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How were civilians affected by World War 1?

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Title: How were civilians affected by World War 1?


1
How were civilians affected by World War 1?
  • Aim To revise key details about the British
    Home Front during the First World War

2
Total War
  • What was the Total War?
  • A war where the countries drafts all the people
    and collects all resources that they can.
  • When did this war take place?
  • Around 1916
  • Where did it take place?
  • Europe
  • Why did the Total War occur?
  • The war turned into a Total War because the
    countries expected the war to be short so they
    werent prepared for long term war, when their
    supplies ran out, total war was their only
    option.
  • What was the significance of the war?
  • WWI turned into a Total War which affected the
    home front and government a lot.
  • It affected women too because with the absence of
    men they were expected to take over more jobs and
    help out with the war effort.
  • They received the rights to new jobs, to vote,
    and the right to apartments.

3
WWI on the Home Front
  • WWI was a Total War required populations on
    the home front to mobilize their resources
    completely toward the war effort civilian
    population centers also became targets of the war
    effort not since the US Civil War the
    Napoleonic Wars had the world seen such complete
    mobilization for war
  • Mass conscription was carried out by all nations
    most European nations had armies of 1-2 million
    eventually over 70 million would be drafted
    worldwide many women would volunteer services
    as nurses at home the front
  • Entire economies were geared toward war
    production led to rationing of all sorts of
    essentials as raw materials agricultural
    products were utilized to feed the war machine
    led to increased centralization govt control
    of economies
  • WWI saw an increase in restrictions of civil
    liberties the press was censored as was speech
    mail due process of law was suspended for
    those suspected of treason German books were
    burned, speaking German was banned lynchings of
    German-Brits were interned in Britain and its
    colonies
  • Women played an important role in the war effort
    taking up jobs as men were sent to the home
    front over 35 of the workforce was women in
    many European nations during the war

4
War on the Home Front
5
DORA
  • Newspapers and radio broadcasts were censored
  • The government could control what people heard
    about the war
  • This made sure the public continued to support
    the war effort by only hearing good things

6
Propaganda
  • What is this?
  • These were ideas spread around to influence
    public opinions or to go against a cause. It is a
    method that the government used to create
    enthusiasm for the war also.
  • When did this occur?
  • August 1914
  • Where did this take place?
  • In Europe
  • Who used propaganda?
  • The European government
  • What is the significance of using propaganda?
  • They used it because before the wars it stirred
    up national hatreds.

7
WW I Propaganda - The Poster War
  • Propaganda - the spreading of ideas, information,
    or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring
    an institution, a cause, or a person.
  • A deliberate attempt to influence individuals by
    leading one to behave as though his response
    were his own decision.
  • In war, its used as an instrument for
    maintaining unity, good will and a common
    purpose
  • Maintaining and boosting the morale of soldiers.
  • Unifying society at home in support of the war
    effort.

8
Propaganda WWI
  • WWI was one of the 1st wars in which a massive
    propaganda campaign was unleashed usually to
    gain support for the war and/or demonize the
    enemy
  • Germany faced an onslaught of negative
    propaganda stemming from their illegal invasion
    of Belgium (and treatment of civilians)
    savages barbarians and Huns were often-used
    phrases
  • Propaganda was used to sell war bonds, persuade
    volunteers/recruits and to demonize the enemy
    (justify the war effort)
  • Germany (and Adolf Hitler) would learn the
    lessons of winning the propaganda war at home
    and utilize it effectively in WWII
  • The propaganda that Germany started WWI would
    be critical in the post-war agreements shaping
    of the post-war world

9
  • Propaganda was used to stimulate or revive
    national morale and damage the enemy
  • Propaganda was used in the church, in classrooms,
    in the cinema, in music halls, in postcards, in
    cartoons, in porcelain figures, in jigsaw
    puzzles, childrens toys, and even in Christmas
    decorations
  • Example Christmas scene that had a trench scene
    with a tank

10
The following posters are divided into three
parts
  • Propaganda symbols
  • The use of the soldier on the battlefront as a
    universal propaganda image.
  • The home-front, especially the evolution in the
    portrayal of women.

