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Classical Greece


Classical Greece & Rome Chapter 4 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classical Greece

ClassicalGreece Rome
  • Chapter 4

  • Vocabulary
  • 1. Pericles
  • 2. Alexander the Great
  • 3. Hellenistic Period
  • 4. Punic Wars
  • 5. Julius Caesar
  • 6. Constantine
  • 7. Carthage
  • 8. Roman Republic
  • 9. Senate
  • 10. Consuls
  • 11. Aristotle
  • 12. Iliad
  • 13. King Xerxes

14. Themistocles 15. Thermopylae 16.
Peloponnesian Wars 17. Philip II of Macedon 18.
Hannibal 19. Augustus Caesar 20. Polis 21.
Tyranny 22. Direct Democracy 23. Aristocracy 24.
Twelve Tables 25. Ptolemy
  • I. Geography of Greece
  • A. Mountains
  • 1. Impeded communication and allowed the
    creation of independent city-statesstill had
    a common culture across the city states.
  • B. The Sea
  • 1. Natural harbors and limited farm land
    increased the importance of the water
  • 2. Allowed the Greek city-states to develop
    trade networks and establish colonies
  • II. Patterns of Greek and Roman History
  • A. Greece
  • 1. Crete
  • 2. Mycenae

  • II. Leading Up to Classical Greece
  • A. The Civilizations of Crete and Mycenae mixed
    to create the Greek culture.

  • B. The MinoansIsland of Crete (2000 1500 BCE)
  • 1. Monarchywas a civilization based on trade
  • 2. Major palace at Knossos
  • 3. Contact with developing Mycenaean
    culture on the Greek mainland eventua
    lly led to the downfall of the Minoans

Palace at Knossos
Trade was vital to the Minoans!
  • C. The Mycenaeans
  • 1. Indo-European people - invaded the Greek
    peninsulabegan to form city-states by 1600
  • 2. Name came from their leading city, Mycenae
    a. Dominated the Aegean Sea from 1500-1200 BCE
  • b. Cities were built on hills for protection.
  • 3. War against Troy?
  • 4. The Mycenaeans were conquered
    by the Dorians

  • D. The Greek Dark Ages(1150 - 800 BCE)
  • 1. Period between the fall of the Mycenaeans
    and the rise of the city-states
  • 2. No written records
  • 3. Simplified political patterns - village
    communities led by kings (tribal leaders)
  • 4. Little to no trade (no word for merchant)

  • III. Classical Greece
  • A. 800-600 BCE growth of independent
  • 1. Despite independence, a single Greek
    culture was established.
  • 2. Greek culture characterized by
  • a. A written language based on
    the Phoenician alphabet
  • b. Shared polytheistic religion
  • c. Regular celebrations including
    the Olympics to honor the gods.

  • 3. Colonizationset up colonies around the
  • 4. Warfare
  • a. Warfare came to commonersnot just
  • b. Phalanx - tight battle formation of
  • c. Hoplite armored Greek citizen

  • B. Government
  • 1. Polis (city-state)
  • 2. Government varied from city-state to
  • a. Sparta (military aristocracy) and Athens
    (direct democracy) were the leaders
  • b. All citizens were expected to serve in the
  • 3. Acropoliseach city-state built a temple to
    its patron god on the highest hill
  • 4. Agoraopen area used as a meeting
    place and for markets

The Agora in Athens today
  • C. Athens
  • 1. Large city-state with plentiful mineral
    deposits and good harbors
  • 2. Strong in the arts literature and sculpture
  • 3. Strong in philosophy Socrates and Plato
  • 4. Established numerous colonies
  • 5. Did engage in the practice of slavery
  • 6. Women in Athens
  • a. Women secluded in the homeexpected to have
    one child every two yearswas their main role
  • b. Girls married in early teens in arranged
  • c. Women seen as inferiornot worthy of a

  • 7. Government included oligarchy, tyranny, and
    eventually, democracy
  • 8. Solon instituted reforms giving poor
    greater voice in government
  • 9. Age of Pericles
  • a. Imperialist phase - Athens dominated
    Greece through Delian League (trade
    alliance with other city states) after
    the Persian Wars.
  • b. Pericles increased democratic

Periclesleader during the Golden Age of Athens
  • D. Sparta
  • 1. Militaristic state built on the slavery
    (serfdom) of the Helots
  • 2. Male children raised by the state
  • a. Mandatory military service at age 7
  • 3. Females raised by wives
  • a. Spartan women had more freedom than
    women in other city-states
  • 4. Disdained the arts masters of the art
    of war
  • 5. Government
  • a. Two Kings (to act as military leaders)
  • b. Council of Elders (28 2 kings). Proposed
    motions to be voted on by citizen assembly.

