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Solid Waste Management

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Title: Solid Waste Management


1
Solid Waste Management
2
Outline
  1. Introduction
  2. Refuse Disposal/collection in Buildings
  3. Transfer Station
  4. Solid Waste Disposal Methods
  5. Sanitary Landfills
  6. Legislation of Waste Control/Management
  7. Solid Waste Management Strategy in Hong Kong
  8. Construction Environment
  9. Environmental Management System
  10. Appendix 1 Wastes
  11. Appendix 2 What have we done ?

3
Introduction
  • Classification of Solid Wastes
  • Composition of Wastes in Hong Kong
  • Recycle, Recover, and other pretreatment
    processes
  • Summary of Waste Disposal Methods
  • What are the problems we are facing on solid
    waste disposal ?

4
Classification of Solid Wastes
  • Domestic wastes
  • Commercial wastes
  • Industrial wastes including food-processing
    residue, ash, plastic, package wastes, etc.
  • Construction wastes
  • Hospital wastes
  • Bulky waste including trees, furniture, telephone
    poles, etc.
  • Hazardous wastes comprising of explosives,
    radioactive materials, toxic material, etc.
  • Others marine mud, sludge, livestock, abattoir,
    PFA, etc.

5
Methods of Waste Disposal
  • Domestic Wastes by landfill, incineration,
    recycling
  • Construction wastes by public dump, recycle,
    landfill,
  • Dredged Excavated spoil by marine dumping,
    public dumping
  • Etc.

6
What are the problems with solid wastes ?
7
What are the major solid wastes in HK ?
  • Construction Demolition
  • Domestics
  • Industrial
  • Commercial
  • Special

8
How Construction Wastes are disposed of ?
  • Reclamation (public dump)
  • By landfills
  • Moving towards more dumping dump
  • Not much reuse

9
What are the major composition of Domestic Wastes
?
  • Putrescibles
  • Papers
  • Plastics
  • Others
  • Textiles, metals, Glass, Bulky wastes

10
What are the major composition of Industrial
Commercial Wastes ?
  • Papers
  • Plastics
  • Rattan/Wood
  • Putrescibles
  • Others
  • Metals, glass, bulky wastes

11
Disposal of chemical wastes
  • Chemical wastes disposed at Chemical wastes
    Treatment centre at Tsing Yi,
  • Others by landfills

12
What conclusion can you draw ?
  • Disposal is mainly one-way result in resource
    scarcity at one end and disposal problems at the
    other.
  • Papers, Construction wastes, glass, etc. are
    valuable wastes that can be recycled, reused,
    recover
  • Government should promote to use less and produce
    less wastes
  • A lot of wastes are disposed of by landfill that
    requires a lot of land
  • Landfill also creates environmental problems such
    as groundwater, air and noise pollution,
    explosion, traffic, disease, etc.

13
What else can we do ?
14
Use of Pre-treatment process (see figure)
  • Grinding
  • Pulverizing
  • Sorting
  • Separating
  • Compacting
  • Reuse, Recycle
  • Disposed of by landfill, incineration,
  • Generate power

15
Waste Recover in HK
  • Papers, Metals
  • Glass
  • Rubber tyres

16
What other countries are doing ?
  • Recycling and resource recovery in Japan well
    organised and successful
  • Use of other methods such as composting,
    pyrolysis, Anaerobic digestion

17
Solid Waste Disposal Path
18
Solid Waste Disposal Path
  • Waste Collection
  • Waste Reception Transfer
  • Waste disposal

19
Waste Collection in Building
  • Refuse chute
  • Pneumatic system
  • On-site incineration

20
What are the pros and cons of the following Waste
Collection methods ?
  • Refuse chute
  • Pneumatic system
  • On-site incineration

21
Waste Reception Transfer
  • Refuse transfer stations
  • Refuse collection points
  • Barge loading areas
  • Waste handling facilities

22
Solid Disposal Methods
  • Open dumping
  • Sanitary landfill
  • Incineration
  • Composting
  • Pyrolysis
  • High-temperature
  • Size reduction (shredding, grinding pulverizing)

23
Transfer Station
24
What are the functions of a transfer station ?
  • Compaction
  • Size reduction by grinding, shredding,
    pulverising
  • Material recovery
  • Loading for transportation

25
What are the considerations of a transfer station
?
  • Haul distance to the disposal site

26
Transfer Station in HK
  • 1992 Island East
  • 1994 - Sha Tin
  • 1997 Island west, Kowloon west
  • 1998 - outlying islands
  • 2000 - NWNT
  • 2005 - NNT

27
Solid Waste Disposal Methods
  • Open dumping
  • Sanitary landfill
  • Incineration
  • Composting
  • Pyrolysis
  • High-temperature
  • Size reduction

28
Sanitary Landfill
29
Pros of Sanitary Landfill
  • Process is sanitary
  • Highly skilled personnel not required
  • After restoration, landfill site can become
    recreational land
  • Natural resource returned to land

30
Cons of Sanitary Landfill
  • Large area is required
  • Transportation cost
  • Produce hazardous gas
  • Ground and Surface Water contamination

31
Selection of Landfill site
  • Economic
  • Socioeconomic
  • Environmental/Geotechnical

32
Process of Landfill
  • Trench method trucks dump the wastes into
    trench and a bulldozer spreads compacts, and
    covers them at the end of day
  • Area method bulldozers spread out the waste and
    a scraper hauls the cover materials
  • Ramp method the wastes are compacted but the
    cover is excavated directly in front of the
    working face

