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Project Management September 16, 2005

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Title: Project Management September 16, 2005


1
Project Management September 16, 2005
  • James R. Matt
  • Technical Fellow
  • General Motors Corp

2
I think there is a world market for maybe five
computers.
Conventional Wisdom A Rogues Gallery
-- Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943
There is no reason anyone would want a computer
in their home.
Ken Olson, President, Chairman and Founder of
Digital Equipment Corp., 1977
640K ought to be enough for anybody.
Bill Gates, 1981
What do 13 people in Seattle know that we dont?
Ross Perot when presented with a proposal for
EDS to acquire Microsoft, 1980
3
Conventional Wisdom A Rogues Gallery
  • This telephone has too many shortcomings to be
    seriously considered as a means of communication.
    The device is inherently of no value to us.
  • Western union internal memo, 1876.
  • The wireless music box has no imaginable
    commercial value. Who would pay for a message
    sent to nobody in particular?
  • David Sarnoff associates in response to his
    urgings for investment in the radio in the 1920s.
  • The concept is interesting and well-formed, but
    in order to earn better than a C, the idea must
    be feasible.
  • A Yale University management professor in
    response to Fred Smiths paper proposing reliable
    overnight delivery service. Smith went on to
    found Federal Express Corp.

4
Dominant Positions in Business
  • Who would you have bet on 15 or 20 years ago?
  • GM or Honda?
  • GTE or NEC?
  • Siemens or Hitachi?
  • Caterpillar or Komatsu?
  • Philips or Matsushita?
  • Pan Am or British Airways?

5
Key Thoughts Simple Tools
6
Coarse to Fine Product Development
Proof of Concept
Production Readiness
Manufacturing Production
Select
Technical Solution Development
Organize Prioritize
Needs Ideas
Customer and Market Feedback (data from
Marketing, Sales, Quality, Benchmarking,
Customers)
7
The Force Field Model
Improved Future State
Forces Resisting Change Constraints
Todays Equilibrium
Forces Supporting Change Needs
Today State
8
The Force Field Model
Improved Future State
Minimize Affect of Constraints Forces
Resisting Movement towards Vision
Movement Towards the Desired Future.
Increase Forces Supporting Movement
towards Vision
Today State
9
Needs Map Importance vs Satisfaction
High
High Importance High Dissatisfaction
High Importance Satisfied
Insure No Loss or Degradation
Highest Priority
(Then, Sort for Easy vs Difficult)
Importance
Low Importance Satisfied
Lower Importance High Dissatisfaction
Improve if Easy and Low Cost
Capture Work
Low
High
Low
Lack of Satisfaction
10
Needs Map Importance vs Satisfaction
Clearly Understand Big Wins
High
High Importance High Dissatisfaction
High Importance Already Satisfied
Insure you are solving the Right
problem. Translate Needs into Technical
Requirements. Be careful to Prioritize properly
based on customer expectations. Watch out for
errors in Trade-off decisions.
Insure No Loss or Degradation
Highest Priority
(Then, Sort for Easy vs Difficlut)
Importance
Low Importance But also not Satisfied
Lower Importance High Dissatisfaction
Improve if Easy and Low Cost
Capture Work
Low
High
Low
Lack of Satisfaction
11
Spider Chart Performance Targets and Key Wins
Smaller Size
Faster Speed
Durability Life
Todays Product or Situation
Best in Class Competition
Targets for new Design
12
Spider Chart Performance Targets and Key Wins
Smaller Size
Faster Speed
Durability Life
Key Wins
Todays Product or Situation
Best in Class Competition
Targets for new Design
13
Market Positioning for
Design Feature -- Projected Strategic
Positioning
Parity
Focus
Win
Break-Out Metrics
Consumer Metrics
Insider Technical Metrics
Brand Reputation
Selling Features
Parity
Focus
Win
14
Roadmap Example
Specific Technical Solution - tbd zzzz
Gen 1
Gen 2
Gen 3
Technology
Integrated Subsystem Controls
Integrated Vehicle Controls
Tolerant Controls
Product
2006 GMTQQQ Utilities
200X GMTZZZ
First Application
2006 GMTXXX Pickups
2002 Ford Explorer
2004 BMW 7 Series
2001 Mercedes S500
Competition
Legend
High Priority
Resourced
Game Changer
15
System or Technology Lifecycle Plan
Long Range
Mid - Term
NA991189 Steering EPS (High Voltage)
Near-Term
GME991612 Steer By Wire

