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Chapter 3 Vocabulary

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Title: Chapter 3 Vocabulary


1
Chapter 3 Vocabulary
  • Olfactory Bulb
  • Pheromone
  • Taste Buds
  • Kinesthetic Senses
  • Vestibular Senses
  • Gate Control Theory
  • Constancy
  • Size Constancy
  • Color Constancy
  • Aerial Perspective
  • Stereoscopic Vision
  • Perceptual Illusion
  • Autokinestic Illusion
  • Phi Phenomenon
  • Sensation
  • Perception
  • Receptor Cell
  • Absolute Threshold
  • Adaptation
  • Webers Law
  • Subliminal Messages
  • Visual Acuity
  • Bipolar Cells
  • Ganglion Cells
  • Optic Nerve
  • Color Blindness
  • Trichormats
  • Monochromats
  • Dichromats
  • Decibel

2
BellWork
  • Copy down the graphic organizer in your notes.

Sense Description of How Brain Processes Sense Absolute Threshold
Vision
Hearing
Smell
Taste
Touch
3
Group Activity
  • Interview each other about the events of
    September 11, 2001.
  • Ask these important questions
  • Who
  • What
  • When
  • Where
  • Why
  • How
  • In your questions and answers, try to focus on
    the sensations (seeing, hearing, tasting,
    smelling, touching) as well as emotions you felt
    as you witnessed the events of September 11, 2001.

4
  • Is there a difference between the individual
    memories and the collective memory of the class?
  • How did hearing your interviewee's recollection
    of the event affect your own memory, if at all?

5
September 11, 2001
  • Eyewitness Interviews and Reactions
  • Men and women from diverse ethnic and
    socioeconomic backgrounds, a cross-section of
    America.
  • Included are interviews with people who were in
    the World Trade Center, but the majority of the
    interviews are from other parts of the country,
    from those who first heard the news on television
    or radio

6
  • What events does each of the eyewitnesses
    recount?
  • How are their accounts different? How are they
    similar?

7
  • What role did technology play in how the
    eyewitnesses experienced the events of September
    11? In what ways, if any, did technology help
    people? In what ways, if any, did technology fail
    to help people?

8
  • What emotional responses do the eyewitnesses
    describe?
  • Which emotions seemed to be the most commonly
    experienced immediately after the attacks?
  • Which were most common days or weeks after the
    events?

9
  • How do the eyewitness accounts add to your
    understanding of what you previously knew about
    the events of September 11, whether from seeing
    the events on television, reading about them, or
    learning about them in school?
  • Describe what you believe to be the unique value
    of eyewitness accounts of major historical events.

10
  • What do these accounts reveal about the values of
    the individuals describing the events of the
    morning of September 11? How might these values
    affect the way in which they recall the events?
    What other factors might affect their
    recollection of the events?

11
Reactions to 9/11
  • Billie Jo McAfee, South Lake Tahoe, California
  • Peter V.Z. Roudebush, Fort Dodge, Iowa
  • Melanie Jean Whipple, East Lansing, Michigan
  • Patti Chapman, San Diego, California
  • Cindy Mediavilla, Los Angeles, California
  • David Harmon, Portland, Maine

12
  • Compare the psychological and emotional responses
    of these individuals with those of eyewitnesses.
    What similarities do you note? What differences?
  • Do peoples emotions and fears seem to vary
    according to where they livedin the countrys
    interior or near a coast, in a small town or a
    big city?

13
  • What are these interviewees perspectives on the
    medias coverage of the events?
  • How do you, as a listener and student of history,
    respond to the eyewitness accounts versus those
    of people who watched the events on television?
    How might your response to the accounts influence
    the way you construct a historic account of
    September 11?

