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CHAPTER 6 ANCIENT ROME and THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY

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Title: CHAPTER 6 ANCIENT ROME and THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY


1
CHAPTER 6 ANCIENT ROME and THE RISE OF
CHRISTIANITY
  • 509 B.C. A.D. 476

2
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3
The Geography of Rome
4
Italy in 750 BCE
5
Rome Geography
Rome is located Italy -On the banks of the
Tiber River -On and around seven hills
Why would this geographic location be an
advantage?
5
6
Section 1 The Roman World Takes Shape
  • Rome
  • Began as a small city-state in Italy
  • Geography
  • Peninsula centrally located in the Mediterranean
  • Rome ?center of Italy
  • Much easier to unify than Greece.
  • Mountains less rugged
  • Broad, fertile plains

7
ROMES BEGINNING MYTH
  • Two twin brothers Romulus and Remus abandon by
    Tiber River
  • Rescued by wolves and raised by shepherd
  • 753 B.C. decided to build city
  • Romulus and Remus fought over what to name the
    city
  • Romulus kills Remus, Romulus builds city of Rome
  • Romulus becomes first king of Rome

8
The Mythical Founding of Rome Romulus Remus
9
  • Modern scholars believe that in the 8th century
    B.C., the inhabitants of some small Latin
    settlements on hills in the TIBER VALLEY united
    and established a common meeting place, the
    FORUM, around which the city of Rome grew center
    of commerce and government

FORUM
10
Hypothetical reconstruction of Roman Forum in
Imperial times. Watercolor (18th century),
Giuseppe Becchetti
11
Peoples
  • Latins? Roman ancestors
  • Roman language known as LatinRomance language
  • Settled along the Tiber River
  • Herded and farmed
  • Grew into Rome, city on seven hills
  • Shared peninsula with Greeks and Etruscans

12
Influence of the Etruscans
  • The Arch

13
Etruscans
  • Etruscans ruled much of central Italy, including
    Rome itself.
  • Provided the arch in building
  • Adapted engineering techniques to drain the
    marshy lands along the Tiber
  • Metal work
  • How to build a city (Rome was a small village
    with straw roofed huts)
  • Dress short cloaks or tunic and togas
  • 509 B.C. Romans(Latins) overthrow Etruscan rule
    and form the Roman Republic

14
Greek Influence
  • Greeks provided the alphabet to the Romans
  • Greek gods and goddesses merged with Roman
    deities.
  • Later Romans adapted Greek architecture,
    sculpture, and literature
  • Learn how to grow olives and grapes from Greeks

15
The Roman Republic
  • 509 B.C. Romans drove out the Etruscans
  • Date marks the founding of the Roman state
  • Republic? a government in which some officials
    were chosen by the people
  • Thing of the people
  • Keep an individual from gaining too much power
  • SPQR Senate, People of Rome

16
Social Classes and Roman Citizenship
  • Wealthy landownersPatricians
  • Owners of small farms, artisans, shopkeepers
    Plebeians
  • Both patricians and plebeians were Roman citizens
  • Only males could be Roman citizens
  • Patricians had more rights such as running and
    holding political offices in the government
  • Plebeians could only vote for tribunes as
    representation in government
  • Plebeians could not hold office

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Republican Government
2 Consuls (Rulers of Rome)
Senate (Representative body for
patricians) Praetors judges Tribal Assembly
or Council of Plebs (Representative body
for plebeians) Represented by Tribunes Sometimes
Dictators in emergencies
19
Consuls
  • Consuls
  • Supervise the business of government and command
    the armies
  • Elected from the patrician class
  • Could serve only one term
  • Expected to consult with the senate
  • Provided a system of checks on the power of
    government

20
The Roman Consuls had the power to veto senate
bills or laws
Veto The power of one branch of government to
reject bills or proposals passed by another
branch of government.
21
Senate
  • Senate
  • Most powerful governing body
  • Patricians
  • senate members
  • Landholding upper class
  • Served for life
  • Made the laws