NA991508 Multi-Link Front Suspension, Full Size
Trucks
NA002168 Smart Tire (Sensor in Tire)
NA991217 Alternative Spring C Spring
Performance

Key

NA002186 Rear Steer (IRS Compatible)
Current Project
NA991398 Suspension RR- IRS Truck W/QS4
Investigation

NA991190 Brakes Dry Interface Corner Brake System
GME991612 Steer By Wire
Not Staffed
NA97041 Suspension Anti- Roll DCSSS



2011
2009
2006
2005
2008
2010
2012
2007
16
Brainstorming
  • Creative thinking
  • Creative is highly non-linear
  • Synergy - Ideas tend to feed off each other and
    lead to bigger ideas
  • Do not rank ideas, or find fault with suggestions
    at this time
  • Needs time spent early in project for Creative
    Thinking
  • Creative Capture method
  • Use Yellow Sticky Notes
  • Define Categories and repeat process on each
  • Write ideas as fast as possible
  • Limit the time spent, go fast
  • Review and discuss (do not judge merit just yet)
  • Consolidate and re-word for concise and clear
  • Group into patterns
  • Set aside as data needed for Project Planning and
    Risk Management

17
Fishbone (Ishikawa) Diagram
Man
Method
Difficult to assemble
Not Repeatable Process
Sources of error
High Temp
Tends to break down
Humidity
Machine
Environment
18
Set Priority Map Issues Enablers
High
Important, Urgent
High Priority
(Then, Sort for Easy vs Difficlut)
Urgency
Important, Not Yet Urgent
Capture Work
Low
High
Low
Importance
19
5 Phase Problem Resolution
  1. Problem Definition
  2. Containment, Immediate Corrective Action
  3. Root Cause
  4. Irreversible Corrective Action
  5. Verification

20
Gantt chart Critical Path Timing
Activities
time
Define Initial Project Task 1 Task 2 Etc
Define Requirements
Concept Generation Selection
Detail Concept
Optimize
21
Gantt chart Critical Path Timing
Activities are Groups of Tasks that support a
Milestone or a key decision point
Activities
time
Define Initial Project Task 1 Task 2 Etc
The Red Line is the Critical Path. The Critical
Path is the linkage path of tasks in time that if
these tasks slip the end point of the project
duration becomes longer. Tasks on the this
timeline are called on the Critical Path.
Define Requirements
Concept Generation Selection
Milestone is key point in time where certain
Activities or Task are planned for completion.
The most important Milestones are often called
Gates (this example has five Gates in the green
diamonds.) Gates are major decision points where
the project Key stakeholders approve, redirect,
or stop the project. Decisions from Gates
must be clear, the issues and decision documented.
Detail Concept
Optimize
22
Example Gantt Planning Resources Chart
23
Trade-off study matrix
Design Option 1
Design Option 2
Design Option 3
Example Criteria
Performance Cost Mass Quality Volume /
Size Risk Durability
Key Much Better Somewhat
Better 0 No Improvement - Worse
- - Much Worse
Summation
24
Trade-off study matrix
Design Option 1
Design Option 2
Design Option 3
Example Criteria



Performance Cost Mass Quality Volume /
Size Risk Durability

- -

Key Much Better Somewhat
Better 0 No Improvement - Worse
- - Much Worse
-

0
0
0

0
-
0
- -




-
1
5
3
Summation
25
Risk
  • Types of Risk
  • (things gone wrong, or critical items not going
    right)
  • Business
  • Timing
  • Technical
  • Quantify Relative Risk
  • Risk f(L,M) (Likelihood) X (Magnitude)
  • Method
  • Brainstorm Potential Problems
  • Define Likelihood of Occurrence (1 -10 scale)
  • Define Magnitude should problem occur (1-10
    scale)
  • (Risk Priority Number) RPN (Likelihood) X
    (Magnitude)
  • Rank order into a bar chart (Pareto Diagram)
  • Define Countermeasures

