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Energy and Environment

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Title: Energy and Environment


1
1
Energy and Environment a Zero Carbon Future
for Dongtan?
????? --???????? ??????????.????????????
Keith Tovey (???) M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE,
CEnv HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation
School of Environmental Sciences, University of
East Anglia
CRed
2
Climate Change Arctic meltdown 1979 - 2003
2
??????????1979-2003
  • Summer ice coverage of Arctic Polar Region
  • Nasa satellite imagery

20 reduction in 24 years
?????????Nasa(???????)????
24?????20
1979
2003
CRed
Source Nasa www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/to
pstory/2003/1023esuice.html
3
Raising Awareness
3
Comparison of emissions of different countries
Electricity Generation in China is dominated by
coal
Carbon Emission factor 0.870 kg/kWh cf 0.52
kg/kWh in UK
?????????
????????????
?????0.870 kg/kWh ????????0.52kg/kWh
4
4
YANGTZE STAR
????
A striking architectural feature
???????
An integrated renewable power station
???????????
An educational facility
???????
A research facility
???????
A visitor attraction
??????????
5
Yangste STAR
5
Dongtan A Vision for the Future
??????
Low Energy Buildings in Dongtan City
?????????
Integrated Renewable Power Station with Biomass/
MSW/ Biogas/ Solar and Wind
??????/????/??/???????????????
????????????????????.
Direct Interaction between energy demand by
residents and energy generation.
????
6
YANGTZE STAR
????
6
  • ??????????????
  • ???????
  • ???????????
  • Like the river, the greenhouse will meander
    through the STAR providing
  • Education
  • Research
  • Awareness Raising
  • A Visitor Attraction

The STAR is inspired by the power of the Yangste
and its meandering journey to the sea.
  • Dongtan will have minimal impact on the
    environment through
  • Low energy buildings
  • Energy from renewable sources

??????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????,??????????
  • ??
  • ??
  • ????
  • ????

7
Biomass Fuel Delivery ?????????
7
Biogas Building with support area beneath
hill ???????????????
Municipal Building with support below
mound ???????????????
Biomass Building with storage area beneath
hill ?????????????????
Energy River Greenhouse of the
future ????-????
Visitor Centre Solar Research ????????????
Main Entrance ???
8
Yangste STAR
8
????
Section through Biomass Station storage is held
below artificial hill
Section through Biogas Station storage also below
artificial hill
????????????????????
????????????????????
9
Yangste STAR
????
9
Large Scale Wind
?????
Urban Wind -
????- Microgeneration
?????
Building Integrated
?????? Photovoltaic Cells
???
Digestion Biogas CHP
??????CHP
MSW Combined Heat
????????? Power(CHP)
(CHP)
Rice Residue CHP
??????CHP Cultivated Biomas CHP
?????CHP Cultivated Biomas Boiler
???????
10
YANGTZE STAR
????
10
Dongtan buildings will have an energy demand 34
of latest standards.
??????????34?????????
High insulation levels
???????
Low energy lighting
?????
Electricity from Renewable Sources
???????????
Heating - CHP (biomass generators)
??-CHP(????????)
Disposal of waste heat in summer?
??????????
More electricity could be generated
??????
11
11
Absorption Heat Pump
????
Adsorption Heat pump reduces electricity demand
and increases electricity generated
?????????????????
12
YANGTZE STAR
????
12
A 1 MW Adsorption chiller
1 MW ?????
Adsorption chillers will provide air-conditioning
in Dongtan
Each one will save around 700 tonnes CO2
???????????????
????????700?CO2
13
YANGTZE STAR
????
13
????/????
The Greenhouse / Visitor Centre
????-
A research area
?????????,???????????
how might plants adapt to be more effective in
replacing fossil fuels?
??????????????
what new management practices might be needed?
Provide an International Conference Centre
??????????
To disseminate new ideas about the environment,
and sustainable technologies throughout the
international community.
???????????????????
14
YANGTZE STAR
????
14
????/????
The Greenhouse / Visitor Centre
??????--
An educational area to tell
how the climate evolved
??????
how the fossil fuels were formed and exploited.
????????????
how renewable energy can be the power for the
future.
?????????????
Awareness Raising
????
how individuals can play their part to save
energy.
???????????????
??????
Through interactive displays
15
15
Raising Awareness
Each person in UK causes the emission of 9 tonnes
of CO2 each year.
What do 9 tonnes of CO2 look like?
5 hot air balloons
China 2.5 tonnes or 1.4 balloons
??????????9?CO2
9 ?CO2????????
5????
??2.5??1.4????
16
Raising Awareness
16
  • Standby on TVs and electrical goods waste energy
    up to 60 kWh a year in China this causes
    emission of over 50kg of CO2 unnecessarily
  • 10 gms of carbon dioxide has an equivalent volume
    of 1 party balloon.
  • A Toyota Corolla (1400cc) will emit the
    equivalent of 1.2 hot air balloons a year or 1
    party balloon every 60m.
  • ????????????????60 kWh???--?????????50??CO2???????
  • 10????????1?????
  • ????????( 1400cc)????????1.2????????60???????

17
Yangze STAR
????
17
Awareness Raising / Education
????/??
  • Dongtan will be a city of the future
  • ?????????
  • ?????????
  • Integrated development of Low Carbon
  • Buildings
  • Powered by Renewable Energy
  • ???????????
  • Citizens and children engaged in their
  • city and its future
  • ??????????????????????

??????????????????????????
  • A Landmark Project for the Whole World
  • Collaboration between China and UK

18
Dongtan The Social Dimension
??-?????
18
Demand for energy often exceeds technical
performance by up to 100
????????????????,????100
??????????????
Excess can be reduced by
Good Energy Management
???????
Effective Education
?????
Awareness raising
?????
Innovative Tariffs
???????
Typical Tariffs
??????
  • Flat Rate
  • ????
  • Multi-rate cheaper for high users
  • ????-??????

???????
Adversely affects low users
  • Multi-rate initial low rate
  • ????-?????

????
Encourages conservation
Cost Cost
Cost Cost
Cost Cost
Consumption Consumption
Consumption Consumption
Consumption Consumption
19
Dongtan The Social Dimension
??-?????
19
Dongtan will be a Zero Carbon City
??????????
Renewable Energy can be intermittent
???????
Balancing Demand via Grid Connection
??????????
Overall export more than import
????????
A proposed new Tariff -
????????-
  • Based on Instantaneous Power Level
  • ????????

Low Renewable generation
????????
  • below threshold power Basic Tariff
  • ????????
  • above a threshold High Rate Tariff
  • ?????

Times of High Renewable Generation
??????????
  • normal tariff structure applies
  • ????????

Will encourage conservation and demand in harmony
with supply
??????????
20
Conclusions
20
  • Dongtan City and the Yangste Star
  • Will be a unique architecturally striking
    development
  • A city which is in harmony with nature
  • A centre to promote excellence in renewable
    energy and efficiency
  • A saving of 3.1 Mtonnes of Carbon Dioxide a Year

? ?
  • ???????
  • ?????????????????
  • ???????????????
  • ?????????????????????
  • ?????????310????????

21
And Finally
21
Lao Tzu (604-531 BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist
philosopher
"If you do not change direction, you may end up
where you are heading."
The vision for Dongtan City will allow us to
change direction so we do not end up where we are
now heading and we can avoid the worst effects of
Climate Change.
? ?
?? (604-531BC)???????????
(??)??????,????????
????????????,????????????,???????????????????
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