11
Propaganda Symbols
  • Identify and vilify the enemy.
  • Glorify the Allies
  • Portrayal of Women as Victims.

12
Britain 1917 Artist David Wilson
13
USA 1917
14
One last effort we will get them. Artist
Unknown France 1917
15
USA 1918
16
Sottoscrivete al Prestito Subscribe for the
Loan Artist Giovanni Capranesi Italy 1917
17
Canada 1918
18
Liberation Loan France 1918
19
The use of the soldier on the battlefront
  • Defender of Civilization
  • Heroes
  • One who always does his duty despite hardships.

20
They Shall Not Pass France 1918
21
We Will Get Them France 1916
22
Zeichnet 7. Kriegsanleihe - Wiener
Kommerzialbank Translation Subscribe for the 7th
War Loan Alfred Offner 1917 - Germany
23
Canada 1917
24
Offering the Army and Navy Germany 1916
25
For The Supreme Effort France 1915
26
USA 1917
27
THE HOME-FRONT
  • Evolution in the portrayal of women.
  • Shifted from one of women as victims to a more
    positive image
  • As care givers.
  • Factory workers in jobs formerly held by men.


28
USA 1918
29
USA 1918
30
USA 1918
31
The Frenchwoman in War-Time. Artist G. Capon -
France 1917
32
Censorship
  • British journalists were expelled from France in
    August 1914
  • Official Press Bureau allowed only six war
    correspondents
  • Persuaded writers, artists, and intellectuals to
    publish materials in support of the war Rudyard
    Kipling, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Thomas Hardy,
    and HG Wells

33
Propaganda and Censorship
  • News was tightly controlled-censorship
  • Reports aimed to
  • Maintain morale
  • Encourage civilians to support the war effort
  • Create hatred and suspicion of the enemy
  • Newspapers, radio broadcasts, films and even
    board games were used

34
The Home Front and Censorship
  • Censorship
  • Not told about high death toll
  • Romanticized the battlefields
  • soldiers have died a beautiful death, in noble
    battle, we shall rediscover poetryepic and
    chivalrous

35
Censorship
  • Censorship
  • Newspapers described troops as itching to go
    over the top.
  • Government reported to the press that life in
    the trenches promoted good health and clear air

36
Propaganda and Censorship
  • The film, The Battle of the Somme, was filmed in
    1916
  • The Battle was a disaster for the British Army
  • Failed objectives
  • Enormous causalities
  • What can the film tell an historian about the use
    of propaganda in WW1?

37
BATTLE OF THE SOMME MOVIE
  • For the first time the home front in Britain was
    exposed to the horrors of modern war with the
    release of the propaganda film, The Battle of the
    Somme which used actual footage from the first
    days of the battle.
  • The film spanned five reels and lasted 63 minutes
    .
  • It was first screened on 10 August, 1916, while
    the battle was still raging.
  • On 21 August the film began showing
    simultaneously in 34 London cinemas.

38
Battle of the Somme Video Clips
http//www.encyclomedia.com/video-battle_of_the_so
mme.htmlmoretext
39
Battle of the Somme Film
  • Created by Malins and McDowell- who were sent to
    the British Fourth Army to do some general
    filming.
  • Ended up turning into a documentary of the Somme
    offensive.
  • On July 1, Malins filmed the famous scene of the
    explosion of a large British mine under the
    German Hawthorn Redoubt.

40
Battle of the Somme Film
  • The film caused awareness- most notably from some
    faked scenes of men falling dead and wounded.
  • Led to the establishment of the War Office Cinema
    Committee in November 1916.
  • Eventually war films were replaced with
    newsreels.

41
SOMME MOVIE CONT
  • The film was screened for British soldiers at
    rest in France where it provided new recruits
    with some idea of what they were about to face.
  • Soldier's main complaint was failure of film to
    capture sounds of battle. However, as a silent
    film, the titles could be remarkably forthright,
    describing images of injury and death.
  • The film was shown to British public as a morale
    booster and was favorably received.
  • British public's response to film was enormous
    with an estimated 20 million tickets being sold
    in two months. On this basis, The Battle of the
    Somme remains one of the most successful British
    films ever.

