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A.D. 550 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 India s First Empires Trade Spreads Indian Religions and Culture Han Emperors in China ... After a bloody war ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NEXT


1
India and China Establish Empires, 400 B.C. A.D.
550
India and China establish powerful empires and
develop strong, vibrant cultures.
Striding infantryman, China.
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2
India and China Establish Empires, 400 B.C. A.D.
550
SECTION 1
Indias First Empires
SECTION 2
Trade Spreads Indian Religions and Culture
Han Emperors in China
SECTION 3
Map
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3
The Mauryas and the Guptas establish empires,
but neither unifies India permanently.
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4
Indias First Empires
The Mauryan Empire Is Established
Map
Chandragupta Maurya Seizes Power In 321 B.C.,
Chandragupta Maurya seizes power, starts
Mauryan Empire
Chandragupta Maurya Unifies North
India Chandragupta defeats Seleucus I north
India united for first time Chandragupta uses
taxes to support his large army
Running the Empire Chandraguptas chief adviser
is Kautilya, a priest Chandragupta creates
bureaucratic government He divides the
government to make it easier to rule
Continued . . .
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5
continued The Mauryan Empire Is Established
Life in the City and the Country A Greek
ambassador writes glowing praise of the
empire Chandraguptas son rules from 301 to
269 B.C., 32 years AsokaChandraguptas
grandson, brings the empire to its height
Image
Asoka Promotes Buddhism After a bloody war with
Kalinga, Asoka promotes Buddhism and
peace Preaches religious tolerationaccepting
people of different religions Builds roads,
with wells along them
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6
A Period of Turmoil
The Breakup of the Mauryan Empire Asoka dies in
232 B.C. kingdoms in central India soon break
away The Andhra Dynasty dominates central India
for centuries Northern India receives
immigrants from Greece, other parts of
Asia Tamilsa people living in southern
India remain separate and frequently war with
rival peoples
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7
The Gupta Empire Is Established
Chandra Gupta Builds an Empire Chandra Gupta
marries into kingship in north India in A.D.
320 Starts Gupta EmpireIndias second empire
flowering of Indian civilization, especially
Hindu culture His son Samudra Gupta expands
empire with conquest
Map
Continued . . .
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8
continued The Gupta Empire Is Established
Daily Life in India Majority of Indians are
farmers entire family raises crops
together Families are patriarchalheaded by the
eldest male Farmers have to contribute work
to government and pay heavy taxes Some Tamil
families are matriarchalled by mother rather
than father
Continued . . .
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9
continued The Gupta Empire Is Established
Height of the Gupta Empire Chandra Gupta II
rules from A.D. 375415 He defeats the Shakas
and adds western coast to empire Gupta Empire
sees flourishing of arts, religion, and
science After Chandra Gupta II dies, the empire
declines
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10
Indian religions, culture, and science evolve and
spread to other regions through trade.
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11
Trade Spreads Indian Religions and Culture
Buddhism and Hinduism Change
Traditional Hindu and Buddhist Beliefs Hinduism
blends Aryan and other beliefs belief in many
gods To Buddhists, desire causes suffering but
suffering can be overcome
Continued . . .
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12
continued Buddhism and Hinduism Change
A More Popular Form of Buddhism Belief in
bodhisattvas developspotential Buddhas who
save humanity Mahayana sectBuddhists accepting
new doctrines of worship, salvation Theravada
sectBuddhists who follow original teachings of
Buddha Wealthy Buddhist merchants build
stupas stone structures over relics
Image
Image
Continued . . .
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13
continued Buddhism and Hinduism Change
A Hindu Rebirth Hinduism is remote from people
by time of Mauryan Empire Hinduism moves
toward monotheism gods part of one divine
force Chief gods Brahmacreator of the
world Vishnupreserver of the
world Shivadestroyer of the world
Image
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14
Achievements of Indian Culture
Literature and the Performing Arts Kalidasapoet
and dramatist, one of Indias greatest writers
His skillful and emotionally stirring plays
still popular Madurai writing academies
create literature 2,000 Tamil poems
survive Drama and dance troupes gain popularity
and travel widely
Continued . . .