Spartan Hoplite
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  • E. Persian Wars
  • 1. 490 BCE Darius invades and
    loses the Battle of Marathon
  • 2. 480 BCE Xerxes invades
  • --Thermopylae
  • --Salamis

Allows the Greek City-States to remain
  • F. Peloponnesian Wars (431404 BCE)Sparta vs.
  • 1. Causes quarrels over colonies and fear of
    Athenian economic dominance
  • 2. Athens especially needed allies along
    waterways due to dependence on imports.
  • 3. Pericles strategy was to remain behind
    walls and supply Athens through its navy.
  • 4. The Spartans were unable to break through
    the walls of Athens.
  • 5. Plague killed 1/4 to 1/3 of the Athenian
    populationincluding Pericles.
  • 6. Eventually Athens falls to Sparta...left all
    city-states severely weakenedmade them
    vulnerable to attack
  • 7. Greece could not withstand invasion by
    Macedonians under Philip IIbecame part of the
    Macedonian empire.

Athens City walls, walls protecting road to
port, walls protecting port
Macedonian Empire at Philips death!
  • G. Alexander the Greatbecame emperor with the
    death of Philip
  • a. Conquered Persia, Egypt, and attacked India
  • --Attempted blending of Greek and Persian
    cultures through forced intermarriages
  • b. Established Greek cities throughout empire
  • c. Died in Babylon in 323 BCE at age 33
  • d. Successors carved up empire
  • e. Hellenistic Age established

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  • H. Hellenistic Period (323100 B.C.E.) Greeks
    were known as Hellenes
  • a. Through the conquests of the Greeks, their
    culture and art were mixed with many other
    civilizations. This extended their
    influence through areas well outside their
  • -- Ex Alexandria in Egypt

  • IV. Rome
  • A. Geography
  • 1. Few natural resourcesalthough coastline
    was extensive, few natural harbors limited
    seafaring skills
  • 2. Mainly agricultural
  • B. Early Influencesthe Etruscans and
  • 1. The Etruscans brought city-states,
    and trade routes
  • 2. The Greeks brought religion,
    alphabet and crops (grapes and

  • C. Origins of Rome
  • 1. City-state of Rome founded in 753 BCE along
    the Tiber River, on the Seven Hills of Rome
  • 2. Myth of Romulus Remus
  • D. Three Phases of Roman History
  • 1. The Kingdom (753-507 BCE)
  • 2. The Republic (27 BCE)
  • a. Rule by Senate, Consuls, assemblies,
    and dictators
  • 3. The Empire (27 BCE 476 CE)Rule by emperors

  • E. Romes Republic
  • 1. Government
  • a. Senate Aristocratic branchdominate
    d they served for life
  • b. Consuls executives each held veto
    power over the other
  • --Could be chosen dictator in times of
  • c. Assemblies of the peopleused to choose
    representatives for the senate
  • 2. Law codes Romes first code of laws
  • a. 12 Tables 450 B.C.E.
  • --Gave protection to the peopleno longer
    would justice be administered on a whim.
    Even the upper classes would be subject to
    the law.