42
Effects of the Battle of the Somme
  • The film, The Battle of the Somme, is seen by
    historians as a propaganda triumph
  • People at home felt they could see how their
    efforts were helping the troops
  • Although it showed some casualties, it also
    showed advancing troops, helping morale

43
Propaganda and Censorship
  • The film, Britains Effort, was created in 1917
  • What was its purpose?

44
Propaganda and Censorship
  • It is hard to measure how effective propaganda
    was
  • BUT
  • Support for the war was reasonably constant
  • Only really changed with the enormous causalities
    at the Battle of the Somme in 1916
  • People read lots of newspapers, and watched the
    films, so they were being exposed to it

45
Effects of Propaganda
  • The Parliamentary Recruiting Committee (PRC)
    eventually printed almost 6 million posters and
    over 14 million leaflets at a total cost of
    24,000.
  • For every PRC leaflet produced in 1914-1915, at
    least ten had been produced by the three main
    political parties during the 1910 election
    campaigns.
  • Propaganda was certainly not the most significant
    factor in Germanys defeat.

46
The Brown Familys Four War Christmas
  • What is happening in each frame?
  • Explain why these things are happening, based on
    what you know about life on the Home Front

47
(No Transcript)
48
(No Transcript)
49
Womenand theWarEffort
50
Key points Before the war, the most common
employment for a woman was as a domestic
servant. However, women were also employed in
what were seen to be suitable occupations
e.g. teaching, nursing, office work.
51
Key points When war broke out in August
1914, thousands of women were sacked from jobs in
dressmaking, millinery and jewellery making.They
needed work and they wanted to help the war
effort.
52
Key points Suffragettes stopped all
militant action in order to support the
war effort.
53
Obstacles They Still Faced
  • In 1914, Dr. Elsie Inglis offered to raise an
    ambulance unit to help the wounded soldiers.
    She was told by the Ministry of WarMy good
    lady, go home and sit still.
  • But despite this view, women played a vital role
    in winning the war.

54
Key points At first, there was much trade
union opposition and the employment of women had
not increased significantly before the summer
of 1915. In July 1915, a Right to Work ,march
was organised by a leading suffragette,
Christabel Pankhurst.
55
Key points The introduction of conscription in
1916 led to an increase in the number of women
employed in all sectors of the economy.
56
War Girls by Jessie Pope
  • Theres the girl who clips your ticket for the
    train,
  • And the girl who speeds the lift from floor to
    floor,
  • Theres the girl who does a milk-round in the
    rain,
  • And the girl who calls for orders at your door.
  • Strong, sensible, and fit,
  • Theyre out to show their grit,
  • And tackle jobs with energy and knack.
  • No longer caged and penned up.
  • Theyre going to keep their end up
  • Till the khaki soldier boys come marking back.

57
War Girls continued
  • Theres the motor girl who drives a heavy van,
  • Theres the butcher girl who brings your joint of
    meat,
  • Theres the girl who cries All fares, please!
    like a man,
  • And the girl who whistles taxis up the street.
  • Beneath each uniform
  • Beats a heart thats soft and warm,
  • Though of a canny mother-wit they show no lack
  • But a solemn statement that is,
  • Theyve no time for love and kisses
  • Till the khaki boys come marching back.

58
War on the Home Front
  • Women in War
  • Millions of men at battle
  • Work on home front done by women
  • Some worked in factories, producing war supplies
  • Others served as nurses to wounded
  • Contributions of women
  • Transformed public views of women
  • Helped women win right to vote

59
Women on the Home Front
  • Women took war factory jobs
  • Received lower wages than males
  • Food shortages made running a household difficult

60
Women and Jobs
  • Women were asked to take over jobs that had not
    been available to them before
  • Women were employed in jobs that had once been
    considered beyond their capacity.
  • Jobs included
  • Chimney Sweeps
  • Truck Drivers
  • Farm laborers
  • Factory workers

61
Key points Many women were paid good wages,
especially in munitions factories, but in most
cases they were paid lower rates than
men. Improved wages did permit greater
independence for some women.
62
Key points Women became more visible in the
world of work. They were seen to be doing
important jobs.
63
Women and Work
  • Theres the girl who clips your ticket for the
    train,
  • And the girl who speeds the lift from floor to
    floor,
  • Theres the girl who calls for orders at your
    door.
  • Strong, sensible, and fit.
  • Theyre out to show their frit.
  • And tackle jobs with energy and knack.
  • No longer caged and penned up, Theyre going to
    keep their end up
  • Till the khaki soldier boys come marching back.
  • The place of women in the workforce was far from
    secure
  • Both men and women expected that many of the new
    jobs were only temporary
  • This was evident in the British poem War Girls
    written in 1916

