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Animal Structure and Function

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Animal Structure and Function Closely related to Chapters 40-49 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Structure and Function


1
Animal Structure and Function
  • Closely related to Chapters 40-49

2
I. Levels of Organization
  • Atoms-Molecules-Supramolecular structures-Cell
  • Cell basic unit of structure and function in all
    living things
  • Cell-Tissue-Organ-Organ Systems
  • Function correlates with structure in tissues,
    four main categories of tissues

3
A. Epithelial Tissue
  • Sheets of tightly packed cells, outside of body,
    lines organs and body cavities
  • Barrier against mechanical injury, invading
    microbes, fluid loss
  • Classified by number of layers and shapes of cells

4
Epithelial cont
  • Simple vs. Stratified, Cuboidal vs. Columnar vs.
    Squamous
  • Some specialized for absorption or secretion
    (mucous membranes)
  • Some are ciliated (respiratory system)

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B. Connective Tissue
  • Sparse cell population in matrix, binds and
    supports
  • Composed of collagenous fibers (resist
    stretching), elastic fibers (protein threads),
    reticular fibers (join connective tissue to
    adjacent tissue)

7
Connective Tissue Types
  • Loose Connective tissue
  • holds organs in place, made of fibroblasts and
    macrophages and all three fiber types
  • Adipose tissue
  • store fat and fuel, insulate
  • Fibrous connective tissue
  • Large numbers of collagenous fibers, tendons
    (muscle to bone) and ligaments (bones to joints)

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  • Cartilage
  • collagenous fibers in a protein substrate, strong
    and flexible, comprises skeleton of vertebrate
    embryos, some retain as adults
  • Bone
  • mineralized connective tissue
  • Osteoblasts (bone-forming cells), Haversian
    Systems (concentric layers), Long bones filled
    with marrow

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  • Blood
  • Matrix of plasma that contains water, salts, and
    proteins, Cellular components (Leukocytes,
    Erythrocytes, Platelets), made in marrow

12
C. Nervous Tissue
  • Senses stimuli and transmits signals from one
    part of animal to another
  • Neuron nerve cell specialized ot conduct an
    impulse or bioelectric signal, Cell body,
    Dendrites (to cell), Axons (away from cell)

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D. Muscle Tissue
  • Long excitable cells capable of contraction, most
    abundant tissue in animals
  • Made up of parallel bundles of microfilaments,
    actin and myosin
  • Three types
  • Skeletal voluntary movements, striated

17
  • Cardiac Muscle contractile wall of heart,
    striated and branched cells, relays signals by
    intercalated disks
  • Smooth Muscle unstriated, walls of internal
    organs and arteries, slow contracting but retain
    contracted position longer, involuntary movements

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II. Organ Systems
  • Interdependent, organs grouped into systems, some
    with layered tissues, some suspended by sheets of
    connective tissue called mesenteries in cavities
  • System is several organs with separate functions
    that act in a coordinated manner
  • Function to maintain homeostasis, or a stable
    internal environment
  • Controlled by feedback mechanisms

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Bioenergetics
  • All animals are heterotrophic organisms that
    harvest energy from the organic molecules
    synthesized by other organisms
  • Metabolic Rate total amount of energy an animal
    uses per unit of time usually measured in
    calories
  • Divided by individual organism needs and age
    requirements
  • Basal Metabolic Rate endothermic animal
    metabolic rate measured under stress free
    conditions
  • Adult Male 1600-1800 Kcal/day, Adult Female
    1300-1500 kcal/day

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Thermoregulation
  • Ectotherms (poikilotherms) animals that obtain
    body heat from the environment, metabolic rate
    determined ambient temperature
  • Fish, amphibians, reptiles
  • Endotherms (homeotherms) generate own body heat
    to maintain a stable internal temperature

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Thermoregulation
  • Endotherms regulate body temperature by the
    following mechanisms
  • Evaporative Cooling removal of body heat by
    endergonic reaction to evaporate water (sweat)
    from body, occurs on skin or in respiratory tract
  • Warming by metabolism muscle contraction and
    basal metabolic activities generate heat as a by
    product of work

