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Feed Additives

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Feed Additives Pages 319 325 (Chapter 6) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Feed Additives


1
Feed Additives
  • Pages 319 325 (Chapter 6)

2
Why use them?
  • Cause a desired response/benefit
  • Alter metabolism
  • affect growth
  • change pH
  • manipulate microflora
  • improve digestion
  • increase yield
  • Reduce acidosis
  • Improve immune response
  • Increase palatability
  • Reduce fecal odor
  • Reduce joint pain

3
Major Classes
  • Growth Promotion and Feed Efficiency
  • Antibiotics
  • Medicinal Uses
  • Coccidiostats, worming agents
  • Others
  • Buffers and Neutralizers
  • Antioxidants
  • Preservatives
  • Binders
  • Direct Fed Microbials
  • Coloring Agents
  • Flavorings
  • Hormonelike products
  • Feed Additives
  • Implants

4
Examples
  • Antibiotics disease prevention
  • Coccidiostats control parasites
  • Xanthophyll makes egg yolks yellow
  • Cantaxanthin
  • Hormones (hormone like) increases growth
  • Yeast, Fungi, Direct fed microbials
  • Buffers HCO3 etc.. Prevent rumen acidosis
  • Antioxidants prevents feed from getting rancid
  • Pellet Binders keeps feed in pellet form
  • Flavoring Agents makes feed taste better
  • Surfactants lipid digestion, increase milk
    production, yield
  • Anionic salts acidify diet to increase Ca
    absorption

5
FEED ADDITIVES
  • Use of feed additives is strictly regulated in
    the developed countries, and many others, to
    ensure
  • Human food safety
  • Animal safety
  • Additive efficacy
  • Minimal environmental impact
  • Dramatic increase in globalization of
    marketingof animal products has led to more
    uniformity in regulations among countries.
  • Animal products must comply with the laws ofthe
    countries to which they are being sold.

6
FEED ADDITIVES
  • AAFCO (Association of American Feed Control
    Officials) provides the U.S. mechanism for
    developing and implementing uniform equitable
    laws, regulations, standards, and enforcement
    policies.
  • Regulating manufacture, distribution, and sale
    ofsafe and effective animal feeds.
  • AAFCO defines a feed additive as
  • "an ingredient or combination of ingredients
    addedto the basic feed mix to fulfill a
    specific need."
  • " usually used in micro quantities and
    requirescareful handling and mixing"

7
FEED ADDITIVES
  • Animal products are routinely tested to ensure
    that feed additives are being used correctly.
  • Use of feed additives has been beneficial to
    livestock producers under our modern methods of
    production.
  • Feed additives have been used extensively in the
    U.S. and many other countries since the discovery
    commercial production of antibiotics and sulfa
    drugs in the late 1940s.
  • Development of intense production systems made
    possible because of additives that could control
    disease/parasites.
  • The European Union recently banned feeding of
    antibiotics to animals meant for human
    consumption.

8
Growth Promotion and Feed Efficiency
  • Antibiotics
  • Substance produced by a living organism that has
    bacteriostatic or bactericidal properties.
  • Fed to reduce incidence of subclinical levels of
    infections in the GI or respiratory tracts.
  • Increase rate of gain and feed efficiency.
  • Chemotherapeutic Agents
  • Inorganic or organic compound that inhibits the
    growth of target organisms (not produced by
    living organism).

9
ADDITIVES CLASSED AS DRUGS
  • In the U.S., use regulation of additives
    classed as drugs is controlled by the Center for
    Veterinary Medicine, within the FDA.
  • To determine that drugs medicated feed are
    properly labeled for intended use and that animal
    feeds and food derived from animals are safe to
    eat.
  • What is the human risk?
  • Federal law states no animal drug can be usedin
    feed until adequate research submitted to the FDA
    proves the drug is both safe and effective.
  • In developing a new drug for use with animals,
    manufacturers must go through extensive testing.

10
ADDITIVES CLASSED AS DRUGS Antibiotics
  • Antibiotics are compounds produced by
    microorganisms.
  • inhibit growth/metabolism of some (not all) other
    microorganisms.
  • In some instances, they may be toxic to
    warm-blooded animals.
  • Most antibiotic names end in -cin or -mycin.
  • All antibiotics used commercially for growth
    promotion are produced by fermentation processes
    using fungi or bacteria.

11
Growth Promotion Feed Efficiency Antibiotics
  • Antibiotics are effective at improving production
    when fed at low levels to young, growing animals.