22
Council of Plebs
  • Tribunes charged with protection of lives and
    property of plebeians served in Council of Plebs
  • The tribune could also summon the Senate and lay
    proposals before it
  • Could veto senate
  • Had to own land to run for office
  • In 287 B.C. gain right to pass laws for all
    Romans

23
ROMAN SENATE
24
Cincinnatus
  • Dictator
  • Chosen by senate in the event of war
  • Granted complete control over a government
  • Power to rule for 6 months
  • Dylan and Calvin made that pic. Khristian harris
    waz here

25
Cincinnatus, contd
  • 16 days
  • Organized an army
  • Led to Romans to victory
  • Attended victory celebrations
  • Returned to his farmland

26
Plebeians Demand Equality
  • Plebeians
  • Farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders
  • Bulk of the population had little influence
  • Government had the Roman laws inscribed on 12
    tablets and set up in the Forum, or marketplace.
  • Laws of the Twelve Tables
  • Made it possible for plebians to appeal a
    judgment handed down by a patrician judge.
  • Tribunes? plebian elected officials to protect
    their interests
  • Plebeians went on strike refused to serve in
    army which led to formation of Council of Plebs

27
Roman Society
  • Male the head of the household
  • Wife, subject to his authority not allowed to
    administer her own affairs
  • In later Roman times, women from all classes ran
    businesses.
  • Girls and boys learned to read and write
  • Jupiter? Roman god who ruled over the sky and all
    the other gods.

28
Religion
-Romans were polytheistic-they believed in many
gods and goddesses -Many of the gods were
adapted from the Greek gods
Greek God Roman God
Zeus-ruler of all gods Jupiter-ruler of all gods
Hera-wife of Zeus, protected marriage Juno-wife of Jupiter, protected marriage
Poseidon-god of the sea Neptune-god of the sea
  • Roman calendar is full of feasts and celebrations
    to honor the gods and goddesses
  • Temples for worship to ask for divine assistance

28
29
Greek name Roman Name
  • Zeus/ Jupiter King of Gods
  • Apollo Phoebus/ Apollo God of Light
  • Hermes /Mercury Messenger of the Gods
  • Poseidon/ Neptune God of the Sea
  • Ares /Mars God of War
  • Hephasstus /Vulcan God of Fire
  • Dionysus/ Bacchus God of Wine
  • Eros /Cupid God of Love
  • Hades /Pluto God of Underworld
  • Athena/ Minerva Goddess of Wisdom
  • Artimus /Diana Goddess of the Hunt
  • Aphrodite/ Venus Goddess of Love/Beauty
  • Hera Juno Queen of the Gods
  • Demeter /Ceres Goddess of Grain/Crops

30
Expansion in Italy
  • 270 B.C. Rome controlled most of the Italian
    peninsula
  • Legion? basic military unit made of about 5,000
    men
  • Legionary soldier
  • Roman armies
  • Consisted of citizen-soldiers who fought without
    pay and supplied their own weapons.
  • Around 107 B.C General, later consul, Marius
    made professional army soldiers were paid and
    given land

31
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32
Roman Soldiers
33
Conquered Lands
  • People had to acknowledge Roman leadership
  • Pay taxes
  • Supply soldiers for the Roman army
  • Rome let them keep their own customs, money and
    local government
  • Some gained full citizenship

34
Protection and Unification
  • Posted soldiers throughout the land
  • Built a network of all-weather military roads to
    link distant territories to Rome
  • Local peoples incorporated Latin into their
    languages and adopted many Roman customs and
    beliefs.

35
Section 2 From Republic to Empire
  • Carthage
  • City-state on the northern coast of Africa
  • Settled by North Africans and Phoenician traders
  • Ruled over an empire that stretched across North
    Africa and the western Mediterranean

36
Carthaginian Empire
37
Wars with Carthage
  • First Punic War
  • Rome defeated Carthage and won Sicily, Corsica,
    and Sardinia
  • Second Punic War
  • Hannibal, Carthaginian general, led his army
    including dozens of war elephants, on an epic
    march across the Pyrenees, through France, and
    over the Alps into Italy.
  • Carthage gave up all its lands (Spain) except
    those in Africa.

