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Nationalism and Sectionalism


Nationalism and Sectionalism Unit Three: Chapter 7 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nationalism and Sectionalism

Nationalism and Sectionalism
  • Unit Three
  • Chapter 7

Lets Review!
  • Past and future Presidents
  • Significant Events

What sort of issues did we have before the war
after the war
  • Establishing a govt
  • Staying neutral
  • B/t GB FR
  • Debt
  • Growthmore land
  • Taxes/Revenue
  • War
  • Finding our place among other nations
  • Industrial growth
  • Transportation
  • Opening the west
  • Population growth
  • Growing pains

Good feelings how?
  • Internal improvements
  • Building roads, canals, transportation
  • Protective Tariff (tax on imports)
  • Tariff of 1816
  • Raise revenue for internal improvements and
    protect American businesses from cheap British
    goods by placing high import taxes on them

Good feelings, continued.
  • Established 2nd National Bank in 1816
  • Elections
  • Federalist Party (gone after 1812)
  • Dominant party Republican
  • 1808 1812 James Madison
  • 1816 1820 James Monroe

A growing and young nation
  • 1780 2.7 million people in US, 13 states
  • 1830 12 million people in US, 24 states
  • Causes
  • Not immigration, for now
  • More children born to each family
  • 1800-1840, usually 5 kids per family
  • High infant mortality rate
  • Low median age
  • Most of population was young (in 1820, most under
    17 todays is 33).
  • Young couples dreamed of working hard to make a
    good future for their families.
  • The place to make their dream come true was the
    Trans-Appalachia (west of App Mtns).

A Transportation Revolution
A Transportation Revolution
  • Steam Power
  • James Watt used steam engine to make textiles
  • Robert Fulton used steam power for a ship
  • The Clermont
  • Fultons ship that traveled upriver, against the
  • By 1820s, 69 steamboats were on the rivers of
    Americas West.

A Transportation Revolution Roads
  • Roads
  • Used to move goods, migrate west, communicate,
    run their govt.
  • Federal/National Rd.
  • Built to last, financed by Fed Govt.
  • Maryland to Ohio, today called US Route 40.
  • Turnpike Highways where a toll must be paid
  • Corduroy Rd Whole logs used to surface the road
  • Plank Rd planks used on roads

A Transportation Revolution Canals
  • Canals
  • Waterways cheapest way to carry goods, but they
    dont go everywhere.
  • So, Americans built artificial waterways
  • Mostly built in Northeast
  • Erie Canal (1825) connected Hudson River and
    Lake Erie.
  • Increased rate of settlement development of all
    Great Lakes Region

A Transportation Revolution Railroads
  • While better roads aided transportation, RR
    proved far more durable and efficient for moving
    goods and people.
  • Used Watts steam technology to develop a steam
  • In 1828, construction began on the first American
    RR in Baltimore, MD.
  • Baltimore and Ohio (B O) line.
  • By 1840, the nation had over 3,300 miles of track
    on several different linesmore than any other
    country in the world!

We are a new MOBILE society!
  • Increased availability of goods flow of info
  • Women no longer needed help of whole family to
    produce household necessities good bad
  • Women were alone in housework
  • White Americans could pack up and move!
  • Head west

Effects of our new mobile society
  • Slaves moved west with owners.
  • Major cause of death among Native Americans
    still disease from white settlers
  • Life in the West!

Life in the West Crossing the Appalachians
  • In 1828, James Hall wrote Letters from the West.
  • This captured the mood of the nation on the move.
  • He said, the innumerable caravans of adventurers
    who are daily crowding to the West in search of
    homesproduce a constant succession of visitors
    of every class and of almost every nation.

Pioneers move west
Pioneers move west!
  • By 1830s, hundreds of thousands of people living
    north of Ohio River Valley.
  • New states Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois
  • Journey was long and difficult.
  • Settlers moved as families
  • Young men traveled alone
  • Old America seems to be breaking up and moving
    westward. We are seldom out of sight, as we
    travel on this grand track towards the Ohio, of
    family groups behind and before us, some
    intending to go to a particular spot, close to
    a brother perhaps, or to a friend who has gone
    before and reported well of the country.