33
What are the problems with landfill ?
  • Groundwater contamination by leachate
  • Gas generation

34
What is leachate ?
  • Leachate is a liquid produced from a landfill
    that contains dissolved, suspended and/or
    microbial contaminants from solid wastes

35
How leachate can be contained ?
  • Provide soil cover and surface drainage to
    prevent infiltration of rain
  • Liners to contain or attenuate the leachates
  • Use under drains (single or double) to collect
    the leachate for further treatment
  • Use slurry cut off wall/trench to contain the
    leachate
  • To select a site in arid area
  • To select a site above ground water
  • To continuously monitor groundwater quality in
    the vicinity of the site

36
What typical gases are generated from landfill ?
  • CH4
  • CO
  • H2S
  • N2
  • NH4
  • H2

37
How Gas Generation is controlled ?
  1. Passive Venting the local geology allows the
    migration of gas to be collected by perimeter
    trench
  2. Active Venting install gas extraction vent
    which is connected to a vacuum or blower to force
    the gas for collection

38
What Constitute a good landfill ?
  • Provide Extensive protection on
  1. Aesthetics measures regarding health and safety
    and quality of life of neighbours or pass by
  2. Ground water protection
  3. Surface water protection
  4. Control of landfill gas
  5. On site health safety

39
Aesthetics
  1. Provide slope berm and vegetation along the
    perimeter of the site
  2. Provide dust screen
  3. Prevent wind-blown dust
  4. Prevent erosion and animals
  5. Do not allow ponding of water
  6. Compact and cover waste daily

40
Groundwater protection
  • Provide liner
  • Provide leachate collection system
  • No groundwater around site
  • Provide ground water monitoring

41
Surface water protection
  1. Choose site in arid (dry) area
  2. Provide surface drainage to divert surface runoff
  3. No ponding of water on site

42
Control of landfill gas
  1. Provide fully lined landfill
  2. Provide active venting system
  3. Choose site away from people
  4. Monitor gas around site

43
On site health safety
  1. Cover soil daily
  2. Confine in-coming waste to one working area
  3. Provide safety training and safety procedures

44
Solid waste disposal
  • Open dumping
  • Sanitary landfill
  • Incineration
  • Composting
  • Pyrolysis
  • High-temperature
  • Size reduction

45
What is incineration ?
46
What are the pros and cons of incineration ?
47
What is composting ?
48
What is pyrolysis ?
49
What is high temperature Incineration ?
50
Comparing the cost of incineration and landfill
51
Legislation for Waste
Management
52
What are the legislation for Waste Management
  • Waste Disposal Ordinance, 1980- responsible for
    licensing of all types of wastes
  • Regulations for livestock wastes in 1987.
  • Regulations for chemical waste disposal, 1992.

53
What are the industries and community facilities
that require special requirements for waste
disposal ?
  • Industries e.g.
  • Electricity, gas generation
  • Metal finishing
  • Printed circuit board,
  • Tannery processing
  • ..etc
  • Community facilities e.g.
  • abattoirs
  • Hospitals
  • Markets, cooked food stalls

54
Government structure
  • Policy Development Environmental Protection
    Department
  • Service Provision Refuse collection (FEH)
    Special Waste collection (EPD) Solid Waste
    disposal (EPD) Special waste disposal (EPD)
    Sewage treatment (DSD)
  • Legislation enforcement Waste import/export
    (EPD) Livestock waste (EPD) Marine dumping
    (EPD) Domestic waste storing, collection,
    littering (FEH)

55
Solid Waste Management in HK
56
Waste Management in HK
  • Municpal disposal by - 3 large landfills, 9
    planned transfer stations
  • Construction wastes disposal by - public dump
    for reclamation after segregation, sorting and
    recycling. Also adopt Polluters Pay Principle
  • 30 clinical waste by incineration and 70 by
    landfill
  • Marine mud by controlled dumping at specified
    seabed
  • Waste reduction Plan by
  • Waste minimisation by changes in peoples
    practice
  • Waste recovery and recycling
  • Reduce the volume of waste
  • Disposal in environmentally satisfactory ways

57
Environment Construction
58
Impact of Construction
  1. Cause changes to ecosystem
  2. Loss of forest
  3. Loss of cultivated land
  4. Air, noise, groundwater, ozone pollution
  1. Continuous reclamation
  2. Extraction of fossil fuel and minerals
  3. Consumption of resources
  4. Construction activities

59
Measures to reduce Impact to Environment
  1. Reuse of building materials e.g. use brick on
    pavement surface instead of concrete
  2. Recycle of materials e.g. Use crushed concrete
    for roadbase
  3. Reduce energy consumption e.g. use less energy
    means less electricity means less wastes from
    electric company
  4. Design build energy efficient buildings
  5. Promotion by education programme
  6. Conduct EIA and EMS

60
Environmental Management System
61
What is a EMS
  • EMS is a systematic approach for implementing
    environment management particularly at
    organisation level.
  • Through identifying, minimising, preventing and
    managing the environment impacts

62
What does EMS consist ?
  • 1. Environmental policy
  • 2. Organisation Structure
  • 3. Environmental Management Programme
  • 4. Audit of the programme system

63
Why EMS ?
  • Comply with legislation
  • Demand from customers
  • Competition
  • Save cost
  • Reduce risk
  • Investment approval
  • Pressure from environmentalists

64
What is ISO14000 ?
  • A series of standards on environmental management
  • ISO14001 set out the framework in management
    system for
  • tracking environmental performance,
  • setting objectives,
  • developing procedures, and
  • reviewing progress.

65
END
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