14
BellWork
  • Copy these questions on a separate sheet of
    paper. You will use these later during the video.
    Leave space so you will have room to write the
    answers.
  • ______ _______ capture energy and convert it into
    signals that can be recognized by the brain.
  • What are the three colors the eyes see?
  • In the eyes, the cones are responsible for
    perceiving ________.
  • What is the language of the brain?
  • If you are hit on the back of your head, you are
    likely to see what?
  • What are the three areas of the visual part of
    the cortex?
  • If the ______ _______ ______ is damaged, a person
    can experience blind sight.
  • What is blind sight?
  • When a blind person reads Braille, the _____
    cortex is being activated.

15
Sensory and Perception
  • Chapter 3

16
Exploring Psychology
  • Helen Keller had been blind and deaf since she
    was
  • two years old. For the next four years, Helen
    was wild
  • and unruly. Then when she was six, Anne
    Sullivan, a
  • teacher, entered her life. Using the sense of
    touch as
  • the link between their two worlds, Anne tried
    again and
  • again, by spelling words into Helens hand, to
    make
  • Helen grasp the connections between words and the
  • things they stood for. The breakthrough came one
    day
  • as Anne spelled the word water into Helens hand
    as
  • water from a spout poured over it. I stood
    still, my whole
  • attention fixed upon the motions of her fingers,
    Helen
  • remembered. Suddenly I felta thrill of
    returning thought
  • and somehow the mystery of language was revealed
    to me.

adapted from ABCs of the Human Mind, Readers
Digest, 1990.
17
The Questions
  • What senses were unavailable to Helen Keller?
  • How did she learn to compensate?

18
An Eskimo or Native American?
19
Whats Up?
  • In the next few seconds, something peculiar will
    start hap pening to the material youa rereading.
    Iti soft ennotre alieze howcom plext heproces sof
    rea ding is.

20
  • Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde
    Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the
    ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng
    is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit
    pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can
    sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae
    the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by
    istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.

21
What is sensation?
  • What occurs when a stimulus activates a receptor?
  • Response
  • Stimuli - any change in the environment to which
    an organism responds
  • Stimulus ? Response

22
What is a perception?
  • Combined sensations with past experiences.
  • How we, as INDIVIDUALS, interpret our sensations
  • Organization of sensory information into
    meaningful experiences

23
Psychophysics
  • The study of the relationships between sensory
    experiences and the physical stimuli that caused
    them.
  • How much energy is required for someone to hear a
    sound or see a light?
  • How much of a scent must be in a room before one
    can smell it?
  • Absolute Thresholds of the senses

24
Absolute Threshold
  • The weakest amount of stimulus required to
    produce a sensation.
  • Person can detect the stimulus 50 of the time.

25
The Absolute Thresholds
  • Sight a candle flame 30 miles away on a clear
    night.
  • Hearing hearing a watch ticking 20 feet away.
  • Taste tasting 1 teaspoon of sugar dissolved in
    2 gallons of water.
  • Smell smelling 1 drop of perfume in a 3-room
    house.
  • Touch feeling a bees wing falling a distance
    of 1 centimeter onto your cheek.

26
Sensory Adaptation
  • Allows us to notice differences in sensations and
    react to the challenges of different or changing
    stimuli.
  • Our senses adjust to the overall level of
    stimulation
  • More stimulation, less sensitive
  • Less stimulation, more sensitive

27
Stroop Effect
  • Read the following list of colors.
  • Say the color of each word aloud.
  • Which does your mind see? The color of the word
    or the color the word REPRESENTS?

Pink Blue Green Yellow Red Green
Brown Orange Black Purple White
Red Pink Orange Blue Light Blue Black Pink Red Gre
en Red Green
28
The Stroop Effect
http//faculty.washington.edu/chudler/words.html
29
Webers Law
  • What is Webers law?
  • Difference Threshold/ Just Noticeable Difference
    is a constant proportion of the stimulation being
    judged.

30
Webers Law
  • JND Constants
  • Hearing 0.3 (very sensitive)
  • Taste 20

31
Subliminal Messages
  • www.sublymonal.com
  • Can people be influenced by information they are
    not consciously aware?