Pioneers arrive on their new land!
  • Once they settled, they faced a heavy burden of
  • Must clear the land, plant a crop, build a house.
  • With hand tools and good ole muscle
  • Used fire to clear some undergrowth
  • Planted corn

The Legend Daniel Boone
  • In 1775, he was employed by Transylvania Co.
  • Supposed to cut the Wilderness Rd
  • Became main road to Trans-Appalachia
  • Member of KY state legislature
  • Famous form being a bold and tough pioneer

Expansion into Florida
  • AL, LA, and Miss were getting crowded.
  • US acquired FL in 1795 through the
  • Pinckney Treaty
  • Named for American diplomatic creator Thomas
  • It accomplished
  • 1.) The Southern boundary of the US was set at
    31N latitude, leaving FL firmly in Spanish
  • 2.) US citizens would be allowed free use of the
    Miss River thru Spanish territory.
  • 3.) Spain and US agreed to control the Indians
    living within each countrys territories and to
    prevent them from attacking the other countrys

Expansion into Florida (cont.)
  • In the 1810s Spain dealt with rebellions in its
    South American colonies.
  • Paid little attention to Florida.
  • Allowed Seminoles, Indians in FL, to attack
    Southern Georgia.
  • Americans didnt like Seminoles b/c they let
    escaped slaves live with them.
  • General in charge of protecting US settlers was
    Andrew Jackson.
  • Told Pres Monroe, that the possession of the
    Floridas would be desirable to the United States,
    and in sixty days it will be accomplished.
  • Pres Monroe did not openly encourage him, but
    Jackson still invaded Florida.
  • He succeeded and Americans applauded him (Spain

Florida is all ours bwah-ha-ha!
  • Monroe (and his Sec of State, John Quincy Adams)
    tried to make the best of Jacksons actions.
  • Adams accused Spain of breaking the Pinckney
    Treaty by failing to control the Seminoles.
  • Adams-Onis Treaty
  • B/t Adams Spains rep Onis y Gonzales
  • Spain agreed to cede (give up) FL to US
  • Spain also gave up claim to Pacific Northwest
  • Now, for the 1st time, the US stretched from the
    Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Set boundary b/t LA Purchase and Spanish
  • In fact, US ceded large amount of modern day

African American Pioneers
  • An estimated 98,000 slaves moved west with their
    owners from 1790-1810.
  • Another 338,000 came from Africa.
  • North of the Ohio River, slavery was forbidden
    (free slaves could live there).
  • Not supported as white Americans didnt want to
    compete with African Americans for jobs/land.
  • Some laws required African Americans to pay
    1,000 to move to Illinois, while white people
    paid nothing.

Native Americans forced west
  • Most Indians were forced to move during this
  • Lost land to US Govt thru unfair treaties.
  • Diseases brought by white settlers were the main
    reason for population dwindling.
  • While many fought to keep their culture, the
    Cherokee decided to adapt.

Cherokee chose to adapt!
  • Under a leader, John Ross, the Cherokee created a
    legal system and govt that blended Indian and
    European traditions.
  • No more common-owning property
  • No have private property
  • They practiced slavery and had 1,300 African
  • They became farmers and used a newspaper.
  • A leader Sequoyah, invented an alphabet they
  • In 1827, they declared themselves and independent
  • Worked for a little while, but white settlers
    were too hungry for land.

The Industrial Revolution!!!
The Industrial Revolution (cont.)
  • Americans pursued profit with the same energy
    that they pursued self-improvement and virtue.
  • How to make a profit?
  • Use new inventions
  • Produce materials faster and cheaper
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Effort to increase production by using machines
    powered by sources other than animals humans.

How it all started
  • Began in Britain.
  • With improvement in textiles
  • James Watts
  • Invented Steam Engine
  • GB guarded its secrets
  • If you knew about inventions, you couldnt
    emigrate (move out of GB).
  • Samuel Slater ruined it!
  • Brought textile mills to US

Industrial Innovation in America Eli Whitney
  • Eli Whitney
  • In 1796, told Govt he would make 10,000 guns in
    2 yrs.
  • Then, had to make individual parts then make
    them fit together.
  • Whitney thought, what if all the parts were made
    exactly alike and could be used on any gun
  • He never did it, but he came up w/ the idea of
  • Interchangeable Parts
  • Where all parts are made to an exact standard.

Eli Whitneys Cotton Gin
  • In 1793, he noticed the time and effort it took
    to clean cotton seeds from cotton fibers.
  • 1793 1 lb. cotton/day
  • Invented Cotton Gin
  • Machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton
  • Gin machine/engine
  • Now, worker could clean 1,000 lbs cotton/day

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Cotton Gins Important Effects
  • 1.) Profit/lb of cotton skyrockets more cotton
    planted for harvest.
  • Exports rose 6,000 b/t 1790-1815
  • 2.) Many Southern planters began to depend on
    cotton as their only major crop, b/c it was so
  • 3.) Planters looked for new land where they could
    grow more cotton (mostly in AL, MS, LA, TX).
  • 4.) More African slaves to keep up w/ work on
    larger plantations.
  • Slave population up to 1.5 million in 1820.