64
Women and Work
  • At the end of the war, governments would quickly
    remove women from the jobs they had encouraged
    them to take earlier
  • The work benefits for women from World War One
    were short-lived
  • By 1919, there would be 650,000 unemployed women
    in Great Britain
  • Wages for women who were still employed were also
    then lowered
  • In some countries, the role women played in
    wartime economies had a positive impact on the
    womens movement
  • The most obvious effects was the right to vote
    given to women in Germany, Austria, and the USA
    immediately after the war
  • In Britain, women over the age of 30 were given
    the right to vote and be elected to Parliament in
    1918
  • Many upper and middle class women gained new
    freedoms as their young women took jobs, got
    their own apartments, and became independent

65
Upper and Middle Class Women
  • Womens Police Service
  • Womens Patrols Committee of the Nation Union of
    Women Workers
  • Womens Emergency Corp
  • Womens Volunteer Rescue
  • Queen Alexandras Imperial Military Nursing
    Service
  • Territorial Force Nursing Service
  • Voluntary Aid Detachment (VADs)---74,000 women
  • First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY)

66
Motor Ambulance Drivers in France 1917
  • Poster from WWI calling on women to do their
    patriotic duty by fulfilling their 'role' in the
    home and industry.

67

Women's Police Volunteers compare notes with a police constable. Imperial War Museum Q31088
68
Motor Ambulance Drivers in France 1917
69
A Woman Ambulance Driver
70
(No Transcript)
71
(No Transcript)
72
Red Cross Nurses
73
Women in the Army Auxiliary
74
(No Transcript)
75
(No Transcript)
76
  • Womens Army Auxiliary Corp (WAAC) was for
    working and lower middle class women
  • Formed in March 1917
  • 41,000 women volunteered
  • Womens Land Army (WLA)
  • Opened to all classes
  • Formed in March 1917
  • 16,000 women
  • Paid less than unskilled male agricultural
    workers
  • Overall by end of the war, 260,000 women were
    farming and producing food for the soldiers and
    home front.

77
Working in the Fields
78
  • WLA Handbook reminded its members
  • that they were doing a mans work, and so youre
    dressed rather like a man, but remember just
    because you wear smocks and breeches, you should
    take care to behave like a British girl who
    expects chivalry and respect from everyone she
    meets.
  • The Times in July 1917 described the WLA women
    as
  • the land women, bronzed, freckled, and
    splendidly healthy.

79
(No Transcript)
80
Munitions Workers
81
Women in Munitions
  • 947,000 women were employed in munitions work
  • 300 lost their lives to TNT poisoning and from
    explosions in the factories

82
  • Munitionettes
  • Primarily for lower middle class and working
    class
  • Women in worked in the munition factories
  • Shift work and very long hours
  • Horrible working conditions badly ventilated,
    poorly lit, and overrun by rats
  • One women working in a munitions factory in
    Lanchashire walked three miles to and from work,
    worked 12 hour shifts, and shared a room with
    five other women
  • Whereas in 1914 there were 212,000 women working
    in the munitions industry, by the end of the war
    it had increased to 950,000.
  • Christopher Addison, who succeeded David Lloyd
    George as Minister of Munitions, estimated in
    June, 1917, that about 80 per cent of all weapons
    and shells were being produced by women.

83
  • In World War I Britain, about 1 million mostly
    lower-class women worked in munitions jobs.
  • They were called munitionettes or Tommys
    sister.
  • Unlike nurses, the munitions workers could not
    profess pacifism since their work directly
    contributed to the fighting.
  • In fact, in 1918, Scottish women working at a
    shell factory raised money and bought a warplane
    for the air force.
  • However, the munitionettes main motivation was
    financial, contrary to the popular belief that it
    was patriotic.
  • The women found the wages at first livable and
    later lucrative.
  • Compared with domestic work, war work offered
    escape from jobs of badly paid drudgery.
  • However, although they earned more than they
    would have doing womens work, the women received
    nowhere near the fortunes they had been led to
    expect when deciding to take war work.139