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Thermoregulation
  • Adjusting Surface area to regulate temperature
    by changing volume of blood flowing to
    extremities by vasodilatation or vasoconstriction
    heat can be lost or conserved.
  • Also use countercurrent exchange heat conduction
    from warm blood to the returning cold blood is
    redirected to internal parts of the body before
    reaching the extremity

31
Thermoregulation
  • Adaptations behavioral, anatomical or
    physiological adaptations that increase the
    ability to survive in particular environments.
  • Examples hibernation, dormancy, hair, feathers,
    migration

32
The Body Systems
  • Respiratory System mechanism for gas exchange
  • Movement of gases in and out of an animal is
    called respiration

33
Respiratory System-Types
  • Direct with environment small animals that
    exchange directly with outside air. Have large
    surface area to absorb oxygen and exchange by
    diffusion. Platyhelminthes
  • Gills evaginated structures (outgrowths of
    body), provides surface area for gas exchange.
    External or internal growths

34
Respiratory System-Types
  • Gills use circulatory system to deliver oxygen
  • Countercurrent Exchange opposing movements of
    water and blood to maximize diffusion of gases
  • Trachea chitin lined tubes, oxygen enters
    through spiracles, diffuses across moistened
    membranes at tracheal endings. Insects.

35
Respiratory System-Types
  • Lungs invaginated structures (cavities within
    body), increase surface area
  • Book Lungs in spiders

36
Respiration in Humans
  • Air to nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, past
    epiglottis, bronchi (enters lungs), bronchioles,
    alveolus (surrounded by capillaries), diffusion
    between alveolar chamber and blood, bulk flow of
    02 in RBCs (bound to hemoglobin), diffusion
    between blood and cells, bulk flow of CO2
    (acutally as HCO3 formed by carbonic amhydrase),

37
Respiration in Humans
  • Bulk flow of air into and out of lungs by
    negative pressure controlled by diaphragm and
    intercostal muscles
  • Control of respiration by pH monitoring in
    carotid arteries by chemoreceptors. The
    conversion of CO2 to HCO3 causes increase in H
    ion. Negative feedback.

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Circulatory System
  • Transport system to deliver O2 and nutrients and
    remove wastes and CO2 throughout bodies.
  • Two basic types Open and Closed

41
Open Circulatory Systems
  • Lack vessels, pump blood into internal cavity
    called Hemoceol/Sinuses, bathe tissues with O2
    and nutrient rich Hemolymph, returns to heart or
    ostia
  • Mollusks

42
Closed Circulatory Systems
  • O2 and nutrients in blood, within vessels
  • In annelids, octopi, and vertebrates
  • Arteries, arterioles, capillaries
  • Veins, venules

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Circulatory System
  • Pulmonary Circuit blood flow between right side
    of heart and lungs
  • Systemic Circuit circulation between the body
    and the right and left side of the heart

45
Blood Flow in Humans
  • Deoxygenated Superior and Inferior Vena Cava to
    R Atrium, past R Atrioventricular valve (AV
    Valve, Tricuspid), to R Ventricle, pulmonary
    semilunar valve, pulmonary artery, lungs
  • Oxygenated Pulmonary veins, L Atrium, L AV
    Valve (bicuspid, mitral), L Ventricle, Aortic
    semilunar valve, Aorta

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Cardiac Cycle
  • Regulated by autorhythmic cells (self excitable,
    no external stimuli)
  • SA (sinoatrial) node (pacemaker), in upper R wall
    of Atrium, initiates cycle by stimulating Atria
    to contract, signal to AV (atrioventricular)
    node, in lower wall of Atria, impulse to bundle
    of His in both ventricles through Purkinge
    fibers, ventricles contract

49
Cardiac Cycle
  • Ventricles contract Systole, blood through
    pulmonary arteries and aorta, AV valves forced
    closed
  • Ventricles relax Diastole, Semilunar Valves
    close

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Blood
  • Red Blood Cells Erythrocytes, transport O2,
    catalyze conversion of CO2 and H2O to H2CO3, lack
    nucleus, more room for O2.
  • White Blood Cells Leukocytes, disease fighting
    cells
  • Platelets cell fragments, fibrinogen to active
    fibrin

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Excretory System
  • Maintain homeostasis by regulating water balance
    and removing harmful substances.
  • Osmoregulation absorption and excretion of water
    and dissolved substances (solutes) so that proper
    water balance is maintained.