Cotton Gin in a nutshell
  • The cotton gin helped keep the southern states a
    land of slavery and of farming, while the
    northern states became a land of free labor
    and of industry.
  • These fundamental differences will cause
  • Civil war anyone?

Famous Inventors their creations
Date Inventor and Invention/Innovation
1787 John Fitch, 1st American Steamboat
1790 Samuel Slater, water-powered cotton-processor
1793 Eli Whitney, cotton gin
1795 Robert Fulton, steam shovel (for digging canals)
1798 Eli Whitney, mass produces muskets w/ standard measures and interchangeable parts
1807 Robert Fulton, launches Clermont (1st commercially successful steamboat)
1814 Frances C. Lowell, opens 1st completely mechanized cotton mill
1820 William Underwood, opens canning factory
1826 Samuel Morey, patents an internal combustion engine
1828 Joseph Henry, electromagnet
5th Pres James Monroe
  • 1817-1825
  • Missouri Compromise is made during his
  • We will look at his administration more in detail
    next chapter!

Important cabinet member John Quincy Adams
  • Secretary of State
  • Hmmm. Why is this job special?
  • Son of John Adams
  • Going to be next President
  • Guru of foreign affairs
  • Adams-Onis Treaty
  • Oregon
  • Monroe Doctorine

Problems for Monroe
  • Battle with GB over Great Lakes and boundary of
  • Settlements
  • GB ended asst with natives
  • Rush-Bagot Treaty
  • US GB removed all warships from Great Lakes,
    demilitarized entire 3000 mile border
  • Convention of 1818
  • US ships could fish in Canadian waters
  • Set N boundary of LA purchase (49th parallel) and
    gave join occupation of Oregon for 10 years

More problems
  • Spanish Florida boundary dispute
  • Seminole Creek attacks against GA
  • A. Jackson chased Seminole into FL and seized
  • Settlement
  • Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
  • Spain cedes FL to USA set boundary of LA
  • Russia claimed Alaska south to Oregon
  • Russians agreed to withdraw from Oregon had too
    much land to govern

Monroe Doctrine Go JQA!
  • Supposed to solve problems with
  • Latin America
  • Spanish colonies declare indep.
  • USA feels need to protect them
  • Quadruple Alliance
  • Set up in Europe to suppress ideas of FR Rev.
  • Worried actions might spread to US
  • Austria, Britain, Russia, Prussia
  • Pacific Coast of North America
  • Russia in Oregon

USA Statement you mess with Latin America, you
mess with us!
  • Monroe Doctrine
  • 1.) The U.S. would not get involved
    in any internal affairs of European
    countries, nor would it take sides in
    wars among them.
  • 2.) The U.S. recognized the existing colonies and
    states in the W.H. and would not interfere with
  • 3.) The U.S. would not permit any further
    colonization of the W.H.
  • 4.) Any attempt by any European power to control
    any nation in the W.H. would be viewed as a
    hostile action toward the U.S.

  • Post-War Boom Panic
  • Economic prosperity in 1815.
  • Republican party dominated politics, Federalists
    faded out of existence.
  • Creation of Second Bank of the United States.
  • Panic of 1819
  • First Great Depression
  • Economic downturn
  • The Missouri Compromise
  • Admission of the state of Missouri.
  • Basic issue of slavery at stake.
  • Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • Slavery would be permitted in Missouri.
  • Maine would come into the union as a Free State.
  • As the U.S. expanded westward, states north of
    36 30 latitude would be free states.
  • Avoid confronting the issue of slavery for the
    time being!

Missouri Compromise
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Important info for nationalism
  • McCulloch vs. Maryland
  • Powers of federal govt were more than Const had
  • Congress had authority to est. a national bank
  • Dartmouth vs. Woodward
  • Fed govt more powerful than states
  • Protect businesses
  • Gibbons vs. Ogden
  • States cant regulate trade on interstate

The Election of 1824
  • First election where no candidate was a leader
    during the Revolution.
  • John Quincy Adams defeated John C. Calhoun of
    South Carolina, Henry Clay of Kentucky, and the
    popular Andrew Jackson of Tennessee.
  • A Controversial Race
  • Calhoun withdraws and runs for V.P.
  • Adams faces the Passionate Orator the Man
    of the People.

The Corrupt Bargain
  • Jackson wins most popular votes.
  • Feb. 1825 Congress is required to decide
  • Clay swings Kentuckys votes to Adams, days later
    Adams names Clay his Secretary of State.