84
  • Hazards
  • TNT poisoning
  • The chemicals attack the red corpuscles in the
    blood and the tissues of organs like the liver
  • Their skin became jaundiced due to the toxin and
    their skins turned yellow
  • They became known as Canaries
  • Health Effects loss of memory, sight disorders,
    convulsions, delirium, and death
  • 109 women died from this

85
  • Hazards Continued
  • The dope varnish applied to aircraft canvas
    caused many women to collapse unconscious.
  • An explosion at the National Filling Factory near
    Leeds killed 35 women in Dec 1916.
  • Other explosions
  • Nottingham July 1918---35 dead
  • East London in Jan 1917---69 dead

86
(No Transcript)
87
Edward Skinner, For King and Country (1916)
88
Women At Munition Making by Mary Gabrielle
Collins
  • Gaining nourishment for the thoughts to be,
  • Are bruised against the law,
  • Kill, kill.
  • They must take part in defacing and destroying
    the natural body
  • Which, certainly during this dispensation
  • Is the shrine of the spirit.
  • O God!
  • Throughout the ages we have seen,
  • Again and again
  • Men by thee created
  • Cancelling each other.
  • And we have marvelled at the seeming annihilation
  • Of Thy work.
  • But this goes further,
  • Taints the fountain head,
  • Mounts like a poison to the Creators very heart.
  • O God!
  • Must It anew be sacrificed on earth?
  • Their hands should minister unto the flame of
    life,
  • Their fingers guide
  • The rosy teat, swelling with milk,
  • To the eager mouth of the suckling babe
  • Or smooth with tenderness
  • Softly and soothingly,
  • The heated brow of the ailing child.
  • Or stray among the curls
  • Of the boy or girl, thrilling to mother love.
  • But now,
  • Their hands, their fingers
  • Are coarsened in munition factories.
  • Their thoughts, which should fly
  • Like bees among the sweetest mind flowers,

89
  • The women working in factories began to play
    football during lunch-breaks.
  • Teams were formed and on Christmas Day in 1916, a
    game took place between Ulverston Munitions Girls
    and another group of local women.
  • The munitionettes won 11-5.
  • Soon afterwards, a game between munitions
    factories in Swansea and Newport.
  • The Hackney Marshes National Projectile Factory
    formed a football team and played against other
    factories in London.
  •  

90
  • Blyth Spartans Munition Girls - Munitionette Cup
    Winners 1918

91
  • Vaughan Ladies in 1918

92
Women and girls working at a Scottish sugar refinery. Imperial War Museum Q28345
93
(No Transcript)
94
Munition Wages by Madeline Ida Bedford
  • Were all here today, mate,
  • Tomorrow---perhaps dead,
  • If Fate tumbles on us
  • And blows up our shed.
  • Afraid! Are yer kidding?
  • With money to spend!
  • Years back I wore tatters,
  • Now---silk stockings, mi friend!
  • Ive bracelets and jewellery.
  • Rings envied by friends
  • A sergeant to swank with,
  • And something to lend.
  • I drive out in taxis,
  • Do theatres in style.
  • And this is my verdict---
  • It is jolly worth while.
  • Earning high wages? Yus,
  • Five quid a week,
  • A woman, too, mind you,
  • I calls it dim sweet.
  • Yeare asking some questions---
  • But bless yer, here goes
  • I spends the whole racket
  • On good times and clothes.
  • Me saving? Elijah!
  • Yer do think Im mad.
  • Im acting the lady,
  • But----I aint living bad.
  • Im having lifes good times.
  • See ere, its like this
  • The oof come o danger,
  • A touch-and-go bizz.

95
Munition Wages continued
  • Worth while for tomorrow
  • If Im blown to the sky,
  • Ill have repaid mi wages
  • In death----and pass by.
  • What is the message of this poem?
  • What does it tell us about the dangers of the
    work women did during World War One?

96
(No Transcript)
97
(No Transcript)
98
French Women Factory Workers
99
Working conditions unionism and pay
  • Trade unionism proved to be the second legacy of
    the war.
  • Female workers had been less unionised than
    their male counterparts.
  • This was because they tended to do part-time work
    and to work in smaller firms (which tended to be
    less unionised).
  • Also, existing unions were often hostile to
    female workers. World War One forced unions to
    deal with the issue of women's work.
  • The scale of women's employment could no longer
    be denied and rising levels of women left
    unmarried or widowed by the war forced the hands
    of the established unions.