26
Pareto Diagram
Focus on the high RPN Risk items and put in place
Countermeasures Must Insure -- Bang for the
Buck (limited resources cause the need to Focus)
Higher
RPN (Risk Priority Number)
Lower
Specific Potential Problems
27
Team Work Breakdown Structure
Roles and responsibilities can and should be
shared, moved and adjusted to assure a fair
balance and to handle spikes in work. Metrics
should be set up to monitor the quality and
timely delivery of work elements
Five Person Team
Team Leader
Design
Planning Timing
Customer Contact
Build Tooling Availability
Simulation
Recorder Scheduling
Research
Prototype Build
Monitor and assess Progress
Procurement Cost Estimation
Trade-Off Study
Gate Review Preparation
Prototype Test
Gather Metrics
Requirements, Specifications
Results Documentation
Open Issue Management
Balance Work Load
Results Documentation
28
Team Work Breakdown Structure
Four Person Team
Team Leader
Design
Planning Timing
Customer Contact
Build Tooling Availability
Simulation
Recorder Scheduling
Research
Prototype Build
Monitor and assess Progress
Procurement Cost Estimation
Trade-Off Study
Gate Review Preparation
Prototype Test
Gather Metrics
Requirements, Specifications
Results Documentation
Open Issue Management
Balance Work Load
Results Documentation
29
Team Work Breakdown Structure
Three Person Team
Team Leader
Design
Planning Timing
Customer Contact
Build Tooling Availability
Simulation
Recorder Scheduling
Research
Prototype Build
Monitor and assess Progress
Procurement Cost Estimation
Trade-Off Study
Gate Review Preparation
Prototype Test
Gather Metrics
Requirements, Specifications
Results Documentation
Open Issue Management
Balance Work Load
Results Documentation
30
Engineering Project Management
31
Coarse to Fine Product Development
Proof of Concept
Production Readiness
Manufacturing Production
Select
Technical Solution Development
Organize Prioritize
Needs Ideas
Customer and Market Feedback (data from
Marketing, Sales, Quality, Benchmarking,
Customers)
32
Technical Solution Level Indication of Risk and
Time needed to bring to Market.
1
Production Known, Proven, in Production,
Refinement of existing.
2
Verification Known, Proven, in Competitive
Production, Tribal Knowledge exists
Needs Verification to
specific Requirements.
3
Development Known, Proven, Needs modification
to meet requirements.
4
Feasibility Known, Not Proven, Concept
Demonstrated, No Production Applications,
Needs Significant
Engineering Design/Analysis/Development.
5
Idea Unknown, Invention required, Understand
Market Pull, Need Technical Direction,
Need Technical Solution, Optimal Solution
Unknown.
33
DFSS

IDDOV
Product Development
Determine Needs, Select Projects. Assign Teams
Phase 00
Phase 00
Product Development
Technology
Planning
Define
Optimize
Requirements,
Generate
Detail
Key Interfaces, Constraints
Concepts
Concept
Verify
1
2
5
4
3
Select Approve
Approve Project
Requirements
Approve Detail Concept
Approve Concept
Plan, Team, and
Design Concept
Agreement
Deliverables
Verification
Design for Six Sigma IDDOV
I
-
Identify
D
1
Define Requirements
D

Design Concept
2
O
-
Optimize
V
-
Verify
34
Project Tasks and Gate Reviews
Phase 00
Phase 00
Product Development
Define
Optimize
Determine Needs, Select Projects. Assign Teams
Requirements,
Generate
Detail
Technology
Key Interfaces, Constraints
Planning
Concepts
Concept
Verify
Define Requirements
Concept Generation
Robust Assessment
Optimize Validate
Define Initial Project
Key Interfaces Constraints
Design Selection
Purchasing
Tasks
Tasks
Tasks
Tasks

Determine Perf Manf
Tasks

Develop Design

Develop purchasing info

Generate Assess
Requirements

Establish Project Plan

Finalize Development Test Plan
Alternative concepts

Conduct Robust assessment

Define Business Targets

Obtain Lessons Learned

Optimize Concepts

Perform Evaluations

Construct, Build, and Test

Define Needs
Prototype
Draft Initial Specifications


Concept Tradeoff Study

Conduct Peer Review

Verify Hardware, Software

Develop Commercial

Define Interfaces, Constraints
to Technical Requirements
Approach

Refine Specifications

Gather Information to

Update all Business,
Robust
Eng Plan (DOE)

Define Project Plan
determine Requirements
Technical, and Project

Update all Business
Resources Required
Documents
Technical Documents

Conduct Gate Review 1
Conduct Concept Review and Approve Design Concept

Review with
Approve Details Concept Make Purchasing Decisions


Conduct Final Design Review

key Stakeholders
1
2
4
3
5
Select Approve
Approve Concept
Approve Project
Approve Detail Concept
Requirements
Design Concept
Plan, Team, and
Agreement
Verification
Deliverables
35
Five Objectives of Every Gate Review
  • Explain the Benefits of the Technical Solution or
    Technology
  • Show the Technical Feasibility of approach and
    solution
  • Show the Balance of Performance to Business
    Imperatives
  • 4) Explain the Risks
  • a) Business.
  • b) Application Timing.
  • c) Technical.
  • 5) Explain the Expected Engineering Expenses
    Costs.