12
Growth Promotion Feed Efficiency Antibiotics
  • Feed Efficiency Improvement
  • Growth is nearly always increased, particularly
    with animals exposed to adverse environmental
    conditions.
  • Feed intake usually decreases in ruminants.
  • Varies by animal species.
  • Antibiotic-fed animals are less apt to go off
    feed.
  • Can control a wide variety of diseases.
  • As a rule, reduce the incidence or severity of
    several types of diarrhea

13
Growth Promotion Feed Efficiency Antibiotics
  • Some are approved at low levels of continuous use
    for reducing the incidence of
  • Enterotoxemia (overeating disease) in lambs.
  • Liver abscesses in fattening cattle.
  • Diarrhea in young mammals deprived of colostrum.
  • In poultry, some claims include
  • Reduction in respiratory disease.
  • Nonspecific enteritis (blue comb) infectious
    sinusitis.
  • Improved egg production and hatchability.

14
Growth Promotion Feed Efficiency Antibiotics
  • Two antibiotics for use in cattle, monensin and
    lasalocid, are unusual in that they give a good
    response in both growing and mature animals.
  • Approval was first received for use as
    coccidiostats with poultry.
  • Both of these antibiotics are quite toxic to
    horses.

15
Growth Promotion Feed Efficiency Antibiotics
  • Obtaining approval for new feed additive drugs
    has become more difficult in recent years.
  • More investigative effort expense are involved.
  • Few recent approvals.
  • Very few antibiotic additives are approved for
    horses, rabbits, sheep, goats, ducks, pheasants
    quail.
  • NONE for geese, dogs, cats, exotics.
  • The primary reason is the cost of obtaining
    approval in relation to potential sales volumes.

16
Growth Promotion Feed Efficiency Antibiotics
  • In poultry very typical to see more than one
    included.
  • Most can be used for layers, except high
    levelsof chlortetracycline and erythromycin.
  • Manufacturer approval must be obtained forusing
    different combinations of antibiotics.
  • Or combinations of antibiotics other controlled
    drugs.
  • Far more drug combinations have been approved for
    chickens turkeys than all other animals
    combined.
  • It is illegal to feed antibiotics at different
    levels or in different combinations from those
    previously approved.

17
Growth Promotion Feed Efficiency
Chemotherapeutic Agents
  • Arsenicals are all synthetic compounds
    (chemotherapeutic agent) include a number of
    drugs used in turkey, chicken, and swine rations.
  • Control of parasites.
  • Some stimulate growth in the same manner as
    antibiotics.
  • The effect can be additive to antibiotic
    stimulation.
  • Several arsenicals have claims of improved growth
    production as well as improved feed efficiency
    for chickens, turkeys, or swine.
  • And control of Blackhead in poultry diarrhea in
    swine.

18
Growth Promotion Feed Efficiency
Chemotherapeutic Agents
  • Arsenicals have the disadvantage that they may
    accumulate in body tissues, particularly the
    liver.
  • At the levels fed, they are not considered toxic.
  • All have a minimum 5-day withdrawal period before
    animals are to be slaughtered for human food.
  • Large public concern arsenic in my food

19
Medicinal Uses of Additives
  • Prevention or treatment
  • Coccidiostats (poultry)
  • Histostats
  • Histomoniasis (Blackhead) protozoan disease
    affecting turkeys and some other poultry. Affects
    the liver and cecum.
  • G.I enteritis, diarrhea, dysentery
  • Anthelmintic (worming) agents

20
Medicinal Uses Coccidiostats
  • Coccidia are microscopic parasites.
  • Coccidiostats include a wide variety of
    compounds, ranging from a number of synthetic
    drugs to antibiotics.
  • Coccidiosis outbreaks are very large concern in
    confinement poultry operations.
  • Evidence suggests coccidiosis is becoming a
    greater problem with sheep cattle in close
    confinement.

21
Medicinal Uses Nitrofurans
  • Synthetic antibiotic
  • The nitrofurans are antibacterial compounds and
    are effective against a relatively large number
    of microbial diseases.
  • Continued use of nitrofurans has not yet
    developed bacterial resistance, as is the case
    for some antibiotics.

22
Medicinal Uses Sulfas
  • Reduction in use
  • Problems with tissue residues
  • Most of problems alleviated by sulfas can be
    managed with other additives.

23
Hormone-Like Additives
  • Hormones are substances produced by the endocrine
    organs to activate other organs. Synthesized
    compounds that produce the same responses as
    natural hormones can be used to
  • Promote milk production
  • Promote animal growth
  • Fed as an additive or implanted

24
Hormone-Like Additives
  • Melengestrol acetate (MGA) is the only
    hormone-like production improver remaining on the
    approved list.
  • Extensively used with beef heifers
  • Suppress estrus which results in more efficient
    and more rapid gain.