32
ESP Real or Imagined?
  • Extrasensory Perception
  • Response to an unknown event not presented to any
    known sense
  • Clairvoyance awareness of an unknown object or
    event
  • Telepathy knowledge of someone elses thoughts
    or feelings
  • Precognition forehand knowledge of future events
  • Parapsychology

33
Inside Out Sensation
34
The Five Senses
  • Or maybe SIX?

35
Senses
  • Seeing
  • Hearing
  • Smelling
  • Tasting
  • Touching
  • Internal
  • Vestibular
  • Kinesthetic

36
Vision
37
Process of Vision
  • Light Stimulus for sense of sight
  • Light enters the eye through the cornea
  • Passes through the pupils (contracts)
  • Moves through a lens and focuses on the retina
    (lining of the eye containing the receptor cells)
  • Fovea is the part of the eye that focuses images

38
Visual Receptor Cells
  • Rods
  • 120 million in each retina
  • Respond to intensity of light and dark
  • Responsible for night vision
  • Cones
  • 8 million in each retina
  • Respond to colors
  • Less sensitive to light than rods

39
From the Eyes to the Brain
  • Ganglion cells
  • Neurons that connect the bipolar cells in the
    eyes to the brain
  • Optic Nerve
  • Carries messages from each eye to the brain

40
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41
Color Vision
  • Color Blindness
  • Trichromats- people with normal color vision
  • Monochromats- most severe type of colorblindness
    (less common)
  • Only shades of gray
  • Dichromats- blind to either red-green or
    blue-yellow shades of light and dark (more common)

42
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43
Binocular Vision
  • Two eyes, one image
  • Retinal Disparity
  • Visual system receives two images on the retinas

44
Vision
45
Smell and Taste
  • Known as chemical senses because the receptor
    cells are sensitive to chemical molecules
  • Smell and Taste are interrelated
  • Smell is thought to be 10,000 times more
    sensitive than taste

46
Smell
47
Process of Smell
  • Chemical molecules (vapors) enter your nose
  • Olfactory Nerve
  • Carries smell impulses from the nose to the brain
  • Located in the membrane in the upper part of the
    nasal passage

48
The Olfactory Nerve
49
Taste
50
Process of Taste
  • 9,000 taste buds on tongue
  • Liquid chemical molecules stimulate the taste
    buds (taste receptor cells)
  • Information/Data is sent to the brain
  • Includes information about temperature and
    texture of the substance

51
What Makes Up Taste?
Ben and Jerrys
  • Sour
  • Salty
  • Bitter
  • Sweet
  • Flavor
  • The combination of taste, smell, and touch
  • You can detect flavors anywhere on the tongue

Blue Bell
Mayfields
Ice cream
Cold Stone
52
Hearing
  • If a tree falls in the forest and on one is
    there, does the tree make a sound?

53
Hearing
54
Sound Waves
  • Loudness, determined by the amplitude of the
    sound wave (decibel)
  • Pitch, determined by the frequency of the sound
    wave

55
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56
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57
Process of Hearing
  • Sound waves strike the eardrum
  • Hammer, Anvil, and Stirrup
  • Sequence of tiny bones in the middle ear that
    carry the vibrations to the inner ear
  • Vibrations hit against the cochlea
  • Contains fluids and Auditory nerves
  • Auditory nerve turn sound vibrations into
    neuronal signals
  • Found in the inner ear
  • Tiny hair-like cells

58
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59
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60
Deafness
  • Types
  • Conduction
  • Occurs when anything hinders physical motion
    through the outer or middle ear or when the bones
    of the middle ear become rigid and cannot carry
    sound.
  • Usually a hearing aid will help.
  • Sensorineural
  • Occurs from damage to the cochela, the hair
    cells, or the auditory neurons.
  • A cochlear implant will be needed to hear sound.