36
Five Objectives of Every Design Project Review
  • Explain the Benefits of the Technical Solution or
    Technology
  • Show the Technical Feasibility of approach and
    solution
  • Show the Balance of Performance to Business
    Imperatives
  • 4) Explain the Risks
  • ( Risk Mgt Plan, Consider Risk of doing or Not
    doing)
  • a) Business.
  • b) Application Timing.
  • c) Technical.
  • 5) Explain the Expected Engineering Expenses
    Costs.
  • (Required vs Available -- Manpower, Materials,)

( how alternatives Stack up and why we should
do one approach or another)
Define what can, (should, is) being done to
Reduce the Risk!
37
Example Upper Strut Mount Design For Six Sigma
Example
38
Robust Design to Band-width
What is the Better Design, A or B?
Performance Variation
Operating Conditions
Design A
Design B
39
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40
Define the Basic Functions
  • Brainstorm a list of Basic Functions the Product
    must provide. What does this thing need to do?
  • Use Verbs
  • React
  • Position
  • Isolate
  • Filter
  • Rotate
  • Limit
  • Amplify
  • etc

41
Orient Position Stays in place over life
(loaded position, dynamic static) Stays in
place during suspension travel Positions
correctly at initial assembly Service
orientation (ex side-load compensation) Isolate
Quiet over life (no undesired contacts metal to
metal, contacts click/clank, no rubber to
rubber/metal relative motion - squeak,
Maintains desired Rate curves (over life,
throughout travels, dynamic frequency) Must have
mating part stiffness/mobility React Distribute
Loads Limit Wheel Travel Impact Forces (limit
Doming of shock tower) Maintain Suspension
Geometry - React Suspension Forces (Camber,
Jounce, Rebound, Spring Side Loads) Spring,
Strut Rod, Jounce Bumper all to Body Brake
Force Reaction Allow Rotation Coning while
steering Low Friction Smooth Quiet Low
Hysterisis Sufficient Coning Clearance
Compliance Limit Travels Design Travel Objective
not violated (specifically MEJ,
Rebound) Facilitate Assembly Avoids Mis-Builds,
or difficult Builds (provisions for alignment,
operator adis, no interferences, retention
adequate, GDT adequate) Tune-ability Wide
range of linear axial rates Independently tune
axial to radial rate Volume of Rubber (shape of
rate curve, and dynamic isolation) Amount of
axial pre-load (linearity, amount of linear
range, rate build up)
42
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43
Consider Classis Failure Mechanism that Cause
Failure Modes
  • Creep (relaxation and flow over time, plastic
    movement, often accelerated with heat or high
    loads)
  • Fracture (brittle failure due to sudden physical
    overload, cracking)
  • Yield (Tensile or bending failure, permanent
    deformation)
  • Physio-Chemical Instability (Chemical change in
    material properties, Corrosion, UV instability,
    chemical attack of solvent or lubricants, heat
    aging of rubber)
  • Dimensional Incompatibility (Stack up of
    tolerances, mis-positioning, flexing of base or
    bracket, too big, too small)
  • Contamination (dirt, grit, dust, mixed materials)
  • Vibration and Mechanical Shock (mechanical or
    electrical high frequency, surge, sudden
    overload)
  • Environmental (hot, cold, humid, submersion)
  • Wear (repeated cyclic load causing material
    removal)