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15
continued Achievements of Indian Culture
Astronomy, Mathematics, and Medicine Ocean
trade leads to advances in astronomy Indian
astronomers in Gupta Empire prove that world is
round Mathematicians develop idea of zero and
decimal system Doctors write medical guides
and make advances in surgery
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16
The Spread of Indian Trade
Indias Valuable Resources India has spices,
diamonds, precious stones, and good quality
wood
Image
Overland Trade, East and West Trade routes
called Silk Roads connect Asia and
Europe Indians build trading posts to take
advantage of the Silk Roads
Sea Trade, East and West Indian merchants carry
goods to Rome by sea Merchants trade by sea
with Africa, Arabia, China, Southeast Asia
Continued . . .
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17
continued The Spread of Indian Trade
Effects of Indian Trade Increased trade leads
to rise of banking Bankers lend money to
merchants, careful of degree of
risk Increased trade spreads Indian culture to
other places Trade brings Hinduism, Buddhism
to other lands
Interactive
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18
The Han Dynasty expands Chinas borders and
develops a system of government that lasts for
centuries.
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19
Han Emperors in China
The Han Restore Unity to China
Troubled Empire In Qin Dynasty peasants resent
high taxes and harsh labor, rebel
Liu Bang Founds the Han Dynasty Liu Bang
defeats Xiang Yu, a rival for power, and founds
Han Dynasty Han Dynastybegins in 202 B.C.,
lasts 400 years Han Dynasty has great influence
on Chinese people, culture Liu Bang
establishes centralized governmenta central
authority rules Liu Bang lowers taxes and
reduces punishments to keep people happy
Interactive
Continued . . .
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20
continued The Han Restore Unity to China
The Empress Lü Liu Bang dies in 195 B.C. wife
Lü seizes control of empire Empress Lü rules
for her young son, outlives him Palace plots
and power plays occur throughout Han Dynasty
The Martial Emperor Liu Bangs great-grandson
Wudi rules from 141 to 87 B.C. Martial
Emperor Wudi defeats Xiongnu (nomads) and
mountain tribes Colonizes Manchuria, Korea, and
as far south as what is now Vietnam
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21
A Highly Structured Society
Chart
Emperors Role Chinese believe their emperor
has authority to rule from god Believe
prosperity reward of good rule troubles reveal
poor rule
Structures of Han Government Complex
bureaucracy runs Han government People pay
taxes and supply labor, military
service Government uses peasant labor to carry
out public projects
Continued . . .
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22
continued A Highly Structured Society
Confucianism, the Road to Success Wudis
government employs 130,000 bureaucracy of 18
ranks of jobs Civil service jobsgovernment
jobs obtained through examinations Job
applicants begin to be tested on knowledge of
Confucianism Wudi favors Confucian scholars,
builds school to train them Only sons of
wealthy can afford expensive schooling Civil
service system works well, continues until 1912
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23
Han Technology, Commerce, and Culture
Technology Revolutionizes Chinese
Life Invention of paper in A.D. 105 helps
spread education Collar harness, plow,
wheelbarrow improve farming
Chart
Agriculture Versus Commerce As population
grows, farming regarded as important
activity Government allows monopoliescontrol
by one group over key industries Techniques
for producing silk become state secret as
profits increase
Image
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24
The Han Unifies Chinese Culture
Bringing Different Peoples Under Chinese
Rule To unify empire, Chinese government
encourages assimilation Assimilationintegrati
ng conquered peoples into Chinese
culture Writers encourage unity by recording
Chinese history
Image
Womens RolesWives, Nuns, and Scholars Most
women work in the home and on the farm Some
upper-class women are educated, run shops,
practice medicine
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25
The Fall of the Han and Their Return
The Rich Take Advantage of the Poor Large
landowners gain control of more and more
land Gap between rich and poor increases
Wang Mang Overthrows the Han Economic problems
and weak emperors cause political
instability In A.D. 9, Wang Mang seizes power
and stabilizes empire Wang Mang is
assassinated in A.D. 23 Han soon regain control
The Later Han Years Peace restored, Later Han
Dynasty lasts until A.D. 220
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26
This is the end of the chapter presentation of
lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
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