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The Cold War Part II


The Cold War Part II Including Ms. Rohweller s report on the background, conflict and relationship of the Vietnam war to the Cold War. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War Part II

The Cold War Part II
  • Including Ms. Rohwellers report on the
    background, conflict and relationship of the
    Vietnam war to the Cold War.

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What you need to remember for the upcoming exam
  • The leadership and policies of both Truman and
  • The Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine
  • Churchills Iron Curtain Speech
  • NATO
  • The significance of the Berlin Airlift and

What you need to remember for the upcoming exam
  • Warsaw Pact
  • The causes, actions and effects of the Korean War
    (June 1950-July 1951).
  • Containment Policies in various regions
  • The Domino Theory
  • Senator McCarthy and HUAC (House Un-American

What you need to remember for the upcoming exam
  • The leadership and policies of both Eisenhower,
    JFK and Khurshchev
  • U.S.-U.S.S.R rivalry played out in the rest of
    the world (notes that you took from the class
  • Soviet satellite nations Poland, Hungary,
    Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and East
  • U.S. and Soviet influences around the world

Two important vocabulary words to consider
  • Brinkmanship creating an impression that a
    country is willing and able to push a highly
    dangerous situation to the limit rather than
  • Détente relaxing or easing of tensions between
    two rivals, usually characterized by increased
    diplomatic negotiations and talks.

The years 1955-1975
  • Escalating nuclear arms/missiles race
  • Stockpiling of nuclear arms in an effort to
    preserve the peace.
  • The space race begins-1957 the Soviet Union
    launches Sputnik (the first satellite into outer
    space). The U.S. follows with Explorer I.

The years 1955-1975
  • The greatest confrontations of the Cold War came
    during the Kennedy presidency (1961-1963).
  • Closing the Missile Gap
  • American would reach the moon by the end of
  • Increased aid to developing countries through the
    Peace Corps
  • Crisis in Cuba

The Bay of Pigs
  • 1959 Castro gives American businesses the boot
    out of Cuba
  • Thousands of Cubans flee to the U.S. (mostly
    around the Miami area)
  • Castro openly joins with the communist party
  • U.S. institutes a trade embargo and the CIA
    begins to secretly train a group of Cuban
    refugees for invasion of the island.

The Bay of Pigs Cont
  • Eisenhower had been concerned about communism is
    the Western Hemisphere, Kennedy inherits this
  • In April, 1961--the invasion begins and most of
    the 1,500 invaders were captured. Inadequate air
    protection was a major reason for the failure of
    the attack.

Map of the Bay of Pigs
Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy
Castro and Khrushchev
  • President Kennedy

Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Khrushchev announces his intensions in defending
    a second U.S. invasion of Cuba
  • Soviet soldiers are sent to construct missile
  • U.S. intelligence supplies photos of the missile
    sites-they had proof that the Soviets were on the
    doorstep of the United States.
  • 13 Days of tension and negotiations begin in the
    fall of 1962.

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Cuban Missile Crisis Cont
  • Kennedy imposed a quarantine of Cuba, which did
    not allow arms or supplies into Cuba.
  • Kennedy was fully aware that this military
    stand-off could lead to full nuclear war.
  • Negotiations continue between Khrushchev and
    Kennedy (who stood firm, but fully aware of the
    nuclear threat).
  • Kennedy promises not to invade Cuba and remove
    missiles from Turkey, Khrushchev agreed to remove
    missile sites in Cuba.
  • Khrushchev is weakened by the event and is ousted
    from power in 1964.

One last event
  • The Berlin Wall is built in the summer of 1961.
  • The Soviets built the wall to stop the mass
    exodus of East Germans (almost 3 million had left
    up to that point).
  • The wall was 28 miles of concrete and barbed wire
    with armed guards stationed along it.
  • The wall was a physical, visual reminder of the
    Cold War.

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  • Officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  • Predominately rural population, in 2005 only 27
    of the population lived in urban areas.
  • In the 2nd century BC, China invaded. The
    Vietnamese would restore their independence by
    939 BC and remain independent and expand along
    the coast for the next thousand years.

French Indo-China
  • In the late 19th century, France invaded and
    divided Vietnam into three regions. These
    regions were joined with Laos and Cambodia and
    become known as French Indochina.
  • Resources were exploited from Vietnam for the
    benefit of France.
  • After WWII, anti-colonial groups revolted against
    French rule. These revolts were lead by the
    Indochinese Communist Party.

  • In 1954, the French were defeated by Vietnamese
    forces at Dien Bien Phu.
  • Vietnam was divided into two zones North Vietnam
    which was controlled by the communists and South
    Vietnam which was controlled by the
  • South Vietnam would spend the next 20 years
    trying to stop North Vietnams attacks and
    attempts to unify the country.

Vietnam.The Conflict
  • Officially lasted from 1959-1975
  • In 1965, the U.S sent in troops to prevent the
    South Vietnamese government from collapsing.
  • The U.S. also became involved because of their
    belief in the domino theory-if an entire country
    fell to communist control, all of Asia would fall
    as well.
  • 3.2 million Vietnamese and 58,000 Americans were
    killed. By 1976, Vietnam was united as a
    communist nation, the U.S. had failed in its goal.

