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Dissection of the Rat

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Title: Dissection of the Rat


1
Dissection of the Rat
  • An Exploration of the Various Organs Systems

2
General Rules
  • No Food or Drink at your Station at all times
  • Participation pts. Will be lost!!!
  • Remain at your station at all times unless
    instructed
  • Keep track of all instruments (do a count
    everyday)
  • No open toed shoes
  • Do not cut anything unless instructed
  • Always follow your Dissection guide

3
Dissection Tasks
  • Researcher Photographer
  • Sets up computer (obtains images info.)
  • Wipes down the entire table table top
  • Takes photographs, prints shares with group
  • Corrects all IQs for the group
  • Researches key information
  • Keeps the group in check with Dissection Manual
  • Equipment manager
  • Cleans, dries, and returns all supplies to the
    appropriate places.
  • Organizes counts all intruments
  • Assists with the Clean up procedures (pan, table,
    etc)
  • Makes labels/prepares them on pins
  • Dissectors/Assistant( min. 2 people) - Observe
    the dissection procedures and share with rest of
    the group.

4
Initial Procedures to Begin the Dissection
  • Dissection Guide turn to the appropriate Pgs.
    Beginning through pg. 16 so you can answer the
    first two set of Guiding Questions.
  • Collect all the Instruments place them in a
    pouch that you have labeled with your period and
    group members.
  • Freezer Bag using a sharpie label your bags as
    follows with your period and all lab group
    member.
  • Choose a rat and give it a name. Choose both a
    male and female name for now. You will verify
    the gender later and circle that name on the bag
    then.
  • Use the rat to help answer some of the guiding
    questions.
  • Tie one piece of string on the upper extremities
    with each end on each forelimb and another string
    on the lower extremities (you will keep these
    strings tied on the rat at all times.

5
Closing Procedures at the End of Class
  • Obtain some paper towels and roll the rat in them
    then place your rat into the labeled freezer bag.
  • Make a TIGHT Seal with all the air evacuated out.
  • Clean your tray and instruments.
  • Put all your instruments in you pouch or box.
  • Place tray, instruments, and rat in your
    designated drawer.
  • Spray down the ENTIRE table top with windex and
    thoroughly clean it leaving no streaks.
  • FOLD your Lab coats stack neatly in the back
  • Return the dissection guides and computer back to
    the cart.

You will store your Pan, Instruments, and Rats
in the available drawers located along the sides
of the room.
6
Instruments
  • 1 dissecting pan
  • 1 Lg. Freezer Bag
  • 4 pieces of string (25 in each)
  • 2 forceps (fine blunt)
  • 1 scapel (pick up later)
  • 2 blunt probes
  • 4 sharp probes
  • 14 pins (6 large 8 fine)
  • 2 scissors (large fine point)
  • Water dropper cup
  • Ruler (pick up later)
  • Index card (cut into labels) need to bring some
    next week)

7
Day 1 Guiding Questions 1
  1. Make a list of instruments youll be using and
    the number of each.
  2. After reading the objectives of the lab, how many
    organs for each system are you required to know
    and identify.
  3. Name the two major regions of the integumentary
    system. Name three functions of this system.
  4. Name the four key parts to the skeletal system.
    What does Hemopoiesis mean?
  5. What is the only function of the muscular system?
    Name the three parts of the body mentioned that
    the muscular system plays a role.
  6. Name the three parts of the nervous system.
    Which parts make up the central nervous system?
  7. Name two functions of the endocrine system. What
    chemical is produced by the glands that make up
    this system? How is this system different from
    the nervous system? Name the eight types of
    organs that make up this system.

8
Guiding Questions 2
  • What purpose does the circulatory system serve?
    What is it primarily composed of?
  • Name the six key structures that make up the
    respiratory system. What purpose does this
    system serve? Name the minute little sacs in the
    lungs that help with gas exchange.
  • Name the six parts of the digestive system.
    Where does digestion begin? Which part of the
    system is used to remove water from the food?
  • What roles do the pancreas and liver play in the
    digestive process?
  • Name one of the key waste products excreted by
    the Urinary system. Name the four main organs of
    this system.
  • Name the key structures of the male and female.

9
Guiding Questions 3
  • 1. From your dissection guide which chapter
    discusses the muscular system?
  • Before identifying the muscles the rat must be
    skinned. The first incision to be made begins on
    the - surface of the _____ and continues
    down to the point just anterior to the ______.
  • Circumvent cuts are made to the (right,left) by
    the genetials and mouth. How does the guide
    suggest that you separate the skin from the body?
  • Before separating the muscles and identifying
    them you first need to remove the tough white
    connective tissue that surrounds the muscles.
    Name this tissue.
  • Using Figure 14 (lateral view) list all of the
    muscles labeled in the diagram. You will ID
    these in your rat first.