44
Matrix Functions vs Failure Mechanisms Evaluate
Risk due to Sensitivities
Failure Mechanisms
React Position Isolate Filter Rotate Limit A
mplify
Functions
45
Matrix Functions vs Failure Mechanisms Evaluate
Risk due to Sensitivities
React Position Isolate Filter Rotate Limit A
mplify
High
Med
High
High
Med
High
46
Matrix Assessment Knowledge Gathering
47
The Forward Pass
Energy In
Functions Position, Isolate, React Loads
Out Desired Functional Characteristic
Left to right -- The Forward Pass Evaluate the
Primary Functions and the Likelihood of the
Failure Mechanisms allowing a weakness in the
product design to manifest as a loss in the
Desired Functional Characteristic. Think of
loss due to Noise Factors as a Signal to Noise
ratio. If energy is lost in the system, then the
Signal to Noise ratio must not be Unity. Attack
the sensitivity of the design to the probable
Noise Factors that are likely to degrade the
performance. A Robust design is insensitive to
Noise
48
DFSS - Front Upper Strut Mount
Position Stays in place over life Tolerant of
misaligned mating parts Isolate Quiet over
life Noise Transmission is good React
Loads Rate Curve is within Bandwidth Structure
handles load with out excessive Damage
(Failure Mechanisms cause Failure
Modes) Environment Contamination Yield Fatigue Fra
cture Vibration / Mechanical Shock Wear Electrical
/ Software Compatibility Physio-Chemical
Instability Creep Dimensional Incompatibility
49
The Forward Pass
Likelihood of Primary Function being affected by
a specific Failure Mechanism
Likelihood of compromise of a Primary
Function due to a Sensitivity to Failure
Mechanism. Strong Likelihood Neutral
0 Not Sensitive
50
The Reverse Pass learn for what has happened
before
Functions Position, Isolate, React Loads
Anticipated or Historic Problems
51
Historic Things Gone Wrong
Risk concerns based on Historical Failures Applications Corrective Action
Greater deflection than planned, In bearing seal (clam shelling), allowed contamination. Lead to wear, roughness, and noise. Increase metal thickness (stiffness), added lip seals, anti-corrosion race way, orient bearing to spring axis. Large bearing diameter allowed large clam shelling -
Lack of bearing retention resulting in displacement due to side loading corrective action add location features to locate and retain bearing.
Material Handling forces cause bearings to separate and balls fall out. Add, extend snap fit tabs to keep balls in place during handling for robustness.
Fatigue life of rubber after vehicle durability test, EOL tearing Rubber compound not as strong for new supplier. Decrease stress by Increasing rubber thickness, add volume. And changed shape.
As Loaded position of mount was not comprehended in design, redesign to offset strut rod to allow proper position at curb height. Need to know loading position as accurate as possible, and change in load from vehicle to vehicle.
Tick noise on mount. Plastic retainer cup. Stick/slip/slapping caused a Teflon washer to be added. Click due to hard jounce bumper cup to striker plate and strut mount, on excessive coning. Jounce bumper cup interface integrated into top mount.
Retention of jounce bumper and dust tube inadequate (rod hugger) allowed dust tube to slide down and expose rod. Corrosion of rod due to exposure. Could also cause noise. Positive retention of dust boot and jounce bumper to strut mount, avoid rod hugger (snap fit, fastener, clamp, etc).
Long Jounce bumpers with dust boot attached to tip of jounce bumper (with large deflections) can allow dust boot to slide off at extremes of travel.
52
The Reverse Pass learn for what has happened
before
Functions Position, Isolate, React Loads
Anticipated or Historic Problems
Link Historic Problems to Failure
Mechanisms Environment Contamination Yield Fatigue
Fracture Vibration / Mechanical
Shock Wear Electrical / Software
Compatibility Physio-Chemical Instability Creep Di
mensional Incompatibility
53
The Reverse Pass
Functions Position, Isolate, React Loads
Failure Mechanisms Environment Contamination Yiel
d Fracture Vibration / Mechanical
Shock Wear Electrical / Software Physio-Chemical
Instability Creep Dimensional Incompatibility
Linkage of Failure Mechanisms to Anticipated
Problems
Historic and anticipated Problems
Noise at the end of life Loss of
attachment Bearing Drag Non-linear road feel
Failure Mechanism Link to Problem Strong
Link Moderate / Not Sure 0 Not
Linked
54
Now think in terms of the design Components (and
for competing design options)
D
E
C
F
B
G
A
H
A Inner Metal B Primary/Shear Isolator C
Upper Rate Washer D Reaction Washer E
Reaction Isolator F Outer/Compression
Isolator G Main Stamping H Lower Rate Washer
55
Design For Six Sigma - Front Upper Strut Mount
Desired Functional Characteristic
Transfer Function
Orient Position Stays in place over life
(loaded position, dynamic static) Stays in
place during suspension travel Positions
correctly at initial assembly Service
orientation (ex side-load compensation) Isolate
Quiet over life (no undesired contacts metal to
metal, contacts click/clank, no rubber to
rubber/metal relative motion - squeak,
Maintains desired Rate curves (over life,
throughout travels, dynamic frequency) Must
have mating part stiffness/mobility React
Loads Rate Curve is within Bandwidth Structure
handles load with out excessive Damage
Energy
Components Spring Seat Inner Metal Primary
Isolator Main Stamping Outer Compression
Rubber In-Molded Metal Stamping Upper Rate
Washer Lower Rate Washer Bearing Top Reaction
Washer Nuts (2) Jounce Bumper Cup Jounce
Bumper Dust Boot
Define 1)Measurement Strategy for Desired
Functional Characteristics, 2) using Failure
Mechanisms as Noise Factors, 3) consider the
components involved for various design Concepts
56
Chart the probability of each Failure Mechanism
contributing to historic problems and loss of
desired Functions
Failure Mechanisms Environment Contamination Yiel
d Fracture Vibration / Mechanical
Shock Wear Electrical / Software Physio-Chemical
Instability Creep Dimensional Incompatibility
In this case, Contamination, Yield, Wear, and
Dimensional Incompatibility are the high
Occurrence Failure Mechanism that are anticipated
as the dominate Noise factors.
57
Top Mount Bearing
58
  • Create a DOE
  • Consult with a DOE expert
  • Set up a Component Development Test
  • Look for sensitivity at the end of life for
    Failure Mechanisms Contamination,
    Physio-Chemical Instability, and Dimensional
    Incompatibility