President John Quincy Adams
  • First son to follow fathers footsteps
  • President only one term 1825-1829
  • He wrote in his diary daily between the ages of
  • He wrote many times about the weaknesses of
    others, but here is how he described himself, I
    am a man of reserved, cold, austere, and
    forbidding manners.

J.Q. Adams
  • From the beginning of his administration he was
    challenged by the Jacksonians in Congress.
  • Very few things got accomplished while he was
  • Tariff of Abomination
  • Trying to embarrass Adams, the Jacksonians in
    Congress proposed a tariff bill that raised rates
    across the board, on raw materials as well as on
    imported goods.
  • Adams home region of New England welcomed the
    higher import tariffs, but not raw materials
    because of their industrialized economy would
    lose profits.

J.Q. Adams
  • No one expected the tariff to pass, so when it
    did the South became very angry b/c they wanted
    less expensive imports.
  • The south called this the TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS.
    (one nail in the coffin toward secession)
  • One important event during his administration was
    in 1827, New Orleans held its first Mardi Gras ? !

Election of 1828
  • Adams vs. Jackson
  • Economic issues forcing politicians to choose
  • Adams / Clay National Republicans / Whigs
  • Jackson Democrats (Jacksonian Dem.)
  • Twice as many men voted in 28 than 24.
  • Jackson trounces Adams 178 ecvs to 83.

National Republicans / Whigs Jacksonian Democrats
Federal government should take a leadership role. Federal government should remain as inactive as possible.
Federal govt. should support internal improvements, such as roads and bridges The individual states should be responsible for internal improvements.
In favor of the national bank. Against the national bank.
Tended to be middle-class or well-established Protestants. Tended to be slaveholders, small farmers, non-Protestants, and working class.
The Age of Jackson
  • Jackson as President
  • Signaled several changes in politics.
  • First President from west of the Appalachians.
  • Start of a new era in American democracy
    popular support.
  • Jacksonian Democracy
  • Support for new, less-wealthy voters.
  • Repeal of state laws requiring voters to own
    land all white males could vote.
  • Voters rather than legislatures chose
    Presidential candidates.

The Spoils System
  • Patronage practice of giving jobs to friends
    and supporters.
  • Jackson dismissed more than 200 previous
    appointees and 2,000 other office holders and
    replaced them with his Jacksonian Democrats.
    Replaced less than 20.
  • This was known as the Spoils System under
  • Rotation in Office would prevent a small group
    of wealthy people from controlling the gov.
  • Champion of the Common Man.

Belief in Limited Govt
  • Feared the power of a strong National Govt.
  • Attacked politicians he thought corrupt and laws
    that would limit the peoples liberties.
  • Used Veto power on more acts of Congress than the
    six previous Presidents combined.
  • Ex. Fed money for a state road in KY.

The Tariff Crisis!
  • Tariff of 1828
  • Congress passed prior to Jackson taking office.
  • Benefited the industrial north, forced
    southerners to pay higher prices on manufactured
  • Tariff of Abominations

More crisis!!!
  • Secede withdrawal was threatened by South
  • South Carolina declared the tariffs null, void,
    and no law, nor binding upon this State, its
    officers or citizens.
  • 1833 Force Bill required South Carolina to
    collect the tariffs.
  • Jackson threatened to send 50,000 troops to SC.
  • Henry Clay, the Great Compromiser, reduce some
    of the import duties and SC cancelled the
    nullification act, thus nullified the Force Bill
    at the same time.

Indian Relocation
  • Indian Removal Act 1830 encouraged by Jackson,
    authorized him to give Native Americans land in
    parts of the Louisiana Purchase in exchange for
    lands taken from them in the east.
  • Jackson forcibly relocated about 100,000 members
    of five tribes.
  • 32 million prairie acres in Oklahoma for 100
    million acres in the east. (That seems fair
  • Cherokee nation took up farming and adapted more
    to the white culture than any other nation.
  • Sequoyah writing system, literacy.
  • The Cherokee Govt. was modeled after the U.S.

Indian Removal Continued
  • 1829 gold discovered on Cherokee lands in
  • Cherokees sued in court
  • Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that they had
    no legal standing in American courts because they
    were not U.S. citizens nor from a foreign
  • We wish to remain on the land of our fathers.
    We have a perfect and original right to remain
    without interruption. . . It cannot be that the
    community we are addressing, remarkable for its
    intelligence and religious sensibilities, and
    preeminent unmatched for its devotion to the
    rights of man, will lay aside this appeal.
  • --- Cherokee public appeal, July 17, 1830
  • 1832 Worcester v. Georgia Chief Justice
    Marshall ruled that Georgia had no authority over
    Cherokee territory. Georgia ignored the ruling.