10
Basic Procedure
  • Ventral Incision Extension to the limbs
  • Separating skin from the underlying muscles
  • Separate the fascia off the muscle
  • Identify the indicated muscles
  • -Make labels for structures listed on overhead

11
Guiding Questions 3
  • 1. From your dissection guide which chapter
    discusses the muscular system?
  • Before identifying the muscles the rat must be
    skinned. The first incision to be made begins on
    the ______ - surface of the _____ and continues
    down to the point just anterior to the ______.
  • Circumvent cuts are made to the (right,left) by
    the genetials and mouth. How does the guide
    suggest that you separate the skin from the body?
  • Before separating the muscles and identifying
    them you first need to remove the tough white
    connective tissue that surrounds the muscles.
    Name this tissue.
  • Using Figure 14 (lateral view) list all of the
    muscles labeled in the diagram. You will ID
    these in your rat first.

12
Lateral View of the Muscles
13
Separate ID these Muscles (10 muscles)
  • -Masseter -Sternomastoideus
  • -Spinodeltoideus -Latissimus dorsi
  • -Triceps -Brachialis
  • -Biceps femoris -Gluteus Maximus
  • -Tensor fascia Latae -Semitendinosus
  • Please use the following in your guide
  • Lateral View (Pg. 16, Fig 14)

14
Ventral View of the Muscles
15
Muscles to locate ID from Ventral view (14
muscles)
  • -Pectoralis major -Biceps brachii
  • -Pronator teres -Flexor carpi radialis
  • -Palmaris longus -Triceps
  • -Pectoralis minor -Rectus abdominus
  • -External oblique -Sartorius
  • -Gracilis -Gastrocnemius
  • -Vastus medialis -Semimembranosus

16
Guiding Questions 4 (Ch. 4 Digestive system)
  1. Name the three pairs of salivary glands commonly
    found in the rat.
  2. Within the mouth cavity if you were to look
    inside you would observe a hard and soft palate.
    Where are they specifically located?
  3. After opening the abdominal cavity you should be
    able to locate the esophagus and follow it to the
    stomach. Name two structures that would be
    located next to the stomach.
  4. On page 28 of your guide sheet the diaphragm
    separates two cavities. Name them.
  5. How many lobes is the liver is divided into? Name
    them.
  6. Name the three regions of the stomach. How is
    the great omentum different from the lesser
    omentum?
  7. Where is the spleen located with reference to the
    stomach?
  8. Name all of the structures discussed from 11 to
    19.

17
Digestive System
18
Lg. Intestine Cecum Ascending colon Transverse
colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon
Oral cavity
Mouth
Tongue
Pharynx
Salivary glands
Esophagus
Liver
Sm. Intestine Duodenum Jejenum Ileum (ileocecal
valve)
Stomach
Pyloric sphincter
Stomach
Gall- bladder
Small intestine
Pancreas
Small intestine
Large intestine
Rectum
Figure 21.4
Anus
19
Bile
Liver
Stomach
Gall- bladder
Acid chyme
Bile
Duodenum of small intestine
Pancreas
Figure 21.10A
20
Large Intestine Reclaims Water
  • Undigested material passes to the large
    intestine, or colon
  • Water is absorbed
  • Feces are produced

Large intestine (colon)
End of small intestine
Small intestine
Rectum
Anus
Nutrient flow
Appendix
Cecum
Figure 21.11
21
Guiding Questions 4 (Ch. 4 Digestive system
contd)
  • Tasks to still complete
  • Finish separating the intestinal tract from the
    mesentery
  • Transect the intestine from STOMACH end off the
    esophagus
  • -Measure the length of the intestines (____ cm.)
  • -Make a cross section of the stomach and make
    observations
  • -Label all key structures

22
Guiding Questions 5 (Ch. 5 Circulatory
system-Pgs 31-36)
  • What was injected into the veins and arteries of
    your rat? Why was this done?
  • The pericardial membranes surround the . Name
    the two types of membranes present. How are
    these two membranes different from each other?
  • Which area (chamber) does blood enter the heart?
    Name the vein that drains blood from the lungs to
    the left atrium.
  • Name the structure that divides the two
    ventricles of the heart.
  • How many branches come off the aortic arch? Name
    them.
  • Where are the following arteries found?
  • -coronary, carotid, subclavian, hepatic, gastric,
    femoral, caudal and intercostal?
  • Is the jugular a vein or artery?
  • What is the difference between an artery and a
    vein? Which one moves blood away from the heart?