55
Osmoregulation
  • Marine Fish body is Hypoosmotic (less salty)
    than water, so always loosing water. Fish
    constantly drink, rarely urinate, secrete salts
    out gills
  • Fresh Water Fish body is Hyperosmotic (more
    salty), water constantly diffuses into fish, so
    fish constantly urinate, absorb salts through
    gills.

56
Osmoregulation Waste Removal
  • Contractile vacuoles paramecium and amoebas,
    accumulate H2O, exocytosis to release
  • Flame Cells platyhelminthes, filters body fluids
    moved by cilia, water and salts are excreted
    through pores

57
Osmoregulation Waste Removal
  • Nephridia annelids, pairs of organs that
    concentrate fluids in collecting tubule as they
    selectively filter them, secrete back necessary
    material, filter out wastes
  • Malpighian tubules arthropods, tubes attached
    to midgut collect body fluid from hemolymph,
    remove nitrogen waste and dump into digestive
    tract, it either reabsorbed or released as waste.

58
Osmoregulation Waste Removal
  • Kidney vertebrates, million individual filtering
    tubes called nephron, control water level and
    filter out nitrogen to produce urine

59
Vertebrate Kidney
  • Nephron individual filtering tube, consist of
    tube and associated blood vessels that winds
    through cortex, down medulla, back to cortex,
    down medulla, drains to renal pelvis in center of
    kidney.
  • Kidney Handout

60
Digestive System
  • Chemical breakdown of food into smaller
    particles.
  • Intracellular within individual cells, lysosome
    with digestive enzyme merges with food vacuole
  • Extracellular gastrovascular cavity, food it
    too large for single cell, digested in cavity,
    distributed to cells.

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Digestion Molecules
  • Starches broken down into glucose
  • Proteins broken down into amino acids
  • Fats (lipids) broken down into glycerol and
    fatty acids
  • Nucleic Acids broken down into nucleotides

63
Mammal Digestion
  • Mouth, salivary amylase (breaks down starch into
    maltose), mechanical digestion forms bolus,
    swallowed to pharynx, past epiglottis, esophagus
    to stomach by peristalsis
  • Stomach gastric juice (digestive enzymes and
    HCl, stores (4L), mixes (chyme), more physical
    breakdown (muscular)

64
  • Chemical Breakdown HCl (kills bacteria,
    denatures proteins, loosens substrate), Pepsin
    (breaks down proteins)
  • Controlled release movement of chyme into small
    intestine past pyloric sphincter
  • Small Intestine
  • Duodenum first 25 cm, digest starch and
    proteins, using enzymes from Pancreas (trypsin,
    chymotrypsin, lipase, pancreatic amylase), Liver
    (bile, stored in gall bladder)
  • Next 6m absorbtion of nutrients in villi and
    microville

65
  • Large Intestine reabsorption of water to help
    form solid waste (feces) which is stored in
    rectum. House bacteria that produce vitamin K.
  • Hormones in digestion
  • Gastrin produced in stomach lining, stimulates
    release of gastric juices
  • Secretin produced in duodenum, stimulates
    production of bicarbonate (neutralizes acid)
  • Cholecystokinin produced in small intestine,
    stimulates gallbladder to release bile, and pan
    crease to release enzymes.