59
  • DOE
  • Partial Factorial Matrix experiment
  • Expert Knowledge, seek help in creation
  • Garbage in Garbage out (usually due to bad
    assumptions)
  • Want a simple lab fixture(s) to run a fast DOE to
    understand design sensitivity to Noise factors.
  • Run carefully Created samples to test for
    interactions

60
Example Multifunction Headlamp Switch
Functions
Headlamp On / Off
Headlamp High / Low
Electrical Control
Customer
Turn Signal
Component test plan was designed to test each
function as independent variables All part
passed the lab test without incident
Cruise Control Set, On, Off
61
Example Multifunction Headlamp Switch
Functions
Headlamp On / Off
Headlamp High / Low
Customer
Electrical Control
Turn Signal
However Mechanical Interaction Inside
the Multifunction Switch caused the headlamp
contact carrier to slightly rock when the Turn
Signal was used.
Cruise Control Set, On, Off
This caused a voltage spike and high resistance
path and heat in the switch.
62
Example Multifunction Headlamp Switch
DOE factors for test matrix 1) Type of Lubricant
in the switch 2) Contact Material 3) Contact
Plating 4) Spring Pressure
The optimal combination was found and the design
was quickly changed. No field issues were found
63
Basic Principles Friction, transient loads,
moments, unforeseen interactions, manufacturing
processes and true capabilities, marginally
stable systems, static electricity, grounding
Wrong Assumptions (independence of functions in
switch example) Lack of parts available on
time Components cost more than estimated Stack
up of tolerances reality is not design
nominal Murphys Law, Chaos Theory, probability
and statistical theory at work False or
unachievable accuracy How close is close enough
or what can you actually obtain in the real world
Causes of Problems
64
Set up a good project plan with Milestones and
Gate Reviews Clearly defined Deliverables Set
up a budget (with a 10 contingency) and obtain
good cost estimates and availability of
materials, manpower, and facilities Front Load
your efforts get off to a good start Assign
tasks to team members based on skill sets and
personal preferences Make progress visible,
create a temporary War Room Wall and require that
team members post their progress Use Standard
parts and commonly available materials - Do not
invent what is already available. Focus
invention on what does not already exist and yet
is essential to the project. Do your
homework take time to study and learn as much as
you can about the basic principles involved, what
has been done before, what has been written,
what is the current State of the
Art. Benchmarking what is the competition
doing? Brainstorm Alternatives do not jump
to the answer Allow for Experimentation
this takes twice as long as you think. Expect
that Things will not work right the first time
allow recovery time (Slack Time)
Ideas to Help
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