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Understanding Material Safety Data Sheets

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Title: Understanding Material Safety Data Sheets


1
Understanding Material Safety Data Sheets
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Environmental Health, Safety, and Risk Management
  • August 2012

2
UNDERSTANDING MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS
  • The Federal Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration (OSHA) requires manufacturers or
    distributors of hazardous materials to assess the
    physical and health hazards of the chemical or
    product
  • This information must be included in the Material
    Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), which must be provided
    to the purchaser of the product with at least the
    initial shipment of the chemical
  • Outlined in the Hazard Communication Standard,
    Code of Federal Regulations (29CFR 1910.1200)

3
UNDERSTANDING MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS
  • An MSDS must be obtained and maintained for every
    chemical/product used in the workplace
  • The MSDSs must be accessible to all personnel
    during their work hours

4
MSDS Information by Section
  • The MSDS is typically organized into individual
    sections
  • NOTE! Not all MSDSs are the same! Section numbers
    and contents can vary with each MSDS

5
MSDS Information Section I
  • I. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION
  • Product Name Commercial or marketing name
  • Synonym Approved chemical name and/or synonyms
  • Chemical Family Group of chemicals with related
    physical and chemical properties
  • Formula Chemical formula, if applicable i.e.,
    the conventional scientific definition for a
    material
  • CAS Number Number assigned to chemicals or
    materials by the Chemical Abstracts Service. The
    number is unique to each chemical

6
MSDS Information Section I
  • I. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION (CONT.)
  • Name, address and phone number of the
    manufacturer
  • Date MSDS was written
  • National Fire Protection Association rating
  • Storage Color Code

7
MSDS Information Section II
  • II. COMPONENT DATA (HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS/IDENTITY
    INFO)
  • Describes the percent composition of the
    substance, listing chemicals present in the
    mixture
  • If it was tested as a mixture, lists chemicals
    which contribute to its hazardous nature
  • Otherwise, lists ingredients making up more than
    1 and all carcinogens

8
MSDS Information Section II
  • II. COMPONENT DATA (cont.)
  • The OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL).
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and
    Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit (REL)
  • The American Conference of Governmental
    Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit
    value (TLV) will also be listed, if appropriate

9
MSDS Information Section II
  • II. COMPONENT DATA (cont.) OSHA PEL
  • Regulated standard (its the law!)
  • Usually expressed in parts per million parts of
    air (ppm) or milligrams of dust or vapor per
    cubic meter of air (mg/m3)
  • Usually a time weighted average (TWA) -
    concentration averaged over an eight-hour day

10
MSDS Information Section II
  • II. COMPONENT DATA (cont.) OSHA PEL
  • STEL or short term exposure limit may be listed
  • STEL is a 15 minute TWA that should not be
    exceeded
  • A ceiling limit (C), is a concentration which may
    not be exceeded at any time
  • A skin notation means that skin exposure
    (including mucous membranes or eyes) is
    significant in contributing to the overall
    exposure

11
MSDS Information Section II
  • II. COMPONENT DATA (cont.) NIOSH REL ACGIH TLV
  • Recommended limits
  • TLVs also use TWA, STEL, C
  • Often limits are lower than OSHAs PEL
  • It is UAFs policy to strive to meet the more
    conservative standards

12
MSDS Information Section III
  • This section provides information for handling
    and storing a product. This information may be
    sometimes found under section VII (REACTIVITY)
  • III. PRECAUTIONS FOR SAFE HANDLING STORAGE

13
MSDS Information Section IV
  • IV. PHYSICAL DATA
  • Outlines the physical properties of the material
  • The information may be used to determine
    conditions for exposure

14
MSDS Information Section IV
  • IV. PHYSICAL DATA (cont.)
  • The following information is usually included
  • Boiling Point temperature at which liquid
    changes to vapor state
  • Melting Point temperature at which a solid
    begins to change to liquid
  • Vapor Pressure a measure of how volatile a
    substance is and how quickly it evaporates