38
Hannibals Route
39
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40
Wars with Carthage, contd
  • Third Punic War
  • Rome completely destroyed Carthage.
  • Survivors killed or sold into slavery.
  • Romans poured salt over the earth so nothing
    would grow there again.

41
Other Conquests
  • Provinces
  • Lands under Roman rule
  • 146 B.C. Roman power extended from Spain to
    Northern Africa.

42
Social and Economic Effects
  • Conquests and control of busy trade routes
    brought incredible riches into Rome.
  • Latifundia? huge estates bought up by newly
    wealthy Roman citizens.
  • Forced people captured in war to work as slaves
  • Widespread use of slave labor hurt small farmers.
  • Many farmers fell into debt and had to sell their
    land.

43
  • The staple crops of Roman farmers in Italy were
    various GRAINS, OLIVES, and GRAPES. OLIVE OIL and
    WINE were among the most important products in
    the ancient civilized world and led Italy's
    exports.

44
  • Improved farming methods learned from the Greeks
    and Carthaginians encouraged RICH ARISTOCRATS to
    buy more and more land and, abandoning the
    cultivation of grain, introduce LARGE-SCALE
    SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION of olive oil and wine, or
    of sheep and cattle. This trend was especially
    profitable because an abundance of cheap SLAVES
    from the conquered areas was available to work on
    the estates. These large slave plantations,
    called LATIFUNDIA, were now common in Italy,
    while small farms were the exception.

45
Social and Economic Effects, contd
  • Landless farmers flocked to Rome and other cities
    looking for jobs.
  • Gap between poor and rich widened
  • New wealth increased corruption

46
  • Farmers could give surplus crops to the
    government in lieu of a monetary tax. This system
    allowed rulers to gain popularity with the masses
    through FREE GRAIN DISTRIBUTION. Unfortunately it
    also left farmers with little incentive to
    increase productivity or output, since more crop
    translated into more taxes (and more free grain
    distributions). The need to secure
    GRAIN-PRODUCING PROVINCES was one important
    factor that led to expansion and conquest.

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48
SLAVE REBELLION
  • 73 B.C. rebellion led by gladiator Spartacus
  • Led an army of 70,000 enslaved people
  • Defeated several Roman armies
  • Revolt crushed after two years
  • Roman Generals Pompey and Crassus defeated
    Spartacus army both became consuls
  • Spartacus and 6,000 of his followers were
    crucified

49
Slavery
50
The Gracchus Brothers
51
Attempts at Reform
  • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
  • Young patrician brothers
  • Among the first to attempt reform
  • Tiberius, tribune, called on the state to
    distribute land to poor farmers
  • Gaius, tribune 10 years later, sought a wider
    range of reforms
  • Use of public funds to buy grain to feed the poor
  • Both men were assassinated.

52
Decline of the Republic
  • Rome was plunged into a series of civil wars
  • Senate
  • Wanted to govern as it had in the past
  • Popular political leaders
  • Wanted to weaken the senate and enact reforms
  • Turmoil sparked slave uprisings and revolts among
    Romes allies

53
Civil War Dictators
Julius Caesar
Pompey
Crassus
54
FIRST TRIUMVIRATE
  • Triumvirate- political alliance of three people
  • First Triumvirate Crassus, Pompey, and Julius
    Caesar

55
Julius Caesars Rise to Power
  • Ambitious military commander
  • Completed the conquest of Gaul now France
    (Vercingetorix Gaul)
  • Veni, vidi, vici
  • Civil War Caesar vs. Pompey
  • Caesar wins
  • Forced the senate to make him dictator
  • Absolute ruler of Rome

56
Crossing the Rubicon, 49 BC
The Die is Cast!
57
Caesars Reforms
  • Public works to employ the jobless
  • Created new colonies to give public land to the
    poor
  • Reorganized the government of the provinces
  • Granted Roman citizenship to more people
  • Ordered Landowners using slave labor to hire more
    free workers
  • Julian calendar? Introduction of a new calendar
    based on Egyptian knowledge still our calendar
    today (with minor changes).