66
Nervous System
  • Neuron cell body, dendrite (short), axon (long)
  • Impulse begins at tips of dendrite branches,
    through dendrites, cell body, down axon to
    termination at synapse
  • Classified into three Groups

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Sensory Neurons
  • Afferent neurons
  • Receive initial stimulation

70
Motor Neurons
  • Efferent neurons
  • Stimulate effectors (target cells) that elicit
    some kind of response
  • Examples muscle contraction, sweat glands,
    stomach cells to secrete gastrin

71
Association Neurons
  • Interneuron
  • Located in spinal cord and brain
  • Receive impulses from sensory neurons or send
    impulses to motor neurons
  • Integrators evaluate the stimuli, and create
    appropriate response

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Nerve Impulse
  • Travels by chemical changes of polarized membrane
    of neuron. Negative inside, positive outside
    creates a concentration gradient that creates a
    charge (-70mV)
  • Resting potential, threshold level, action
    potential (ion channels), depolarized membrane,
    repolarization, hyperpolarized, refractory period

74
Across the Synapse
  • Pre-synaptic cell calcium gates open when
    action potential reaches end of axon, vesicles
    release neurotransmitter
  • Synapse neurotransmitter bids with postsynaptic
    receptors
  • Post-synaptic Cell excited or inhibited
  • Neurotransmitter degraded and recycled

75
Common Neurotransmitters
  • Acetylcholine stimulates muscles to contract in
    neuromuscular gaps, other receptors is inhibitory
  • Epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin from CNS,
    control mood
  • Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibitory in
    brain

76
Form and Function.
  • CNS brain and spinal chord
  • PNS sensory and motor neurons
  • Motor Neurons somatic nervous system (skeletal
    muscle), autonomic nervous system (organs and
    involuntary muscles)
  • Autonomic Sympathetic nervous (fight or
    flight), parasympathetic (calming)
  • Reflex Arc rapid, involuntary

77
Muscular System
  • Muscle Fibers multinucleate, Sarcolemma (plasma
    membrane), sarcoplasm (cytoplasm), sarcoplasmic
    reticulum (calcium storing), myofibrils (actin,
    myosin)

78
Types of Muscle
  • Skeletal striated, voluntary, attached to
    bones, allows movement
  • Smooth non-striated, involuntary, lines vessels
    and digestive tract, slow contracting
  • Cardiac striated, branched, self-propagating
    contraction

79
Sliding Filament Model
  • Animation 1
  • Animation 2

80
Sliding Filament Model
  • Stimulus action potential releases
    acetylcholine, AP generated on sarcolema and
    T-tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum releases Ca,
    myosin cross bridges form.
  • ATP binds to myosin head, Ca exposes binding
    sites on actin filaments, cross bridges between
    myosin heads and actin filaments, ADP released,
    actin slides, ATP causes bring to unbind.

81
Immune System
  • Three lines of defense against invaders from a
    foreign land, a foreign body, the nasty air, and
    that stuff growing between your toes.

82
Skin and Mucus Membranes
  • Non-specific
  • Skin physical and hostile barrier (oily and
    acidic pH 3-5)
  • Antimicrobial Proteins (lysozyme) in saliva and
    tears on mucus membranes
  • Cilia line lungs, sweep invaders out
  • Gastric Juice in stomach, kills microbes
  • Symbiotic bacteria in digestive tract, vagina,
    out compete organisms for nutrients

83
Non Specific Defense Mechanisms
  • Phagocytes WBCs, engulf pathogens by
    phagocytosis, Neutrophils, Monocytes
    (Macrophages), NK Cells
  • Complement proteins that attract phagocytes
  • Interferons substance secreted by invaded cells
    to stimulate neighboring cells to produce
    proteins to help fight viruses.

84
Non Specific Defense Mechanisms
  • Inflammatory Response to pathogens, skin
    damage, or tissue dammage
  • Histamine secreted by basophils (WBCs in
    connective tissue
  • Vasodilation stimulated by histamine, increases
    blood flow, easier movement of wbcs, causes
    redness, Temperature increase, swelling, make
    environment inhospitable for pathogens
  • Phagocytes attracted by complement, engulf
    pathogens
  • Complement help phagocytes engulf foreign cells,
    stimulate basophils to release histamine

