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KGA172

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KGA172 SPACE, PLACE AND NATURE LECTURE 23 QUANTIFYING INTANGIBLE VALUES Ronlyn Duncan www.flickr.com/Lumase www.flickr.com/Catchthedream www.flickr.com/Jimgoldstein – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: KGA172


1
KGA172 SPACE, PLACE AND NATURE LECTURE 23
QUANTIFYING INTANGIBLE VALUES Ronlyn Duncan
www.flickr.com/Lumase
www.flickr.com/Catchthedream
www.flickr.com/Jimgoldstein
2
Lecture outline
  • defines intangible values
  • describes some of the ways in which intangible
    values can be quantified
  • relates to questions 10, 11 and 12
  • vocabulary is underlined

3
Intangible values what are they?
Intangible values attitudes and preferences
that are not immediately obvious, e.g. Aesthetic
value lies in the brain of the beholder, partly
hard-wired by evolutionary processes and partly
induced by experience and socialisation. It
includes sight, sound, smell, taste, touch and
intuition.
Only regarded as aesthetically attractive by
vegetable gardeners
The archetypal beautiful view
4
www.australianforests.org.au/images/australia
www.flickr.com by Today is a good day, 2005
www.flickr.com by leoffreitas, 2006
www.flickr.com Micky, 2006
5
Temporal and spatial variation in aesthetic
preference related to intergenerational
differentiation, culture and class
6
How do we integrate environmental values into
decisions
  • when they are
  • intangible
  • often conflicting
  • time-consuming to obtain
  • difficult to separate out.
  • Often left out or insufficiently recognised in
    decisions that alter or exploit space, place and
    nature.

7
What are the social values of urban woodlands?
  • March, 2003 postal survey sent to 1000
    residents aged between 15-75 years randomly
    sampled.
  • Mapped social values of green areas.
  • Qualitative quantitative approach.

Tyrvainen, L., Makinen, K. Schipperijn, J.
(2007, p. 7). Tools for mapping social values of
urban woodlands and other green areas. Landscape
and Urban Planning, 79, 5-19.
8
Study site East Helsinki, Finland, 10 km from
city centre. Mainly young forests, former
agricultural land and narrow forested
belts. Tyrvainen, L., Makinen, K. Schipperijn,
J. (2007, p. 7). Tools for mapping social values
of urban woodlands and other green areas.
Landscape and Urban Planning, 79, 5-19.
9
What are the social values of urban woodlands?
  • How much and what kinds of green areas should be
    provided for residents in urban areas?
  • Do suburban green areas provide high-quality
    benefits for residents?
  • Where do residents find attractive and meaningful
    green areas and what are the characteristics of
    these areas?

10
Tyrvainen, L., Makinen, K. Schipperijn, J.
(2007, p. 14). Tools for mapping social values of
urban woodlands and other green areas. Landscape
and Urban Planning, 79, 5-19.
11
Also asked about negative values of
unpleasantness, scariness and noise
12
Tyrvainen, L., Makinen, K. Schipperijn, J.
(2007, p. 14). Tools for mapping social values of
urban woodlands and other green areas. Landscape
and Urban Planning, 79, 5-19.
13
80 very important 17 relatively important
Tyrvainen, L., Makinen, K. Schipperijn, J.
(2007, p. 10). Tools for mapping social values of
urban woodlands and other green areas. Landscape
and Urban Planning, 79, 5-19.
14
Tyrvainen, L., Makinen, K. Schipperijn, J.
(2007, p. 10). Tools for mapping social values of
urban woodlands and other green areas. Landscape
and Urban Planning, 79, 5-19.
15
Tyrvainen, L., Makinen, K. Schipperijn, J.
(2007, p. 10). Tools for mapping social values of
urban woodlands and other green areas. Landscape
and Urban Planning, 79, 5-19.
16
Thematic map for each quality was plotted from
the votes received per area
Tyrvainen, L., Makinen, K. Schipperijn, J.
(2007, p. 12). Tools for mapping social values of
urban woodlands and other green areas. Landscape
and Urban Planning, 79, 5-19.
17
Typology of environmental values
18
Economic valuation methods
19
Travel cost method
  • A revealed preference method
  • Uses actual behaviour and travel costs to reveal
    underlying preferences of individuals
  • Infers willingness to pay for environmental
    quality from decisions made about where to travel
    for recreation.

Keohane, N.O. S.M. Olmstead (2007). Markets
and the Environment, Island Press, Washington. p.
33-43
20
Hedonic Pricing
  • A revealed preference method.
  • Uses observed market prices to infer value of
    environmental amenity that is bundled with
    private goods.
  • Often uses housing market data.
  • Infers from market real estate prices willingness
    to pay for environmental quality.

Keohane, N.O. S.M. Olmstead (2007). Markets
and the Environment, Island Press, Washington. p.
33-43
21
Contingent Valuation
  • Contingent valuation is a stated preference
    method.
  • People are asked in surveys about their
    willingness to pay for an environmental amenity,
    e.g. better air quality.

Keohane, N.O. S.M. Olmstead (2007). Markets
and the Environment, Island Press, Washington. p.
33-43
22
Recommended reading
  • On MyLO
  • Keohane, N.O. S.M. Olmstead (2007). Markets
    and the Environment, Island Press, Washington. p.
    33-43.
  • Tyrvainen, L., Makinen, K. Schipperijn, J.
    (2007, p. 14). Tools for mapping social values of
    urban woodlands and other green areas. Landscape
    and Urban Planning, 79, 5-19.
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