15
MSDS Information Section IV
  • IV. PHYSICAL DATA (cont.)
  • Vapor Density (air1) weight of a gas or vapor
    compared to weight of an equal volume of air
  • Specific Gravity (water1) ratio of volume
    weight of material to equal volume weight of
    water
  • Solubility in Water percentage of material that
    will dissolve in water, usually at ambient
    temperature

16
MSDS Information Section IV
  • IV. PHYSICAL DATA (cont.)
  • Appearance/Odor color, physical state at room
    temperature, size of particles, consistency,
    odor, as compared to common substances
  • Odor threshold refers to the concentration
    required in the air before vapors are detected or
    recognized

17
MSDS Information Section IV
  • IV. PHYSICAL DATA (cont.)
  • Decomposition Temperature The temperature at
    which a substance will break down or decompose
    into smaller fragments
  • Volatile by Volume Percentage of a liquid or
    solid, by volume, that evaporates at a
    temperature of 70 F

18
MSDS Information Section IV
  • IV. PHYSICAL DATA (cont.)
  • Evaporation Rate rate at which a material will
    vaporize (change from liquid to vapor) compared
    to the rate of vaporization of a specific known
    material, usually n-butyl acetate. Expressed as
    a ratio
  • Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance
    to flow

19
MSDS Information Section IV
  • IV. PHYSICAL DATA (cont.)
  • pH describes the acidic or basic nature of a
    material. Scale ranges from 0 (acidic) to 14
    (basic/alkaline) for an aqueous solution
  • Other Pertinent Physical Data information such
    as freezing point is given, as appropriate

20
MSDS Information Section V
  • V. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
  • Includes general information about appropriate
    personal protective equipment for handling this
    material
  • It is vital that this information be followed

21
MSDS Information Section V
  • V. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
    (cont.)
  • Eye Protection recommendations are dependent
    upon the irritancy, corrosiveness, and special
    handling procedures
  • Skin Protection describes the particular types
    of protective garments and appropriate glove
    materials to provide personnel protection

22
MSDS Information Section V
  • V. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (cont.)
  • Respiratory Protection
  • appropriate respirators for conditions exceeding
    the recommended occupational exposure limits
  • Contact EHSRM (474-5413 or 474-6771) for
    information prior to the use of ANY respiratory
    protection equipment

23
MSDS Information Section V
  • V. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (cont.)
  • Ventilation The use of some products may require
    specific ventilation requirements
  • General Exhaust A system for exhausting air
    containing contaminants from a general work area.
    May be referred to as dilution ventilation

24
MSDS Information Section V
  • V. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (cont.)
    Ventilation
  • Local Exhaust A system for capturing and
    exhausting contaminants from the air at the point
    where the contaminants are produced i.e., capture
    style hoods for welding, grinding, sanding and
    operations or laboratory fume hoods for working
    with hazardous chemicals

fume hood
canopy hood
snorkel hood
25
MSDS Information Section VI
  • VI. FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA
  • Contains information regarding the recommended
    extinguishing media to be used in the event of a
    fire involving the material
  • It may also provide information regarding unusual
    fire and explosion hazards associated with the
    material

26
MSDS Information Section VI
  • VI FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA (cont.)
  • Auto-ignition Temperature the approximate
    temperature at which a flammable gas-air mixture
    will ignite without spark or flame
  • Flashpoint the lowest temperature at which a
    liquid gives off enough vapor to ignite when a
    source of ignition is present

27
MSDS Information Section VI
  • VI. FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA (cont.)
  • Combustible A term used by NFPA, DOT and OSHA
    to classify liquids on the basis of a flash point
    range of 100 F to 200 F

28
MSDS Information Section VI
  • VI. FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA (cont.)
  • Flammable
  • Flammable Liquid is defined by NFPA as a liquid
    with a flash point below 100 F
  • The OSHA definition is essentially
  • the same
  • The DOT definition of flammable liquid means it
    has a flash point of 141 F or less
  • The EPA identifies liquids with a flash point of
    140 F or less as flammable liquids

29
MSDS Information Section VI
  • VI. FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA (cont.)
  • Flammable
  • Flammable Solids, other than explosives, are
    solids that will ignite readily or are liable to
    cause fires under ordinary conditions of
    transportation through friction or retained heat
    from manufacturing or processing and which burn
    so vigorously as to create a serious
    transportation hazard (DOT Classification).