100
  • In addition, feminist pressure on established
    unions and the formation of separate women's
    unions threatened to destabilise men-only unions.
  • The increase in female trade union membership
    from only 357,000 in 1914 to over a million by
    1918 represented an increase in the number of
    unionised women of 160 percent.
  • This compares with an increase in the union
    membership of men of only 44 percent.

101
  • However, the war did not inflate women's wages.
  • Employers circumvented wartime equal pay
    regulations by employing several women to replace
    one man, or by dividing skilled tasks into
    several less skilled stages.
  • In these ways, women could be employed at a lower
    wage and not said to be 'replacing' a man
    directly.
  • By 1931, a working woman's weekly wage had
    returned to the pre-war situation of being half
    the male rate in more industries.

102
  • Germany
  • In World War I, when the expected quick victory
    turned to protracted war, German women entered
    industrial jobs (about 700,000 in munitions
    industries by the end of the war),
  • and served as civilian employees in military jobs
    in rear areas (medical, clerical, and manual
    labor women trained for jobs in the signal corps
    late in the war but never deployed).
  • German women won the vote after World War I, and
    some kept their jobs in industry.28

103
German Women Factory Workers
104
(No Transcript)
105
The wartime employment of women became a staple subject for humour. Imperial War Museum
106
For Recruitment
107
  • Women played an important role in persuading men
    to join the army.
  • In August 1914, Admiral Charles Fitzgerald
    founded the Order of the White Feather.
  • This organisation encouraged women to give out
    white feathers to young men who had not joined
    the army.

108
  • The British Army began publishing posters urging
    men to become soldiers.
  • Some of these posters were aimed at women.
  • One poster said "Is your Best Boy wearing
    khaki? If not, don't you think he should be?"
  • Another poster read "If you cannot persuade him
    to answer his country's call and protect you now,
    discharge him as unfit."The Mothers' Union also
    published a poster.
  • It urged its members to tell their sons "My
    boy, I don't want you to go, but if I were you I
    should go."
  • The poster added "On his return, hearts would
    beat high with thankfulness and pride."

109
  • Baroness Emma Orczy founded the Active Service
    League, an organisation that urged women to sign
    the following pledge "At this hour of England's
    grave peril and desperate need I do hereby pledge
    myself most solemnly in the name of my King and
    Country to persuade every man I know to offer his
    services to the country, and I also pledge myself
    never to be seen in public with any man who,
    being in every way fit and free for service, has
    refused to respond to his country's call."

110
Financing the War
111
  • Russia
  • During World War I, some Russian women took part
    in combat even during the Czarist period.
  • These women, motivated by a combination of
    patriotism and a desire to escape a drab
    existence, mostly joined up dressed as men.
  • A few, however, served openly as women. The
    Czarist government had no consistent policy on
    female combatants.
  • Russias first woman aviator was turned down as a
    military pilot, and settled for driving and
    nursing.
  • Another pilot was assigned to active duty,
    however.32

112
  • The most famous women soldiers were the
    Battalion of Death.
  • Its leader, Maria Botchkareva, a 25-year-old
    peasant girl (with a history of abuse by men),
    began as an individual soldier in the Russian
    army.
  • She managed (with the support of an amused local
    commander) to get permission from the Czar to
    enlist as a regular soldier.
  • After fighting off the frequent sexual advances
    and ridicule of her male comrades, she eventually
    won their respect especially after serving with
    them in battle.
  • Botchkarevas autobiography describes several
    horrendous battle scenes in which most of her
    fellow soldiers were killed running towards
    German machine-gun positions, and one in which
    she bayoneted a German soldier to death.
  • After two different failed attacks, she spent
    many hours crawling under German fire to drag her
    wounded comrades back to safety, evidently saving
    hundreds of lives in the course of her service at
    the front
  • . She was seriously wounded several times but
    always returned to her unit at the front after
    recuperating.
  • Clearly a strong bond of comradery existed
    between her and the male soldiers of her unit.33