  • 3. Class structure of the Roman Republic
  • a. Patricianswealthy, landowning families from
    origins of Rome
  • b. Plebeiansfarmers, soldiers, merchants
    could vote
  • --Intermarriage of classes forbidden until
    fourth century BCE
  • --Power struggle between Patricians and
    Plebeians throughout Republic period
  • c. Slaves

The seat of Roman government- the Forum
  • 4. Punic Wars (264146 B.C.E.)
  • --Carthage and Rome wanted to control
    Western Mediterranean trade.
  • a. 1st WarRome wins, takes Sicily from Carthage

  • b. 2nd Punic War
  • --Roman interferes in Carthaginian Spain
  • --Hannibalcrosses the Alps
  • --Battle of Cannaehorrible defeat for
  • --Battle of ZamaHannibal defeated in
    north Africa
  • c. 3rd Punic War
  • --Senator Cato convinced Rome
    to destroy Carthage

The Mediterranean before the 2nd Punic War
Second Punic War
Romes victory in the Punic Wars gave it firm
control over the trade in the Western
Mediterranean Sea.
  • 5. The First Triumvirate
  • a. Julius Caesar, Crassus, Pompey
  • b. Crassus killed by Parthians 53 BCE
  • c. Senate support of Pompey versus Caesar
  • d. Caesar had been a senator, consul, and
  • --became rich in Gaul (France)
  • e. Caesar crosses the Rubiconleads to
    civil war
  • f. Caesar defeats Pompey
  • g. Caesar made dictator 47 BCE
  • h. Caesar initiates reformsthe Senate fears
    monarchyCaesar assassinated 44 BCE

The assassination of Julius Caesar
  • 5. The Second Triumvirate
  • a. The Second Triumvirate Octavian, Marc Antony,
  • b. Rome divided and ruled by Octavian and
    Antonyeventually leads to civil war
  • c. Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra
  • d. The deaths of Antony and Cleopatra
    allow Octavian (later Augustus) to become
    the first Emperor of Rome.

Caesar Augustus (Octavian)
  • F. Empire Last 500 years
  • a. Augustus Caesar (27 B.C.E. 14 C.E.)
  • --First Roman Emperor
  • b. Romans promoted cultural unity through the
    Latin language, Roman law, and citizenship
  • c. The Five Good Emperors (96 180 C.E.)
  • --Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and
    Marcus Aurelius
  • d. Marcus Aurelius Emperor at the end of the
    Pax Romana a 200 year period of peace and
  • e. After Aurelius the empire began a slow, but
    sure downfall
  • f. Constantine
  • --Converted to Christianity

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  • V. Roman Life
  • A. Law
  • 1. Roman law was based on the Twelve Tables
    set in 450 BCE
  • 2. Law dealt with both citizen and non-citizen
  • 3. Standards included
  • a. Innocent until proven guilty
  • b. Right to a defense before a judge
  • c. Responsibility of judge to weigh evidence
    before rendering verdict

  • B. Roman Engineering

Roman baths were used as meeting places where one
could not only bathe but eat, conduct business,
and be entertained
Roman aqueducts provided as much fresh water to
Roman citizens as is provided today
Water was taken from mountain sources and moved
along underground and aboveground channels using
the force of gravity A fountain could be found at
the terminus of each aqueduct to release its
Roman Roads
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Hadrians Wall Across Britain
  • C. Rich vs. Poor

  • D. Social WelfareBread Circus

  • C. Sciences
  • 1. Ptolemy Believed in a geocentric, not
    heliocentric model of the universe
  • 2. Pythagoras Early geometric mathematics
  • D. Literature
  • 1. Sophocles Greek playwright famous for
    his drama, Oedipus
  • 2. Iliad, Odyssey Greek epic plays
  • E. Arts
  • 1. Phidias Greek sculptorrealistic versions
    of the human form

  • C. Society
  • 1. Slavery
  • a. Was common from the time of early Greece in
    the Mediterranean
  • --Domestic work, agriculture, etc.
  • b. Justified military expansion in the Roman
  • c. Eventually helped with the fall of Rome
    since free farmers couldnt compete with farms
    that used slave labor
  • 2. Family Patriarchal in both Greece and Rome
  • a. Women treated better than China

  • VII. The Fall of Rome
  • A. Loss in population due to plague, famine,
    and decrease in agricultural production
  • B. Trade slowedshrinking revenues
  • C. Military defeats inroads by Germanic
  • D. The population grew soft, corrupt, and
  • E. The Eastern Roman empire surpassed the
    Western empire in wealththis led to a shift
    in political power
  • F. Huns and Germanic tribes put increasing
    pressure on the Western empire

  • C. Emperor Romulus Augustulus deposed 476 CE
  • D. The Western empire disintegratesthe East
    survives as the Byzantine Empire

The sack of Rome