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Geography Unit 1 Part 2 Notes

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Geography Unit 1 Part 2 Notes McFarland – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Geography Unit 1 Part 2 Notes


1
Geography Unit 1 Part 2
Notes
  • McFarland

2
Landforms
3
Plate Tectonics
  • The theory that attempts to explain how the
    worlds large landforms were formed, dividing
    Earths crust into more than a dozen rigid
    slow-moving plates, beginning with one super
    continent call Pangaea that split into the modern
    continents.

4
7 Modern Continents
  • North America
  • South America
  • Europe
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • Australia
  • Antarctica

5
Types of Landforms
  • Valleys
  • Plains
  • Plateaus

6
Effects of Landforms
  • Human settlement has influenced landforms
    throughout history.
  • Mud slides and volcano lava remind us that the
    earth is constantly changing.

7
Human Geography
8
Culture
  • includes all the features of a societys way of
    life.
  • Language
  • Religion
  • Government
  • Economics
  • Food
  • Clothing
  • Architecture
  • Family life

9
Culture Region
  • An area with many shared culture traits is called
    a culture region.

10
Cultures are changing constantly.
  • Innovation - people are always thinking of new
    ways of doing things.
  • Culture diffusion - the spread of innovations or
    other cultures traits into another culture
    region.
  • Acculturation - occurs when one culture changes a
    great deal through its meeting with another
    culture.

11
How People Shape the Land
  • Hunting and gathering
  • Agriculture
  • Subsistence agriculture - people grow food on
    small farms mostly for their own families.
  • Commercial agriculture - growing crops for sale.

12
City Life
  • Urbanization - growth in the proportion of people
    living in towns and cities.
  • Culture Hearths - urbanized centers of important
    new ideas and developments.
  • Today, cities are centers of manufacturing.
    Communications, education, government services,
    and the arts.

13
Industrialization
  • Industrialization - allowed goods to be made in
    abundance and at a lower cost.

14
Culture and World Events
  • Nationalism - Feelings of pride and loyalty for
    ones country can sometimes lead to
    discrimination, unfairness, or even war.
  • Religion - a key culture trait. (According to the
    1998 World Almanac. 34 of the worlds population
    profess to be Christians).

15
  • Traditional versus modern values
  • Some cultures adapt to change easily, whereas
    other cultured do not.
  • Fundamentalism-a movement that stresses the
    strict following of basic traditional principles.

16
Politics
  • In totalitarian governments, a few people decide
    what is best for everyone.
  • In democratic governments, everyone has a voice
    in government.
  • The United Nations is a worldwide organization
    that tries to settle problems among and within
    countries.

17
Economics
  • Some countries have abundant raw materials and
    successful industries others have only a few.

18
  • The information age is closely linking people
    throughout the world.

19
Population Geography
  • The study of the variations and changes in a
    populations makeup, distribution, movement, and
    relationship to its environment.

20
Demography
  • The study of human population that emphasizes
    statistical characteristics, or facts and
    figures.

21
Four large regions of dense human settlement
  • East Asia
  • South Asia
  • Western Europe
  • Eastern North America

22
  • There are 6.8 billion people in the world
    today. By the year 2020, the worlds population
    will be more that 7 billion, surpassing 10
    billion during the 21st Century.

23
Birth Rates and Death Rates
  • Geographers use birth rates (number of births per
    1000 people in a given year) and death rates
    (number of deaths per 1000 people in a given
    year) to explain population growth.

24
Emigrant or Immigrant ?
  • Emigrants (those who move out of a country) and
    Immigrants (those who move into a country) also
    affect a countrys population growth or decline.

25
Resources and Environmental Change
26
Soils and Forrest
  • People have developed ways to conserve and enrich
    the soil.
  • Forests are a valuable renewable resource.

27
Forests
  • Steps to conserve our forests by our federal
    government started in the early 1900s by
    declaring certain area as national forests, and
    requiring reforestation (renewing forests through
    the planting of seeds or young trees) in national
    forests that are logged.
  • Deforestation, or the clearing of forests, is
    occurring at a rapid rate in the tropical rain
    forests of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
  • In northwestern North America, the native
    temperate forests are being logged at a rapid
    rate.

28
Water and Air
  • Water quantity and quality are serious
    challenges. Some countries rely on
    desalinization plants, which change salty
    seawater into fresh water. Droughts cause water
    shortages.
  • Flood control-Floods have killed millions of
    people over the centuries. Dams and levees are
    built to control flood waters.

29
Water and Air
  • Water quality-In developing nations, sewage often
    comes in contact with the drinking water supply.
    In developed countries, water is contaminated by
    industrial chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides,
    metals, and oil.
  • Air Pollution-A serious problem facing many large
    urban and industrial areas. Acid Rain is caused
    when released by industrial smoke stacks combine
    with water vapor in the atmosphere.

30
Global air pollution
  • The ozone layer has become depleted over the
    Antarctic causing a rise in skin cancer rates in
    the Southern Hemisphere. The ozone layer is
    apparently destroyed when a group of chemicals
    called CFCs rise in the atmosphere and set off
    chemical reactions.

31
Global air pollution
  • Another threat to the atmosphere is global
    warming caused by the greenhouse effect, which
    results from an apparent buildup of carbon
    dioxide in the lower atmosphere, trapping heat
    and causing long-term warming of the planet. Some
    scientists warn that sea levels will rise, some
    types of vegetation will die, and entire
    ecosystems will be destroyed.

32
Two ways to protect us from the greenhouse
effect.
  • decrease the burning of fuels that pollute
  • stop cutting the worlds forests

33
Energy Resources
  • Fossil fuels - nonrenewable resources that
    include coal, petroleum and natural gas.
  • Coal - burned to make electricity combined with
    iron ore to make steel, (burning coal causes acid
    rain and air pollution).
  • Petroleum - has replaced coal as the preferred
    energy source mainly used for liquid fuels, such
    as gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. (The world
    supply may last only another 50 years). The
    largest petroleum reserves are found in Saudi
    Arabia and neighboring Persian Gulf countries.
  • Natural gas - cleanest burning fossil fuel, can
    be shipped through pipelines

34
Nuclear Energy
  • Today, there are more than 400 nuclear power
    plants in more than 30 nations. The United
    States has more that 100 operating nuclear power
    plants and these plants produce about 20 of the
    nations electricity.

35
2 Serious Problems
  • Nuclear accidents
  • Nuclear waste

36
Renewable Energy sources
  • Flowing water-produces hydroelectric power
  • Geothermal energy-underground heat
  • Solar energy-involves capturing the suns light
    energy
  • Wind power.

37
Population and Resources
  • Population growth - population growth rates are
    important, control of population growth would
    control the standard of living for a nations
    citizens.

38
Two Concerns of Lower Birth Rates
  • Few young people to enter the work force.
  • Growing percentage of elderly people causes
    increased cost of health care

39
  • World population increases by more than 1 million
    people every five days, natural resources are not
    evenly distributed and people must share and use
    these resources wisely.

40
Birth / Death Rates
  • The following are the birth rates death rates per
    1,000 for the following nations.
  • United States 14.6/8.8
  • Brazil 20.4/9.4
  • China 16.5/6.9
  • Russia 9.5/14.8
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo 47.6/16.6
  • France 12/9.1
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