  • All preceding experiments for the improvement
    of the Indians have failed. It seems now to be
    an established fact that they can not live in
    contact with a civilized community and prosper. .
    . .No one can doubt the moral duty of the
    Government of the United States to protect and if
    possible to preserve and perpetuate the scattered
    remnants of this race which are left within our
  • --- President Jackson, annual address to
  • Congress December 7, 1835
  • Trail of Tears 1838, U.S. army rounded up more
    than 15,000 Cherokees into camps. 116 days they
    were forced to march westward in groups of about
  • Poorly organized and undersupplied in the fall
    and winter months. 1 out of 4 Cherokees died of
    cold or disease as troops refused to let them
    rest. Cost was 6 million, this money was
    subtracted from the 9 million payment for the
    lands given up.

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Jacksons Successors
  • Chose not to run in 36.
  • Martin Van Buren becomes next President,
    supported by Jackson.
  • Panic of 1837, severe depression in Van Burens
    first year in office. Dragged into the 40s.
  • William Henry Harrison defeats Van Buren in 1840,
    dies after one month in office from pneumonia.
    VP John Tyler takes over.
  • Jacksonian Democrats vs. Whigs.

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Section 2 Inventions and Innovations
  • The Spirit of Improvement
  • Education due to prosperity, many Amers had time
    to focus on scholarship.
  • Noah Webster wrote, The American Spelling Book
    (ever heard of Websters dictionary?)
  • Individual Persons
  • Wanted to develop character by promoting
    Republican virtues
  • Sacrificing individual needs for the good of the
    community, self-reliance, industry, frugality,
    and harmony.

The Role of Women
  • Women were supposed to set the standard for
    republican virtues.
  • After all, women were mothers, wives, teachers,
  • So they had a powerful influence on the men who
    would vote in, rule, the nation.
  • Women could teach honesty, self-restraint, and
    discipline to men.
  • Women had to learn these virtues so schools
    opened up female departments or places to help
    girls become republican women.
  • A republican women was one who had the virtues
    that would help her contribute to the success of
    a republic.
  • Significance People began to think about the
    importance of women in the life of a republic.

Section 3 Social and Religious Life
  • Social Changes
  • Mobile Society one that moves from place to
  • Significance
  • 1.) White Americans had opportunity to move to
    area to achieve greatest success. Not tied down
  • 2.) Moving from place to place brought about
    loneliness, which brought on more suicides and
    more abuse of alcohol.
  • Had to develop social skills (judging character)
  • Defending honor men of all classes dueled
  • Responded with violence when their person was
  • Andrew Jackson did this many times.

New Rules for Courtship Marriage
  • Women read books on how to find the right
  • Susanna Rowson, Charlotte Temple
  • Book that warned women to use caution!
  • Courtship increased in importance.
  • Time to get to know a person before commitment.
  • Women used this time to get to know, and to
    negotiate potential life together.
  • Women were very concerned about getting
    marriedbut also about religion

The Second Great Awakening
  • Money came less from Fed Govt b/c church
    membership had dropped.
  • Early 1800s 1/10 Pioneers was a member of a
  • Started in KY and TN a revival of religious
    faith in the early 1800s
  • Was Evangelical b/c it emphasized
  • 1.) The Scripture is the final authority
  • 2.) Salvation can only be achieved through a
    personal belief in Jesus Christ
  • 3.) People demonstrate true faith by leading a
    transformed life and by performing good deeds.
  • Witnessing for Christ

The Second Great Awakening (cont.)
  • Democratic!
  • Anyone, rich or poor, could win salvation
  • Evangelical religions stressed the importance of
    the congregation (people of the church) other
    than the ministers.
  • Common feature revival
  • A gathering where people were revived, or brought
    back to religious life, by listening to preachers
    and accepting Jesus Christ.
  • New Denominations grew (sub-types)
  • Baptists, Methodists, Unitarians, Mormons,
    Millennialists, etc.

The Second Great Awakening (cont.)
  • The African-American Church
  • Methodist, and other evangelical churches open to
    blacks and whites
  • Both white and black Christians sang spirituals
    (Folk hymns)
  • Southern slaves interpreted Christian message as
    promise of freedom
  • Started their own church (African Methodist
    Episcopal Church) under leadership of Richard
    Allen in 1792.
  • 1830s and 1840s Women became leaders in reform
  • Let them connect with others and help!
  • Were able to influence the beliefs and standards
    of behavior in their community.