85
Immune Response
  • Targets specific antigens (any foreign object or
    protein)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) allows
    immune system to determine self and non self,
    collection of glycoproteins on membranes of all
    cells
  • Lymphocytes major component of response,
    originate in bone marrow, concentrate in
    lymphatic tissues, thymus gland, and spleen,
    various types for our defense

86
Types of Lymphocytes- B Cells
  • Originate and mature in marrow, respond to
    antigens, plasma membrane has antigen receptors
    called antibodies
  • Proteins, specific to antigens
  • 5 Classes (Immunoglobulins) IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG,
    IgM
  • Bind to antigens, allow marcrophage phagocytosis,
    stimulate complement proteins to lysis pathogens

87
Types of Lymphocytes- B Cells
  • When B cells encounter antigen produce
  • Plasma Cells immediate response to circulate
    body to bind to antigen
  • Memory Cells long lived, respond to subsequent
    invasion, circulate body forever

88
Types of Lymphocytes- T Cells
  • Originate in marrow, mature in thymus gland,
    antigen receptors that recognize mhc of non-self
    cells
  • When a cell is invaded, it displays non-self
    markers, so is attacked by T cells
  • When T cells encounter non-self
  • Cytotoxic T cells (killer t cells) puncture
    non-self and cause to lyse
  • Helper T cells stimulate production of B cells
    and cytotoxic T cells

89
Immune Response
  • Cell-mediated Response uses T cells in response
    to non-self, including invaded cells. Non-self-T
    Cell binding causes clonal selection, then
  • T cells produce cytotoxic T cells (to destroy
    non-self)
  • T cells produce helper T cells

90
Immune Response
  • Helper T cells bind to macrophages that have
    non-self plasma markers, these are bound to
    macrophages
  • Helper T Cells produce interleukins
    (communication chemicals between leukocytes) to
    stimulate proliferation of t cells and b cells.
    Positive feedback creates interleukins,
    macrophages, helper T cells, B cells, and
    cytotoxic T Cells

91
Immune Response
  • Humoral Response (antibody-mediated response)
    involves most cells in response to antigens or
    pathogens in blood or lymph, includes
  • B cells produce plasma cells release antibodies
    that bind with antigens or antigen bearing
    pathogens
  • B cells produce memory cells
  • Macrophage and helper T cells stimulate B cell
    production

92
Human Supplements
  • Antibodies chemicals derived from bacteria or
    fungi that are harmful to other microorganisms
  • Vaccines stimulate production of memory cells
  • Passive Immunity transferring antibodies form an
    individual who previously had a disease to a
    newly infected individual. (newborn infants)

93
Endocrine System
  • Produces hormones that help maintain homeostasis
    and regulate reproduction and development.
  • Hormone chemical messenger for a target cell or
    organ
  • Transported throughout body in blood
  • Small amounts, big effect
  • May be steroids, peptides, or modified amino acids

94
  • Neurosecretory Cells link hypothalamus and
    pituitary gland, structured like neurons, secrete
    hormones (not neurotransmitters) into blood
  • Regulation of blood glucose in pancreas,
    antagonistic hormones, Beta Cells secrete
    insulin, alpha cells secrete glucagen

95
Reproduction and Development
  • Differences in Males and Females
  • Primary Sex Characteristics directly involved in
    reproduction
  • Secondary Sex Characteristics body hair,
    distribution of fat, voice, breasts, antlers,
    manes, tails. Indicate sexual maturity

96
Human Reproductive Anatomy
  • Female Ovary, Oviduct (fallopian tube), Uterus
    (endometrium), Cervix, Vagina
  • Male Testis (seminiferous tubules (sperm
    production), interstitial cells (testosterome,
    androgen), scrotum, epididymis (maturation of
    sperm), Vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostrate
    gland, bulbourethral glands, Penis

97
Human Reproductive Anatomy
  • The Sperm Yeah!
  • Sperm Head, acrosome (lysosome containing to
    penetrate egg)
  • Midpiece mitochondria around flagellum that
    provide ATP for movement
  • Tail flagellum end, propell

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Human Reproductive Anatomy
  • Gametogenesis production of eggs (oogenesis) and
    sperm (spermatogenesis)
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