25
Hormone-Like Implants Pages 322-323
  • Although not feed additives, several productsare
    available for use as subcutaneous implants.
  • Hexestrol, (outside the U.S.)
  • Ralgro Anabolic agent, improves feed
    efficiency.
  • Synovex a combination of estrogen
    progesterone.
  • Rapid Gain a combination of testosterone
    estrogen
  • Steer-oid a combination of progesterone and
    estradiol.
  • A high percentage of growing- finishing cattle
    and sheep are treated with one or more of these
    implants.

26
Hormone-Like Additives
  • In ruminants, natural or synthetic hormones
    produce a response that results from increased
    nitrogen retention accompanied by an increased
    intake of feed.
  • Increased growth rate Improvement in feed
    efficiency.
  • Reduced deposition of body fat, which may, at
    times, result in a lower carcass grade for
    animals fed to the same weight as nontreated
    animals.

27
Hormone-Like Additives ?-agonists
  • Molecules that structurally resemble epinephrine
  • Caffeine, ephedrine, aspirin
  • Easily made in the lab
  • Muscle
  • Increase in muscle synthesis
  • Decrease in muscle breakdown
  • Fat
  • Decrease in lipogenesis
  • Increase in lipolysis
  • Ractopamine (Paylean)
  • May impact behavior Aggression

28
Antioxidants
  • Used to prevent rancidity of unsaturated fatty
    acids
  • Inclusion rates up to 0.25 Lb per ton feed.
  • BHA/BHT (Butylated hydroxyanisole or toluene)
  • Ethyoxiquin
  • Vitamin E
  • Rosemary

29
Preservatives
  • Used to prevent feed deterioration (mold/bacteria
    inhibitors) Increase shelf life
  • Vitamin C
  • Calcium sorbate
  • Citric acid
  • Phosphoric acid
  • Propylene glycol (toxic to cats)
  • Sodium propionate
  • Sodium metabisulfate

30
Buffers and Neutralizers
  • Buffers Neutralizers
  • Lessen the decrease in pH caused by VFA
    production
  • Valuable for use in high concentrate diets to
    ruminants but not high forage diets
  • Examples
  • Sodium bicarbonate (most effective and most
    common AKA baking soda)
  • Potassium bicarbonate
  • Calcium carbonate
  • Magnesium oxide
  • Magnesium carbonate

31
DFMs and Yeastwww.microbialcompendium.com
  • Include cultures of live organisms, or
    ingredients (or both) that stimulate microflora
    in the gut to favor healthy environments.
  • Bacteria, Enzymes, Mold, Oligosaccharides, Yeast
  • Lactobacillus, streptococcus, fungi, aspergillus,
    bacillus
  • Probiotics
  • Scientifically inconsistent
  • Consist of microbial cultures
  • Can stimulate cultural growth
  • Reasons for use
  • Increase/balance beneficial bacteria
  • Reduce toxic byproducts of digestion
  • Support rate of gain and feed efficiency
  • Alleviate/minimize stress
  • Various times for use
  • When do you use them?
  • Most common with horses, young animals

32
Microorganisms found to be appropriate for use in
animal feeds
  • Enterococcus cremoris
  • Enterococcus diacetylactis
  • Enterococcus faecium
  • Enterococcus intermedius
  • Enterococcus lactis
  • Enterococcus thermophilus
  • Yeast
  • Aspergillus niger
  • Leuconostoc mesenteroides
  • Pediococcus acidilacticii
  • Pediococcus cerevisiae (damnosus)
  • Pediococcus pentosaceus
  • Propionibacterium acidpropionici (cattle only)
  • Propionibacterium freudenreichii
  • Propionibacterium shermanii
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • Enterococcus cremoris
  • Enterococcus diacetylactis
  • Enterococcus faecium
  • Aspergillus niger
  • Aspergillus oryzae
  • Bacillus coagulans
  • Bacillus lentus
  • Bacillus licheniformis
  • Bacillus pumilus
  • Bacillus subtilis
  • Bacteroides amylophilus
  • Bacteroides capillosus
  • Bacteroides ruminocola
  • Bacteroides suis
  • Bifidobacterium adolescentis
  • Bifidobacterium animalis
  • Bifidobacterium bifidum
  • Bifidobacterium infantis
  • Bifidobacterium longum
  • Bifidobacterium thermophilum
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Lactobacillus brevis
  • Lactobacillus buchneri (cattle only)
  • Lactobacillus bulgaricus
  • Lactobacillus casei
  • Lactobacillus cellobiosus
  • Lactobacillus curvatus
  • Lactobacillus delbruekii
  • Lactobacillus farciminis (swine only)
  • Lactobacillus fermentum
  • Lactobacillus helveticus
  • Lactobacillus lactis
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Lactobacillus reuterii
  • Leuconostoc mesenteroides
  • Pediococcus acidilacticii
  • Pediococcus cerevisiae (damnosus)
  • Pediococcus pentosaceus
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