Vietnam.The Conflict
  • During WWII, Japan controlled Vietnam. At the
    time, Bao Dai was emperor of the country.
  • The U.S. demanded that the Japanese leave and
    supported guerilla fighters called the Viet Minh,
    who were lead by Ho Chi Minh.
  • The Japanese surrender and Ho Chi Minh takes
    advantage of the situation and declares
    independence from France.

  • Leader of the Communist Party Ho Chi Minh

Vietnam.The Conflict
  • With its defeat in 1954, France is humiliated and
    tired of war. It asks for help from other
    nations to begin a plan for withdrawl.
  • Vietnam is divided along the 17th Parallel and
    French troops remain in the south as they prepare
    to withdraw.
  • Ho Chi Minh remains in control in the North and
    Bao Dai was in control of the South. He appoints
    Ngo Dinh Diem as Prime Minister.

Emperor Bao Dai
  • Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem

Vietnam.The Conflict
  • In 1954, the U.S. establishes SEATO-Southeast
    Asian Treaty Organization.
  • A regional alliance that extended protection to
    South Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos in cases of
    Communist subversion or insurrection
  • The U.S. would use SEATO as justification for
    direct involvement in Vietnam.

Vietnam.The Conflict
  • Diem wins election and becomes leader of South
    Vietnam. Many are opposed to his government and
    the National Liberation Front (or NFL) is formed.
  • Rebellions erupt in South Vietnam, especially in
    the rural areas.
  • Diem speaks out against Viet Mihn influence,
    calling them Viet Cong (the English equivalent of

Kennedy and Vietnam
  • The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was
    created in 1955 by the United States. This army
    was intended to help with the rebellions in South
  • Kennedy felt ARVN could be affective. He
    increased advisors from 800 in 1961 to 16,700 by
  • U.S. airpower was assigned to support ARVN
    through the use of Agent Orange.

Johnson and Vietnam
  • President Johnson felt he needed to take a tough
    stand on the spread of communism.
  • Johnson increased the U.S. advisors in Vietnam to
  • Johnson believed that success could come from
    intimidating North Vietnam with the threat of
    full scale U.S. intervention.
  • He also increased the bombing along the Ho Chi
    Minh Trail in Laos.

Johnson and Vietnam
  • On August 2, 1964, North Vietnamese gunboats
    fired on the U.S.S. Maddox in the Gulf of Tonkin.
  • Johnson orders the first air strikes on North
  • The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is passed by
    Congress, which gave Johnson war-making powers
    until such time as peace and security return to

The Tet Offensive
  • The North Vietnamese and the NFL decided that it
    was time an offensive to inflict severe
    casualties and significantly affect the public
    mood of the U.S.
  • The North Vietnamese and the NFL attack a U.S.
    base in December 1967. 50,000 troops are called
    in to support the base.
  • This is exactly what the NV and the NFL hoped for
    and Dec. 31 (Tet is the start of the Vietnamese
    lunar New Year) and began attacking every major
    city in South Vietnam.

Tet Offensive Continued
  • The Offensive lasted until the fall of 1968,
    during which time the embassy in Saigon was
    controlled for several hours by NV and the NFL.
  • 45,000 NV and NFL troops died.
  • In March 1968, U.S. troops wipe out the village
    of My Lai, killing 500 unarmed citizens (mostly
    women and children).
  • This event would be covered up for over a year

Nixon and Vietnam
  • By the time Nixon took office in 1969, slightly
    over 30,000 U.S. troops had died in Vietnam.
  • His plan for war was Vietnamization, which
    meant withdrawing U.S. troops and having South
    Vietnam take over the fighting.
  • Nixon orders troops into Cambodia, U.S. college
    campuses erupt in protest. Students are killed
    at Kent State and and Jackson State. (May 1970)
  • The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is repealed.
    Congress passes the Cooper-Church Amendment which
    forbade the use of troops outside of Vietnam.
    Bombing is never specifically mentioned.

Nixon and Vietnam
  • Nixon continues the bombing of Laos along the Ho
    Chi Minh Trail.
  • On March 30th 1972, 30,000 North Vietnamese
    troops crossed the 17th Parallel. Only 6,000
    U.S. troops remained at the time in South
  • Known as the Easter Offensive, Nixon orders
    massive bombings and 100,000 communist troops are

Nixon and Vietnam
  • By 1973, Nixon was facing impeachment over the
    Watergate Scandal and it was revealed that the
    U.S. had secretly bombed Cambodia.
  • By mid-January, Nixon halted all military action
    against the North Vietnamese.
  • On January 27, 1973 a peace treaty is signed in
    Paris to end the conflict.

The End of the Conflict
  • On March 29th, 1973 the last U.S. troops left
  • On April 30th, 1975 South Vietnam surrenders to
    North Vietnam and after 30 years since Ho Chi
    Minhs proclamation of an independent Vietnam, it
    was united.

Connections to the Cold War
  • War of its own accord war for independence from
    France, war to unify North and South Vietnam.
  • Soviet involvement Ho Chi Minh shared the same
    ideology as the Soviets. Support for North
    Vietnam-financially, 3,000 troops.
  • Soviet involvement assumed a nuclear threat and
    prevented a major intervention of American
  • American policy of containment and the concern
    over the domino effect.
  • Proxy war--yes, the perfect example.