23
Tasks to complete for the Circ. System
  • Find the FIVE major vessels off the aorta
  • Cross section of the heart
  • Trace major blood vessels in the arms and legs

24
Thoracic Cavity
25
Internal Chambers of the Heart
26
(No Transcript)
27
Internal Structure of the Heart
28
Posterior view of the Heart
29
Valves within the Heart
30
See pgs 569-575
Pulmonary artery
11. vessel
Aorta
Pulmonary artery
10. vessel
Superior vena cava
1. vessel
LEFT ATRIUM
RIGHT ATRIUM
2. chamber
Pulmonary veins
Pulmonary veins
9. vessels
Semilunar valve
3. valve
Semilunar valve
8. valve
Atrioventricular valve
Atrioventricular valve
7. valve
Inferior vena cava
4. vessel
RIGHT VENTRICLE
LEFT VENTRICLE
5. chamber
6. chamber
Figure 23.4A
31
RBC Pathway through the Circulatory System
  • Blood from Systemic Circuit
  • ?
  • Vena cava (inferior superior)
  • ?
  • Right atrium
  • ? (Tricuspid valve-AV valve)
  • Right ventricle
  • ? (Pulmonary semilunar valve)
  • Pulmonary circuit Lungs
  • (P. arteries?? Lungs?P. veins)
  • ?
  • Left atrium
  • ? (Bicuspid Mitral valve)
  • Left Ventricle
  • ? (Aortic semilunar valve)
  • Aorta
  • (arch, coronary, carotid, abdominal, renal,
    mesenteric, iliac arteries)

32
Arterial System
33
Guiding Questions 6
  • Name the five branches that come off the aortic
    arch.
  • How many chambers does the heart have? (After
    splitting the heart in two). Name these
    chambers.
  • Find the following blood vessels in your rat and
    label them Carotid artery, Pulmonary artery,
    Vena Cava, Aorta, Renal, and iliac arteries (left
    right).
  • Name the gland that sits on top of the kidney.
    (see Chapter IV.
  • The kidney are said to be retroperitoneal what
    does this mean?
  • Name the small tubular structure that comes out
    of the kidney and into the urinary bladder

34
Tasks to Complete for Urinary System
  • Trace the three main structures that come to and
    from the kidney
  • Trace the ureters from the kidney to the bladder
  • Locate adrenal glands
  • Cross section of the kidney

35
Guiding Questions 7
  • When looking within the kidney, the outer layer
    is called the __________ ________ and the inner
    layers is called the ________ __________.
  • What function does the kidney serve?
  • Where does the ureter transport urine to? How
    many ureters are there?
  • Name the gland that sits on top of the kidney.
  • Identify each structure as either male or female
  • -Ovary -Cowpers gland -Vas deferens
  • -Uterus -Prostate gland -Epididymas
  • An oviduct is the same thing as a ________
    _______

36
Water Balance and waste disposal
37
The Human Kidney Nephron
38
Male Reproductive System
39
Female Reproductive System
40
Tasks to Complete for Reproductive System
  • Determine sex
  • Find (2) major structures to verify the sex

41
Guiding Questions 8
  1. Name the three layers of the meninges that covers
    the brain.
  2. The cerebrum is composed of two hemispheres
    separated by a longitudinal groove called the
    ________ _________.
  3. Name the nerve fibers that connect the two
    hemispheres that is easily viewed by a sagital
    section of the brain.
  4. A highly convoluted structure found on the
    posterior part of the brain is called the
    __________.
  5. The most primitive and most posterior part of the
    brain that tapers into the spinal cord is called
    the __________ ___________.
  6. How many ventricles (cavities) are found in the
    brain?
  7. Name the gland that sits within the sella
    turcica.
  8. How many pairs of cranial nerves emerge out of
    the brain? Name 5 of these cranial nerves shown
    in Fig 27.

42
Be sure you have the following labels and pin
these on your rat
  • Set 1 (abdominal cavity) Set 2 (Neck
    Thoracic cavity)
  • -Liver (4 lobes) -Heart Heart (atrium,
    ventricle, septum)
  • -Stomach -Aortic arch
  • -Small intestine (D, J, I segments) -Jugular
    veins
  • -Spleen -Trachea
  • -Kidney (right) -Thyroid gland
  • -Aorta (abdominal) -Lung (5 lobes)
  • -Iliac arteries -Thymus gland
  • -Diaphragm -Renal artery vein
  • -Adrenal gland -Carotid arteries
  • -Mesentery -Pericardial membrane
  • -Ureter -Inferior Vena Cava
  • -Large intestine (caecum) -Coronary (artery or
    vein)
  • Final Set Ovary uterus OR testes, vas
    deferens

43
Contents of the Abdominal Thoracic Cavities
44
Practice/Review Practicum
  • Obtain your rat and label (3) structures (A, B,
    C) for the region I Assign your table.
  • Be sure to make write your labels clearly with
    pin pierced in the structure
  • Station 1 Lateral muscles
  • Station 2 Ventral Muscles
  • Station 3 Neck
  • Station 4 5 Thoracic Cavity
  • Station 6 7 Abdominal cavity
  • Station 8 Reproductive Structures (male)
  • Station 9 Reproductive Structures (female)
  • Number a blank sheet of paper from 1-27
    (youll turn this sheet on Monday)
  • At the conclusion (10 min prior) you will need
    to
  • Clean up your table
  • -Turn in your rats
  • -Turn in all your instruments, placing them in
    the designated area in the back
  • -Spray clean your drawers
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