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Nuclear Energy, Fusion

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Nuclear Energy, Fusion & Fission: GPS: SC1 Students will analyze the nature of matter and its classifications. a. Relate the role of nuclear fusion in producing ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nuclear Energy, Fusion


1
Nuclear Energy, Fusion Fission
  • GPS SC1 Students will analyze the nature of
    matter and its classifications.
  • a. Relate the role of nuclear fusion in producing
    essentially all elements heavier than helium.
  • Essential Questions
  • What are the four main radioactive decay
    emissions
  • How is half life related to radioactivity?
  • What comes to mind when you hear the term
    radioactive?

2
Objectives
  1. To learn the types of radioactive decay
  2. To learn to write nuclear equations for
    radioactive decay
  3. To learn how one element may be changed to
    another by particle bombardment
  4. To learn about radiation detection instruments
  5. To understand half-life

3
A Review of Atomic Terms
  • nucleons particles found in the nucleus of an
    atom
  • neutrons
  • protons
  • atomic number (Z) number of protons in the
    nucleus
  • mass number (A) sum of the number of protons
    and neutrons
  • isotopes atoms with identical atomic numbers
    but different mass numbers
  • nuclide each unique atom

4
Nuclear Symbols
Element symbol
Mass number (p no)
Atomic number (number of p)
5
A. Radioactive Decay
  • radioactive nucleus which spontaneously
    decomposes forming a different nucleus and
    producing one or more particles
  • nuclear equation shows the radioactive
    decomposition of an element

6
Nuclear Stability
Decay will occur in such a way as to return a
nucleus to the band (line) of stability.
7
A. Radioactive Decay
Types of Radioactive Decay
  • 1. Alpha-particle production
  • Alpha particle helium nucleus
  • Examples
  • Net effect is loss of 4 in mass number and loss
    of 2 in atomic number.

8
Alpha Radiation
Alpha decay is limited to VERY large, nuclei such
as those in heavy metals.
9
A. Radioactive Decay
Types of Radioactive Decay
  • 2. Beta-particle production
  • Beta particle electron
  • Examples
  • Net effect is to change a neutron to a proton.

10
Beta Radiation
Beta decay converts a neutron into a proton.
11
A. Radioactive Decay
Types of Radioactive Decay
  • 3. Gamma ray release
  • Gamma ray high energy photon
  • Examples
  • Net effect is no change in mass number or atomic
    number.

12
Alpha Particle Emission Beta Particle Emission Gamma Ray Emission
Symbol or or
Mass Heavy Light No Mass
How it changes the nucleus Decreases the mass number by 4 Decreases the atomic number by 2 Converts a neutron into a proton Increases atomic number by 1 No change to the nucleus
Penetration Low Medium High
Protection provided by Skin Paper, clothing Lead
Danger Low Medium High
13
A. Radioactive Decay
Types of Radioactive Decay
  • 4. Positron production
  • Positron particle with same mass as an electron
    but with a positive charge
  • Examples
  • Net effect is to change a proton to a neutron.

14
A. Radioactive Decay
Types of Radioactive Decay
  • 5. Electron capture
  • Example

15
A. Radioactive Decay
16
A. Radioactive Decay
Decay series
17
B. Nuclear Transformations
  • Nuclear transformation change of one element to
    another
  • Bombard elements with particles

Examples
18
B. Nuclear Transformations
  • Transuranium elements elements with atomic
    numbers greater than 92 which have been
    synthesized

19
C. Detection of Radioactivity and the Concept of
Half- life
  • Geiger-Muller counter instrument which measures
    radioactive decay by registering the ions and
    electrons produced as a radioactive particle
    passes through a gas-filled chamber

20
C. Detection of Radioactivity and the Concept of
Half- life
  • Scintillation counter instrument which measures
    the rate of radioactive decay by sensing flashes
    of light that the radiation produces in the
    detector

21
C. Detection of Radioactivity and the Concept of
Half- life
  • Half-life time required for half of the
    original sample of radioactive nuclides to decay

22
Objectives
  1. To learn how objects can be dated by
    radioactivity
  2. To understand the use of radiotracers in medicine

23
A. Dating by Radioactivity
Radiocarbon dating
  • Originated in 1940s by Willard Libby
  • Based on the radioactivity of carbon-14
  • Used to date wood and artifacts

24
B. Medical Applications of Radioactivity
Radiotracers
  • Radioactive nuclides that can be introduced into
    organisms and traced for diagnostic purposes.

25
Objectives
  1. To introduce fusion and fission as sources of
    energy
  2. To learn about nuclear fission
  3. To understand how a nuclear reactor works
  4. To learn about nuclear fusion
  5. To see how radiation damages human tissue

26
A. Nuclear Energy
  • Two types of nuclear processes can produce energy
  • Combining 2 light nuclei to form a heavier
    nucleus - fusion
  • Splitting a heavy nucleus into 2 nuclei with
    smaller mass numbers - fission

27
B. Nuclear Fission
  • Releases 2.1 ?1013 J/mol uranium-235
  • Each fission produces 3 neutrons

28
B. Nuclear Fission
  • Chain reaction self sustaining fission process
    caused by the production of neutrons that proceed
    to split other nuclei
  • Critical mass mass of fissionable material
    required to produce a chain reaction

29
B. Nuclear Fission
30
C. Nuclear Reactors
31
C. Nuclear Reactors
Reactor core
32
D. Nuclear Fusion
  • Process of combining 2 light nuclei
  • Produces more energy per mole than fusion
  • Powers the stars and sun

33
D. Nuclear Fusion
  • Requires extremely high temperatures
  • Currently not technically possible for us to use
    as an energy source

34
Energy and Mass
  • Nuclear changes occur with small but measurable
    losses of mass. The lost mass is called the mass
    defect, and is converted to energy according to
    Einsteins equation
  • DE Dmc2
  • Dm mass defect
  • DE change in energy
  • c speed of light

Because c2 is so large, even small amounts of
mass are converted to enormous amount of energy.
35
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36
E. Effects of Radiation
Factors Determining Biological Effects of
Radiation
  • Energy of the radiation
  • Penetrating ability of the radiation
  • Ionizing ability of the radiation
  • Chemical properties of the radiation source

37
E. Effects of Radiation
38
E. Effects of Radiation
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