61
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62
Tactile Senses
63
The Skin Senses
  • Your skin is your largest sense organ.
  • Most sensitive skin areas are your face and
    fingertips
  • Very sensitive
  • 0.00004 of an inch of skin displacement will
    cause a sensation of pressure!
  • Four kinds of information
  • Pressure
  • Warmth
  • Cold
  • Pain

64
Process of Touch
65
Pain
OW!
  • Gate Control Theory of Pain
  • Lessen some pains by focusing our attention away
    from the pain impulses
  • OR sending sensation signals to compete with the
    pain signals
  • Two Types
  • Sharp, localized felt immediately after an injury
  • Dull, generalized felt later after an injury

66
Touch
67
The Sixth Senses
  • Vestibular
  • Three semicircular canals located in the inner
    ear that provide a sense of balance.
  • Kinesthetic
  • The sense that provides information about the
    position and movement of individual body parts.

68
Perception
69
Trying to Catch a Fly
  • The frogs bug detector shows the rigidity of
    reflexive behavior. If you sever the frogs
    optic nerve, it will grow back together, and the
    bug detector will still work fine. If you sever
    the optic nerve and then rotate the frogs eye
    180 degrees, the nerve will still heal and
    reestablish all the old connections however,
    this time the results will not be so good. The
    bug detector does not know that everything has
    been rotated, so it miscomputes a bugs location.
    If the bug is high, the frog shoots its tongue
    low. If the bug is to the right, the tongue goes
    to the left. The frog never learns to compensate
    for the changed situation.

from A Second Way of Knowing The Riddle of Human
Perception by Edmund Blair Bolles, 1991
70
Inside Out Perception
71
The Question
  • Where does perception occur in the sensory
    organ, in the nerve, or in the brain?

72
Perception
  • The brain receives information from the senses
    and organizes and interprets it into meaningful
    experiences unconsciously.
  • Our brains fill in the gaps

73
Perceptual Organization
  • Each whole that is organized by the brain is
    called a _________
  • The brain creates a coherent perceptual
    experience
  • More than the sum of all sensations

Gestalt
74
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75
Principles that people use in organizing such
patterns
  • Proximity
  • When we see a number of similar objects, we tend
    to perceive them as groups or sets of those that
    are close to each other.
  • Continuity
  • We tend to see continuous patterns, not disrupted
    ones.
  • Similarity
  • When similar and dissimilar objects are mingled,
    we see the similar objects as groups.
  • Simplicity
  • We see the simplest shapes possible.
  • Closure
  • When we see a familiar pattern or shape with some
    missing parts, we fill in the gaps.

76
Proximity
???? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ABCD
EFG HIJK LMNOP QRS TUV WX
YZ
Sing your ABCs does the pattern you learned
your ABCs fit the pattern of the dots? You
learned your ABCs in groups of letters, to fit
the tune Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star
77
Continuity
C
B
D
A
Two curves or two pointed objects?
78
Similarity
79
Simplicity
80
Closure
STAR
81
Figure-Ground Perception
  • The ability to discriminate properly between a
    figure and its background.

82
Perceptual Inference
  • Filling in the gaps.

83
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84
Synesthesia
  • Hearing Colors
  • All of her life, a woman, finally diagnosed with
    Synesthesia, had seen colors when she heard words
    or letters. She always saw yellow with hints of
    green when se heard the word king.
  • Synesthesia is the mingling or swapping of
    sensory information in which stimulating one
    sense triggers conscious experience in another
    sense.
  • 1 out of 25,000 people, result of a crossed
    wire in the brain?

85
Subliminal Perception
  • Subliminal perception occurs whenever stimuli
    presented below the threshold of awareness are
    found to influence thoughts, feelings, or
    actions.

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vLMzbwa6PvEE
86
Depth Perception
  • Monocular Depth Cues
  • Used to perceive distance and depth.
  • Can be perceived with only one eye.

87
  • Binocular Depth Cues
  • Depends upon the movement of both eyes.

88
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89
Constancy
  • The tendency to perceive certain objects in the
    same way regardless of changing angle, distance,
    or lighting.

90
Illusions
  • Perceptions that misrepresent physical stimuli.
  • They are created when perceptual cues are
    distorted so that our brains cannot correctly
    interpret space, size, and depth cues.

91
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