30
MSDS Information Section VI
  • VI. FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA (cont.)
  • Flammable Limits
  • LEL (Lower Explosive Limit) Lowest fuel-to-air
    concentration in which the flammable vapor will
    produce a flash of fire when an ignition source
    is present. At concentrations below the LEL, the
    mixture is too "lean" to burn
  • UEL (Upper Explosive Limit) Highest fuel-to-air
    concentration in which the flammable vapor will
    produce a flash of fire when an ignition source
    is present. At concentrations above the UEL the
    mixture is too "rich" to burn
  • LEL/UEL concentrations are typically expressed as
    a lower and upper percentage range in air

31
MSDS Information Section VI
  • VI. FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA (cont.)
  • Extinguishing Media appropriate extinguishing
    agent(s) for the material
  • Fire-fighting Procedures Appropriate equipment
    and methods are indicated for limiting hazards
    encountered in fire situations
  • Fire or Explosion Hazards Hazards and/or
    conditions which may cause fire or explosions are
    defined

32
MSDS Information Section VII
  • VII. REACTIVITY DATA
  • Includes information regarding the stability of
    the material and any special storage or use
    considerations
  • Information may also be found in Section 3
    Handling and Storage.

33
MSDS Information Section VII
  • VII. REACTIVITY DATA (cont.)
  • Stability
  • Unstable" indicates that a chemical may
    decompose spontaneously under normal
    temperatures, pressures, and mechanical shocks
  • Rapid decomposition produces heat and may cause
    fire or explosion
  • Conditions to avoid are listed in this section
  • Incompatibility
  • Certain chemicals, when mixed may create
    hazardous conditions. Incompatible chemicals
    should not be stored together.

34
MSDS Information Section VII
  • VII. REACTIVITY DATA (cont.)
  • Decomposition Products chemical substances which
    may be created when the chemical decomposes or
    burns
  • Polymerization a chemical reaction in which
    smaller molecular constituents combine with
    themselves to form larger, long-chain molecular
    structures. Rapid polymerization may produce
    enough heat to cause containers to explode

35
MSDS Information Section VIII
  • VIII. First Aid
  • Describes first aid procedures to be taken in the
    event of an exposure
  • Caution needs to be exercised so that those
    applying first aid do not become exposed to the
    material for which they are attempting treatment
  • In the event of an exposure, call 911 to request
    medical assistance

36
MSDS Information Section IX
  • IX. TOXICOLOGY HEALTH HAZARD DATA
  • Defines the medical signs and symptoms that may
    be encountered with normal exposure or
    overexposure to the material or its components
  • Information on the toxicity of the substance may
    also be presented

37
MSDS Information by Section IX
  • IX. TOXICOLOGY HEALTH HAZARD DATA (cont.)
  • Acute Effect An adverse effect on a human or
    animal body resulting from a single exposure with
    symptoms developing almost immediately or shortly
    after exposure
  • Chronic Effect An adverse effect on a human or
    animal body resulting from prolonged or repeated
    exposure with symptoms that develop slowly over a
    long period of time

38
MSDS Information Section IX
  • IX. TOXICOLOGY HEALTH HAZARD DATA (cont.)
  • Corrosive A liquid or solid that causes visible
    destruction or irreversible alterations in human
    skin tissue
  • Irritation An inflammatory response or reaction
    of the eye, skin or respiratory system
  • Allergic sensitization A process whereby on
    first exposure a substance causes little or no
    reaction, but upon repeated exposure may cause a
    marked adverse response

