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The Civil War (1861-1865)


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Title: The Civil War (1861-1865)

The Civil War (1861-1865)
  • CHA3U

Jefferson Davis
  • February 4th 1861 Confederate States of America
  • S.C., Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia,
    Louisiana and Texas
  • Jefferson Davis President

The Aftermath of Fort Sumter
  • Virginia, N.C., Arkansas and Tennessee join
  • Richmond, Virginia named capital
  • Northwest portion of Virginia seceded from
    Virginia and joined the Union creating West
  • Missouri and Kentucky were divided having both a
    pro-Northern and pro-Southern government

  • Union General Winfield Scott, Commander of U.S.
    Army, devises The Anaconda Plan
  • Effort to win war with minimal bloodshed
  • Union blockade of main southern ports would
    weaken Confederate economy
  • Capture and control the Mississippi River would
    split the South
  • South believed Cotton was King
  • Believed that cotton was so essential to Europe,
    European powers would intervene in the war on
    their behalf

The Anaconda Plan
Battle of the Ironclads
  • ironclad steam warship protected by steel or
    iron plates of armor
  • March, 8th- 9th, 1862
  • CSS Virginia an ironclad of the Confederate
    Navy built from the burned out hull of the USS

Battle of the Ironclads
  • Virginia attacked blockade
  • Battle took place near the mouth if Hampton Road,
  • March 8 Virginia wreaks havoc on Union wooden
  • Rams and sinks the USS Cumberland, shells and
    destroys the USS Congress

The Sinking of the USS Cumberland
USS Monitor vs. CSS Virginia
  • March 9, Virginia pursues badly damaged USS
  • Encounters USS Monitor Union ironclad
  • Furious battle lasts hours ending in a draw as
    Virginia retreated
  • Both sides claimed victory
  • South unable to end blockade
  • Ushers in new era of navl warfare

First Battle of Bull Run
  • First major battle of the war
  • Fought near Manassas, Virginia on July, 21 1861
  • You are green, it is true, but they are green
    also you are all green alike." Winfield Scott
  • Union forces routed and forced to retreat to
  • Alarmed at casualties and to prevent more states
    from leaving the union, Congress passes the
    Crittenden-Johnson Resolution

General Stonewall Jackson
  • One of the great tactical commanders in U.S.
  • Revered Confederate General
  • Earned nickname and fame at Bull Run
  • There is Jackson standing like a stone wall

First Battle of Bull Run
  • No more 90 day enlistments for Union soldiers
  • Lincoln asks for 3 year enlistments
  • Winfield Scott out General George McClellan in
  • 34 years old and had never tasted defeat

General Robert E. Lee
  • Privately denounced Confederacy
  • Turned down Lincolns offer for command in Union
  • Would fight only in defense of Virginia
  • Virginia secedes
  • Assumes command of the Army of Northern Virginia

The Seven Days Battle
  • Series of 6 major battles in June/July 1862 where
    Lee drives McClellans Army of the Potomac away
    from Confederate capital Richmond
  • McClellan was outfought and outthought
  • Confederate victory but costly
  • (casualties C - 20 000/U - 16 0000)
  • Northern morale crushed by McClellans defeat
  • There would be no quick end to the war
  • With Richmond safe, Lee can look towards invading
    the North (Maryland Campaign)

  • September, 18th 1862
  • Bloodiest day in U.S. history (24 000 casualties)
  • Fought near Sharpsburg, Maryland
  • First major battle to take place on Northern soil
  • Lee (45 000 Army of Northern Virginia) vs.
    McClellan (90 000 men Army of the Potomac)
  • Special Orders No. 191

  • Lee deploys men in defensive position along low
    ridge near Antietam Creek
  • Series of attacks/counter attacks amid the
    cornfields and woods
  • General Burnside captured stone bride and
    advanced against Confederate flank
  • General A.P. Hill arrived at last second and
    drove Burnside back
  • McClellan refused to commit his entire force,
    allowing Lee to fight him to a draw

Confederate dead at Antietam
Lincoln and McClellan
Aftermath of Antietam
  • Tactical draw, but South left battlefield
  • End of Lees Maryland Campaign
  • Much needed strategic victory for the North
  • Lincoln dismisses McClellan for not pursuing
    Lees army, General Ambrose Burnside in
  • Ends the possibility of European recognition of
    the Confederacy
  • Provided Lincoln the opportunity to announce The
    Emancipation Proclamation

Road to Freedom
  • March, 1862 Lincoln forbids Union Army officers
    from returning fugitive slaves
  • April, 1862 Frees slaves in the District of
    Columbia and compensates slave owners
  • June, 1862 Congress outlaws slavery in the
    territories in conflict w/ Dred Scott ruling
    that Congress could not regulate slavery

The Emancipation Proclamation
  • Lincoln issues executive order feeing all the
    slaves in the Confederate States of America that
    did not return to the Union by January 1 1863
  • Acceptance of blacks into Union Army and navy
  • War for the Union must become a war for freedom
  • Added moral force to Union cause

Emancipation Proclamation
  • Applied only to states that had seceded from the
  • Left slavery untouched in the loyal border states
  • Exempted parts of South that were under Northern
  • Freedom dependent on Union military victory

  • Union Army revolving door leadership no one can
    defeat Lee
  • Burnside -- Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker replaced by
    Gen. George Meade 3 days before battle
  • Meade left to stop Lees second invasion of the
  • Gettysburg, Pennsylvania July 1-3, 1863

  • Town critical as a dozen key roads converged
  • Lee hoped to turn his attention toward
    Philadelphia or Baltimore or Washington
  • Lee 75 000 men
  • Meade 97 000 men
  • Greatest battle the Western Hemisphere has ever