113
Russian Women Soldiers
114
  • The battalion was formed in extraordinary
    circumstances, in response to a breakdown of
    morale and discipline in the Russian army after
    three horrible years of war and the fall of the
    Czarist government.
  • By her own account, Botchkareva conceived of the
    battalion as a way to shame the men into fighting
    (since nothing else was getting them to fight).
  • She argued that numbers were immaterial, that
    what was important was to shame the men and that
    a few women at one place could serve as an
    example to the entire front.The purpose of the
    plan would be to shame the men in the trenches by
    having the women go over the top first. The
    battalion was thus exceptional and was
    essentially a propaganda tool.
  • As such it was heavily publicized Before I had
    time to realize it I was already in a
    photographers studio. The following day this
    picture topped big posters pasted all over the
    city.
  • Bryant wrote in 1918 No other feature of the
    great war ever caught the public fancy like the
    Death Battalion, composed of Russian women. I
    heard so much about them before I left
    America.35

115
  • The battalion began with about 2,000 women
    volunteers and was given equipment, a
    headquarters, and several dozen male officers as
    instructors. Botchkareva did not emphasize
    fighting strength but discipline (the purpose of
    the women soldiers was sacrificial).
  • Physical standards for enlistment were lower
    than for men.
  • She told the women, We are physically weak, but
    if we be strong morally and spiritually we will
    accomplish more than a large force.
  • She was preoccupied with upholding the moral
    standards and upright behavior of her girls.
  • Mostly, she emphasized that the soldiers in her
    battalion would have to follow traditional
    military discipline, not elect committees to rule
    as the rest of the army was doing.
  • I did not organize this Battalion to be like
    the rest of the army. We were to serve as an
    example, and not merely to add a few babas
    women to the ineffective millions of soldiers
    now swarming over Russia.
  • When most of the women rebelled against her harsh
    rule, Botchkareva stubbornly rejected pleas from
    Kerensky and others including direct orders
    from military superiors to allow formation of a
    committee.
  • Instead she reorganized the remaining 300 women
    who stayed loyal to her, and brought them to the
    front, fighting off repeated attacks by
    Bolsheviks along the way.
  • The battalion had new uniforms, a full array of
    war equipment, and 18 men to serve them (two
    instructors, eight cooks, six drivers, and two
    shoemakers).36

116
  • Other womens battalions were formed in several
    other cities apparently less than 1,000 women
    in all but they suffered from a variety of
    problems, ranging from poor discipline to a lack
    of shoes and uniforms.
  • These other units never saw combat.
  • There was not another offensive before the
    Bolsheviks took power in October and sent most of
    the women soldiers home, telling them to put on
    female attire.39
  • The Battalion of Death, then, never tested an
    all-female units effectiveness in combat.
  • Nonetheless, on one day in 1917, 300 women did go
    over the top side by side with 400 male comrades,
    advanced, and overran German trenches.
  • The women apparently were able to keep
    functioning in the heat of battle, and were able
    to adhere to military discipline.
  • These women were, of course, an elite sample of
    the most war-capable women in all of Russia.
  • Nonetheless, they did it advanced under fire,
    retreated under fire, and helped provide that
    crucial element of leadership by which other
    nearby units were spurred into action, overcoming
    the inertia of fatigue and committee rule.
  • The Battalion of Death did this not as scattered
    individual women but as a coherent military unit
    of 300 women instructed by Botchkareva that
    they were no longer women, but soldiers.40

117
Spies
  • Mata Hari
  • Real Name Margareetha Geertruide
    Zelle
  • German Spy!

118
  • After the War
  • 1 Women were expected to give way to men
    returning from the forces and return to pre-war
    womens work.
  • 2 The assumption that a womans place is in the
    home returned.
  • 3 The percentage of women at work returned to
    pre-war levels.
  • 4 More women than before worked in offices.

119
  • After the War
  • 5 Shorter skirts and hair became fashionable.
  • 6 Women went out with men without a chaperone.
  • 7 Women smoked and wore make-up in public for the
    first time.
  • 8 In 1919 being female or married was no longer
    allowed to disqualify someone from holding a job
    in the professions or civil service.

120
Internment of Enemy Aliens
  • On October 22, 1914, in response to press
    campaigns calling for the round up of enemies at
    large on the home front, the British Cabinet
    ordered the arrest of un-naturalized male
    Germans, Austrians, and Hungarians between the
    ages of 17 and 45.
  • Internment camps were set up all over the
    mainland and on the Isle of Man.
  • But this was not enough, and after the sinking of
    the Lusitania, the press called for more.
  • Propagandists like Horatio Bottomley lashed out
    at the local Germans.
  • The press campaigns incited riots and looting of
    German shops and property in Britain.

