clothing manufacture.
Breathable materials. Sun protective
clothing. Kevlar (used in cables for civil
engineering modular compression engineering)
recycling PET bottles into fleece fabrics.
carbon fibres. Nomex. Geotextiles for
landscaping. Rhovyl as an antibacterial fibre.
43
Question 7 is about Tools, Equipment and Making
related to textiles technology. It is worth a
total of 20 marks.
44
Question 7 is about Tools, Equipment and Making
related to textiles technology. It is worth a
total of 20 marks.
45
Question 7 is about Tools, Equipment and Making
related to textiles technology. It is worth a
total of 20 marks.
On the pattern layout question Straight of grain
along the selvedge edge
Take time to work out the pattern pieces and
where they could be placed all pieces to run
along the straight of grain.
46
Question 8 is about ICT, CAD, CAM, Systems and
Processes. It is worth a total of 15 marks.
47
Question 8 is about ICT, CAD, CAM, Systems and
Processes. It is worth a total of 15 marks.
Read pages -77-78
48
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49
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50
All production systems consist of inputs,
processes and outputs. Usually there is a
feedback loop as well, to enable the inputs and
processes to be modified as a result of quality
control checks or feedback from customers.
Production systems can be modelled with a system
diagram like the one below.
51
Other Information You May Be Asked ABOUT in The
Exam
Textiles and Computers
  • Computers are a great way of helping you design
    and manufacture a textile product. They ensure
    accuracy in the finish product.
  • There are three main ways in which computers can
    help in the researching, designing and
    manufacture of a textile product.
  • CAD- (Computer aided design) using computers to
    help design your product
  • CAM-(Computer aided manufacture) using machinery
    to help with the manufacture of textile products.

Three ways in which computer are used in the
designing and making of textile products
Trend websites
Retailer websites
Number 1Researching and presenting a
design Internet- Researching retailers and
designers to gather ideas for your own
product Trend websites- These websites have
information on which fabrics, shapes and colours
are in vogue Digital cameras- Taking photographs
of similar products 3D modelling- Using computer
software to show your designs on a 3D
model. Spreadsheets- can help with calculating
the cost of fabric and components.
Digital cameras
3D Modelling
52
Number 2 CAD (Computer aided design) The
advantages of using CAD allows you to make
changes and adjustments to your design without
having to redraw, it is also really quick. Here
a few ways in which this can be used- 3D
modelling software- this allows you to design a
product in 3D, a visual prototype. 2D paint
software- allows you to design logos and repeat
patterns and experiment with different colours
(colourways) Scanners- allow you to scan fabrics
which can be applied to a 3D model.
Scanning
2D paint software
Number 3 CAM (Computer aided manufacture) CAM
allows you to produce a product with a lot more
speed and accuracy. Here a few ways in which
this can be used- Computerised sewing machines-
a complicated logo or motif can be embroidered on
to a product. Computerised fabric printers-
computers can be used to produce large amounts of
printed fabric. For example automated screen
printing, this ensures quality and
accuracy. Drawing patterns and layplans-
computers allow you to adjust patterns. Computers
also plan the most economical way in which to lay
the pattern pieces on the fabric. Laser cutters-
Computers are used to control lasers which cut
out fabric in multiple layers. CNC technology
Computerised Sewing machine
Digital printing
Drawing patterns and layplans
Laser Cutter
53
  • Advantages of CAD/CAM
  • It reduces time and labour costs.
  • Changes can be made quickly and easily to the
    design
  • Visual prototypes can be produced, giving the
    client a better idea of how your design will
    look.
  • It is very accurate, which helps to ensure a high
    quality product.
  • Large amounts of identical products can be
    manufactured quickly and accurately.
  • Disadvantages of CAD/CAM
  • The software is very expensive.
  • Workers require training in how to use CAD/CAM
    and this can be expensive.
  • Computer virus can mean that work can be
    destroyed.

(c) Computers are used in the design and
manufacture of printed fabrics. Explain how
Computer Aided Design (CAD) can be used to
produce a print design. __________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________(4 marks) (ii)
Explain how Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) can
be used to produce a printed
fabric. __________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
_________________________________________________4
marks)
1) Printing is a popular method of adding colour
to a fabric. Briefly describe one industrial
printing method which could be used to put
the Pattern on the fabric shown on
right. ___________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
____________________________________
54
PATTERN MARKINGS
Components are all the items you need to make
your design but not the equipment or main
material. You will need material for appliqué if
you use that technique. Dyes, fabric paints.
You will need some pre manufactured components
such as, Velcro, buttons or poppers,
zips. Thread, Bondaweb, stranded embroidery
thread (made from cotton), ribbon
55
Quality control is a way of making sure that the
product you make is fit for the purpose it was
made. The product should meet the criteria set
down in the specification. To make sure the
product meets that specification tests and checks
are carried out throughout the making of the
product. In your production plan you will have
selected critical points to see if the product is
good enough e.g. once the product is cut out you
will check it is the correct size. Each stage of
production can be graded Acceptable quality -
the product matches the specification Rework -
the product does not meet the specification but
can be redone e.g. a hem can be
re-machined Reject - the product cannot be
corrected e.g. the fabric is torn - this is where
many second products come from.
Computers are used in many ways in the textile
and fashion industry from client presentation
through design, manufacture, stock control to
sales.Computers are used because they can easily
and effectively display product ranges, give a
reduction in time taken and can decrease cost and
increase efficiency Research PresentingInternet
, interactive trend sites, sending images through
Email, mood-boards, costing (spread sheets),
presentation boards Designing Developing ideas
(drawn and researched on computer), creating
designs, creating garment outlines, creating
patterns for fabric, developing colour-ways,
using virtual designs (3D images of
design) Controlling machines Knitting machines,
pattern drafting machines, cutting machines,
weaving looms, testing equipment, digital
printing, screen-printing, embroidery
machines ManufacturingManufacturing plans and
specifications, controlling dying, controlling
spinning, laser cutting, lay planning systems,
body measurement software Selling Internet
selling, advertising, mail-shots, websites,
security tagging and labelling. Items can be
re-ordered through bar coding system
56
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