39
MSDS Information Section IX
  • IX. TOXICOLOGY HEALTH HAZARD DATA (cont.)
  • Carcinogen A substance or agent capable of
    causing or producing cancer in humans or animals
  • Mutagen A substance or agent capable of
    altering genetic material in a living organism
  • Teratogen A substance or agent to which exposure
    to a pregnant female can result in malformations
    to the skeleton or soft tissue of the fetus

40
MSDS Information Section IX
  • IX. TOXICOLOGY HEALTH HAZARD DATA (cont.)
  • Results of animal studies are most often given.
  • LD50 (lethal dose 50) is the dose of a substance
    which will cause the death of 50 of the
    experimental animals
  • LC50 (lethal concentration 50) is the
    concentration of the substance in air which will
    cause the death of 50 of the experimental animals

41
MSDS Information Section IX
  • IX. TOXICOLOGY HEALTH HAZARD DATA (cont.)
  • LDLO (Lethal Dose Low) The lowest dose of a
    substance introduced by any route other than
    inhalation reported to have caused death in
    humans or animals
  • LCLO (Lethal Concentration Low) The lowest
    concentration of a substance in air that has been
    reported to have caused death in humans or
    animals

42
MSDS Information Section IX
  • IX. TOXICOLOGY HEALTH HAZARD DATA (cont.)
  • TDLO (Toxic Dose Low) The lowest dose of a
    substance to which humans or animals have been
    exposed and reported to produce a toxic affect
    other than cancer.
  • Based upon LD50, LC50, LDLO, LCLO and TDLO, an
    estimate of the potential effects on human health
    is obtained.

43
MSDS Information Section X
  • X. TRANSPORTATION DATA
  • This section contains information pertinent to
    DOT (Department of Transportation) regulations
    governing the transport of hazardous materials.
    These regulations can be found in 49 CFR parts
    100 to 177
  • Please contact EHSRM (474-5617 or 474-6771) if
    more information is needed or if shipping
    hazardous materials

44
MSDS Information Section XI
  • XI. SPILL LEAK PROCEDURES
  • Outlines general procedures, precautions and
    methods for cleanup of spills.
  • Clean-up procedures for spills and leaks of
    hazardous materials are governed by a number of
    regulatory agencies.
  • Do not put yourself or others at risk if you are
    not trained or equipped to clean-up a spill.
    Contact EHSRM for assistance or to report a
    spill.

45
MSDS Information Section XII
  • XII. Waste Disposal Data
  • Contains guidelines for the disposal of the
    product or product container if it becomes a
    waste.
  • Hazardous waste is regulated by the EPA,
    (Environmental Protection Agency) under RCRA
    (Resource Conservation Recovery Act) regulations
    found in 40 CFR parts 260-272.
  • Provisions for civil and criminal penalties for
    the improper storage and disposal of hazardous
    waste are included in these regulations.

46
MSDS Information Section XIII
  • XIII. ADDITIONAL REGULATORY INFORMATION
  • Contains information relevant to compliance with
    other Federal or state laws such as TSCA (Toxic
    Substances Control Act), FIFRA (Federal
    Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act) and
    others.

47
MSDS Information Section XIV
  • XIV. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
  • This section, if present, will contain additional
    information regarding the product, which was not
    indicated in previous sections.

48
MSDS Information Sections XIV XV
  • XIV. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
  • This section, if present, will contain additional
    information regarding the product, which was not
    indicated in previous sections.
  • XV. MAJOR REFERENCES
  • Lists some of the major references that have been
    consulted in preparation of the MSDS.

49
Where to go for more information?
http//www.uaf.edu/safety/laboratory-safety/materi
al-safety-data-shee/
Understanding Material Safety Data Sheets
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