121
Horatio Bottomley wrote
  • I call for a vendetta---a vendetta against every
    German in Britain---whether naturalized or
    notYou cannot naturalize an unnatural abortion,
    a hellish freak. But you can exterminate him.
  • We have been very patient---patient with the
    Government, patient with the enemythousands and
    thousands of German savages are roaming at large
    in our midst---and all the time our brave and
    honourable soldiers are being asphyxiated in the
    trenches our wounded are tortured prisoners are
    being starved and insulted unfortified towns are
    being bombarded peaceful civilians---old men,
    women, and children---are being murdered
    trawlers and merchant vessels are being sunk and
    now comes the crowning infamy of the Lusitania
  • I should welcome the formation of a National
    Council of Righteous Retribution---a National
    Vendetta, pledged to exterminate every
    German-born man (God, forgive the term!) in
    Britain---and to deport every German-born woman
    and child
  • As regards, naturalized Germans they should be
    registered, made to report themselves every day,
    and compelled to wear a distinctive badge.
  • In John Bull on May 15, 1915

122
The Alien Presence
  • Many precautions were taken against
    aliens---resident foreigners even though they
    posed little threat to national security
  • There were 35,000 Germans in Britain---the third
    largest immigrant group after the Irish and the
    Jews
  • The German immigrants became the object of public
    suspicion and attack due to the imperial
    struggles in South Africa and the more recent
    naval arms race and spies scare

123
The Half-Man by William Watson
  • Sparing not age, sparing not youth,
  • They tore their way with wolfish tooth
  • Through human homes, through human hopes
  • Not men, not men, but lycanthropes!
  • Thus do not the fabled monsters rear
  • Their heads anew thus reappear
  • Old Shapes that free us and appal
  • And the Half-Man is worst of all.

124
Internment
  • Distinguished men with German connections were
    hounded by the press---even Lord Haldane, simply
    because he had been partly educated in Germany.
  • He had been Minister for War until 1912,
    re-modelled the army and founded the
    Territorials.
  • Yet he was victimized by the press until a
    formation of a coalition government in May 1915,
    when he was removed from office.

125
The Alien Presence
  • The spy scare continued until 1915 with many
    people caught up in wild rumors and false
    accusations
  • The Daily Mail advised its readers that if a
    waiter serving them appeared German, but claimed
    Swiss, they should demand to see his passport
  • Because of the fear of spies using carrier
    pigeons, the DORA required owners to have a
    permit for homing pigeons
  • In reality, some 22 known German spies were
    rounded up in 1914, and 11 were executed

126
The Alien Presence
  • However, the public increasingly demanded the
    internment of aliens
  • This led to 30,000 interned mostly on the Isle of
    Man under the Alien Restrictions Act of August
    1914
  • Fueled by many stories of German atrocities in
    Belgium and elsewhere, actual or supposed Germans
    were subjected to harassment
  • There were at least 7 deaths in the East End
    riots in May 1915 following the torpedoing of the
    Lusitania
  • Even dachshunds, the Germanically named dogs,
    were stoned on the streets sometimes

127
The Alien Presence
  • Air raid by the zeppelins also increased
    anti-German feelings
  • They even went after people with German surnames
    who had lived in the area for generations and had
    Cockney accents
  • There were large scale demonstrations against
    enemy aliens in a number of cities in 1918
  • And a petition was signed with 1.2 million
    signatures
  • Orchestras began to avoid German composers
  • The German measles became known as the Belgian
    Flush

128
The Isle of Man
  • The Isle of Man was used by the British
    Government for the internment of enemy aliens
    during both World War One and World War Two and
    there is still a great deal of interest,
    primarily from family historians who had
    relatives or friends detained in the camps.
  • During 1914-1919 there were two large camps on
    the Island at Douglas and Knockaloe near Peel.
  • The first was a requisitioned holiday camp whilst
    the second was purpose built using prefabricated
    huts and even had its own railway link.
  • Large numbers of internees were held for up to
    five years until the camps finally closed in
    1919.

129
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130
The Alien Presence---Jews
  • Jews also came under physical attack in East
    London in 1917 in the belief that they were
    dodging conscription
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