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Our Human Interactions with the Non-Human Animals

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Title: Our Human Interactions with the Non-Human Animals


1
Our Human Interactions with the Non-Human Animals
2
How Many Animals Do We Want to Save? The Many
Ways of Setting Population Target Levels for
Conservation ERIC W. SANDERSON November 2006 /
Vol. 56 No. 11 BioScience 911
3
A population of a few individuals cannot survive
Extinction Vortex
4
Can a number of individuals be set?
5
Can a number of individuals be set? Fewest
number of individuals for an area, but fewest
number for what?
6
  • Can a number of individuals be set?
  • Extreme examples
  • Ecotourism want the largest possible population
  • Mining or Agriculture would like none or
    somewhere elseNIMBY

7
What are the consequences of setting the wrong
number?
8
  • What are the consequences of setting the wrong
    number?
  • Too high
  • Too low

9
  • Can a number of individuals be set?
  • Scientists are reluctant to set a specific number
  • Policymakers want information from scientists

10
What are the consequences of setting the wrong
number? Subjective values meets objective science
11
How many wolves should be in Yellowstone NP
Yellowstone area wolf packs 2004
http//www.forwolves.org/ralph/historical.html
12
How many tigers does the world need? None?
13
  • What criteria do we use to set limits?
  • Money
  • Land
  • Development

14
  • What criteria do we use to set limits?
  • Money
  • Land
  • Development
  • Who benefits?
  • Animals- what is the minimum number for
    sustainable survival

15
  • What criteria do we use to set limits?
  • Money
  • Land
  • Development
  • Who benefits?
  • Animals- what is the minimum number for
    sustainable survival
  • Ecosystem- What is the minimum number to maintain
    a healthy ecosystem?

16
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17
  • What criteria do we use to set limits?
  • Money
  • Land
  • Development
  • Who benefits?
  • Animals- what is the minimum number for
    sustainable survival
  • Ecosystem- What is the minimum number to maintain
    a healthy ecosystem?
  • Humans- How many do we need to derive some
    beneifit?

18
  • Who benefits?
  • Animals- what is the minimum number for
    sustainable survival?
  • Genetic Diversity

19
  • Who benefits?
  • Ecosystem- What is the minimum number to maintain
    a healthy ecosystem?
  • Density may be more important than total number

20
  • Who benefits?
  • Ecosystem- What is the minimum number to maintain
    a healthy ecosystem?
  • Density may be more important than total number
  • Manage population and monitor effects on ecosystem

21
  • Who benefits?
  • Ecosystem- What is the minimum number to maintain
    a healthy ecosystem?
  • Density may be more important than total number
  • Manage population and monitor effects on
    ecosystem
  • Some species may be used to monitor health of
    overall ecosystem

22
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23
  • Who benefits?
  • Humans- How many do we need to derive some
    beneifit?
  • Total eradication may be goal- mosquitos

24
  • Who benefits?
  • Humans- How many do we need to derive some
    beneifit?
  • Total eradication may be goal- mosquitos
  • Ecotourism/Tourism

25
  • Who benefits?
  • Humans- How many do we need to derive some
    beneifit?
  • Total eradication may be goal- mosquitos
  • Ecotourism/Tourism
  • Harvest sustainable population

26
  • Who benefits?
  • Humans- How many do we need to derive some
    beneifit?
  • Total eradication may be goal- mosquitos
  • Ecotourism/Tourism
  • Harvest sustainable population
  • Ecosystem benefits- seed dispersal, pollinators,
    nutrient recycling

27
  • Who benefits?
  • Humans- How many do we need to derive some
    beneifit?
  • Total eradication may be goal- mosquitos
  • Ecotourism/Tourism
  • Harvest sustainable population
  • Ecosystem benefits- seed dispersal, pollinators,
    nutrient recycling
  • These functions cannot practically or
    economically be carried out by humans