A Harvest of Death
Day 3 Picketts Charge
  • General George E. Pickett commanded 15 000
    Confederate soldiers across open field at the
    centre of the Union lines
  • Pounded by artillery and rifle fire
  • Reached Union lines but failed to breach it
  • In less than 50 minutes the Confederacy had
    suffered 10 000 casualties
  • The failure of Picketts Charge marked the end of
    the battle

Picketts Charge
  • 51 000 casualties
  • Confederacy was spiritually and physically
    exhausted by battle
  • Retreat to Virginia, Meade criticized for not
  • Lee would never again attempt an offensive
    operation of such scale
  • Confederacy never recovered from losses at

The Gettysburg Address
  • Speech by Lincoln at the dedication of the
    National Cemetery at Gettysburg on November 17th
  • 269 words
  • Sought to redefine the purpose of the war
  • a new birth of freedom

Ulysses S. Grant
  • A failure in everything except marriage and war
  • Calm under fire
  • Western Front - first Union victories at Forts
    Henry and Donaldson
  • 1862 Shiloh turned certain defeat into
  • July 4, 1862 - Vicksburg Campaign ends with the
    Confederate surrender at Vicksburg and Union
    control of the Mississippi

Ulysses S. Grant
  • The greatest general of his age and one of the
    greatest strategists of any age.
  • Lincoln puts Grant in charge of all Union forces
  • Promoted to Lt. Gen. a rank last held by
  • Command of 533 000 men largest army in the
  • Grant promoted Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman
    in charge of the western armies

William Tecumseh Sherman
  • Grant and Sherman believed in total war
  • Only utter defeat of Confederacy and their
    economy could end war
  • Sherman given orders to move towards Atlanta

Shermans March to the Sea
  • Sherman captured Atlanta, heart of Confederacy,
    in November of 1864
  • Scorched earth policy
  • Goal was to end the Souths capacity for war
  • Wanted to add pressure on Lee and break the
    stalemate w/Grant

Shermans March to the Sea
  • Six week march
  • Freed 10 000 slaves
  • Wrecked 300 miles of railroad tracks - Shermans
  • Seized over 20 000 horses, mules and heads of
  • Destroyed cotton mills and burned the fields
  • Destroyed Souths capacity to wage war
  • Controversial and memory still lives in minds of

1864 The Wilderness
  • Grant called for 4 simultaneous blows at the
    heart of the Confederacy
  • Meade was to lead the Army of Potomac South
    against Lee near Richmond
  • Grant would accompany Meade
  • The Overland Campaign (Wilderness campaign)
    series of battles fought in Virginia against
    Lees Army of Northern Virginia
  • Lost several battles and 55 000 men, but Grant
    refused to allow Lee to retreat
  • Strategic victory for the Union, leaving Lee in a
    desperate position

The Overland Campaign
  • Fighting was ferocious
  • Union soldiers would pin their names inside their
    uniforms so there bodies could be identified
  • Final entry of Union diary found - June 3 1864
    Cold Harbor. I was killed.

The Election of 1864
  • First election every held during a civil war
  • Lincoln believed he had little chance of being
    re-elected, the people were wild for peace
  • Lincoln ran under the banner of the National
    Union Party
  • Democratic opponent was former General George
    McClellan nominated on a peace platform he
    personally rejected
  • Democrats campaigned on a negotiated peace
  • An end to the war, with or without victory
  • Dont change horses in the middle of a stream!

The Election of 1864
  • With Sherman on the move outside Atlanta and
    Grant closing in on Richmond, the possibility of
    Union victory grew
  • Soldiers were allowed to vote in the filed for
    the first time
  • 70 voted for Lincoln
  • The Confederacy had hoped to earn independence by
    out-lasting Lincoln
  • All hope of a political victory for the South was

The Election of 1864
  • Early 1865, Lees army thinned by casualties and
    desertion, Petersburg and Richmond fell
  • Lee could no longer tactically or logistically
    wage war
  • April 9, 1865 Lee surrendered Army of Northern
    Virginia to Grant at Appomattox Court House
  • Grants respect for Lee and his desire to fold
    Confederacy back into the Union, Lee was allowed
    to keep his saber and his horse Traveler

Surrender at Appomattox
Lincolns Second Inaugural Address
  • March 4, 1865
  • End of war was a mere formality
  • Slavery was at end
  • Speech is inscribed on Lincoln Memorial
  • Confederate spy from Maryland named John Wilkes
    Booth watches address

John Wilkes Booth
  • Popular stage actor
  • Confederate sympathizer
  • Opposed Lincolns plan to extend voting rights to
    former slaves
  • Gathered a group of conspirators and plotted to
    kill Lincoln, V.P. Andrew Johnson and Sec. of
    State William Seward

Fords Theatre
  • April 14, 1865, - Lincoln and wife Mary Todd
    Lincoln attended Our American Cousin at Fords
    Theatre in Washington
  • Booth knew theatre and play well
  • Slipped into Presidents box at 1015

Sic Semper Tyrannis
  • Booth shot Lincoln in back of head
  • President collapsed
  • Booth leapt from balcony
  • Sic semper tyrannis Thus always to tyrants
    or The South is avenged
  • Booth escaped

The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
The Death of Lincoln
  • Lincoln died next morning
  • Sec. of War Edwin M. Stanton Now he belongs to
  • Andrew Johnson was sworn in as17th President
  • First president to be assassinated
  • Lincolns funeral procession from Washington to
    Springfield Illinois viewed by millions
  • Booth killed 12 days later

Abraham Lincoln 1861-1865
  • Martyr
  • Considered greatest presidents in U.S. history
  • He saved Union, freed slaves, and presided over
    second founding of America
  • OP Baseball.

Lincoln Memorial