28
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29
  • Who benefits?
  • Humans- How many do we need to derive some
    beneifit?
  • Total eradication may be goal- mosquitos
  • Ecotourism/Tourism
  • Harvest sustainable population
  • Ecosystem benefits
  • Cultural, Aesthetic, Spiritual

30
How many animals do we want to save?
31
How many animals do we want to save? Complex
interactions of science, economics, and ethics.
32
How many animals do we want to save? Complex
interactions of science, economics, and
ethics. If a number is set, it may stay static
as conditions change.
33
How many animals do we want to save? Sandersons
proposed solution
34
How many animals do we want to save? Sandersons
proposed solution Minimum Viable Population-
number of individuals that allows animals to
exist free from human interference.
35
How many animals do we want to save? Most of
human history includes critical and profound
interactions with other organisms. That is now
diminished or gone.
36
How many animals do we want to save? Most of
human history includes critical and profound
interactions with other organisms. That is now
diminished or gone.
37
  • How many animals do we want to save?
  • Sandersons proposed solution- multilayered
    approach
  • Demographic sustainability

38
  • How many animals do we want to save?
  • Sandersons proposed solution- multilayered
    approach
  • Demographic Sustainability
  • Ecological Functions (includes ability to freely
    evolve)

39
  • How many animals do we want to save?
  • Sandersons proposed solution- multilayered
    approach
  • Demographic Sustainability
  • Ecological Functions
  • Human Use and Interactions

40
  • How many animals do we want to save?
  • Sandersons proposed solution- multilayered
    approach
  • Demographic Sustainability
  • Ecological Functions
  • Human Use and Interactions
  • Can we return animals to levels that existed
    before humans had a negative impact?

41
  • Instead of a single numberA number for each
    level can be determined.
  • How many animals do we want to save?
  • Demographic Sustainability
  • Ecological Functions
  • Human Use and Interactions
  • Can we return animals to levels that existed
    before humans had a negative impact?

42
Maintaining a complex society required culture
and language.
43
The complexity of our societies is reflected in
human culture Do other animals have culture?
44
Do other animals have culture?
In rats
http//salmon.psy.plym.ac.uk/year3/PSY339Evolution
aryPsychology/EvolutionaryPsychology.htm
45
  • Do Animals Have Feelings? Antonio Damasio
    proposed (2003)
  • Primary - instinctual
  • Social - group interaction
  • Feelings - self-reflection

46
http//www.pbs.org/saf/1504/video/watchonline.htm
47
  • Do Animals Have Feelings? Antonio Damasio
    proposed (2003)
  • Primary - instinctual
  • Social - group interaction
  • Feelings - self-reflection

48
Are non-human animals self-aware? The mirror
test developed by Gallup in 1980s
49
Killer Whale time spent in front of window (C) vs
mirror (M) Behavioural Processes Vol 53, 3, 26
April 2001, pg 181-190
50
Killer Whale time spent shaking head in front of
window (C) vs mirror (M) Behavioural Processes
Vol 53, 3, 26 April 2001, pg 181-190
51
Killer Whale time spent opening mouth in front of
window (C) vs mirror (M) Behavioural Processes
Vol 53, 3, 26 April 2001, pg 181-190
52
a bottlenose dolphin trying to see a spot painted
on its side
http//www.earthtrust.org/delbook.html
53
What about birds? (http//ww2.lafayette.edu/allan
r/mirror.html)
54
This pigeon has a bib so it cannot see its chest
55
put dot, and determine pigeons actions in front
of mirror
56
http//ww2.lafayette.edu/allanr/selfaware.mpg
57
Several species can recognize self in mirror by
dot test or actions in front of mirror. They do
not see mirror image as other, but self.
58
Is a sense of self necessary for feelings? Should
our interactions with animals depend on their
self-awareness? Is self-awareness necessary for
feeling pain, fear, etc?
Nature 419, 255 (19 September 2002) Awareness
Animal reflections by Marc Bekoff
59
Our Human Interactions with the Non-Human Animals
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