58
Assassination
  • Caesars enemies worried that he planned to make
    himself king of Rome
  • Plotted against him to save the republic
  • March 15, 44 B.C. senators stabbed him to death
    in the senate
  • March 15th know as Ides of March

59
Beware the Ides of March! 44 BCE
60
Civil Wars
  • Caesars death plunged Rome into a new round of
    civil wars
  • Second Triumvirate Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus
  • Marc Antony or Mark Anthony Caesars chief
    general
  • Octavian, Caesars grandnephew and adopted son
  • Octavian and Anthony joined forces to track down
    the murderers (Brutus and Cassius, senators, main
    conspirators to kill Caesar)
  • Anthony and Octavian Quarrel,Octavian defeated
    Antony and Cleopatra

61
CICERO
  • Cicero public speaker and political leader
  • Spoke about the need to return to republic
    government
  • Republic- representative government leaders
    elected by citizens
  • Call for the end of dictators
  • Supported Octavian
  • Octaviannephew and adopted son of Caesar

62
The Roman Empire 27 BCE - 476 CE
63
Octavian Augustus Romes First Emperor
64
Roman Empire and Roman Peace
  • Octavian received the title of Augustus, or
    Exalted One (27 B.C.-14 A.D.)
  • Declared him princeps, or first citizen
  • Exercised absolute power and named his successor
  • Created an efficient well-trained civil service
    to enforce the laws
  • High level jobs open to talented men, regardless
    of class
  • Non-Roman citizens (conquered people) could
    become citizens.

65
Augustus Reforms
  • Ordered a census, population count, to make the
    tax system fair
  • Pro army 150,000 legionnaires
  • Set up a postal service
  • Issued new coins to make trade easier
  • Set up provinces
  • Appointed proconsuls or governors to rule
    provinces
  • Jobless worked on building roads and temples,
    marble government buildings and farmed the land
  • Cheap or free grain for poor
  • Allowed more people to become citizens

66
The Greatest Extent of the Roman Empire 14 CE
67
Bad Emperors and Good Emperors
  • Caligula(37A.D.-41 A.D).
  • Insane
  • Appointed his favorite horse as consul
  • Claudius (41 A.D.-54A.D) conquered Britain had
    great aqueducts built
  • Nero (54 A.D. 68 A.D.)
  • Viciously persecuted Christians and even blamed
    for setting a great fire that destroyed much of
    Rome
  • Vespasians rule 69-79 A.D had coliseum built
  • Trajan (98 A.D.-117 A.D.) - empire was at its
    largest, public works conquered Mesopotamia
  • Hadrian (117 A.D. 138 A.D.)
  • Codified Roman law built a wall across Britain
    to hold back attackers had Pantheon built
  • Marcus Aurelius(161 A.D.- 180 A.D.)
  • Philosopher-king stoic philosophy and commitment
    to duty

68
Pax Romana 27 BCE 180 CE
69
The Pax Romana
  • Roman Peace
  • 200 year span that began with Augustus and ended
    with Marcus Aurelius
  • Roman rule brought peace, order, unity, and
    prosperity to lands stretching from the Euphrates
    River in the east to Britain in the west.

70
Bread and Circuses
  • Free games and food were given by Roman emperors
    to distract jobless, homeless, and hungry
    citizens of Rome.
  • The games and food were referred to as bread and
    circuses
  • Circus MaximusRomes largest racecourse
  • Chariot races were held _at_ Circus Maximus
  • Gladiator contests at Coliseumbuilt during
    Vespasians rule 69-79 A.D.
  • Slaves trained to fight
  • Good fighter could win his freedom
  • Government provided free grain to feed the poor

71
Hypothetical reconstruction of Roman Forum in
Imperial times. Watercolor (18th century),
Giuseppe Becchetti
72
The Roman Forum
73
The Coliseum
74
Roman Gladiators
75
Circus Maximums
76
Section 3 The Roman Achievement
  • Greco-Roman Civilization
  • Rome absorbed ideas from Greek colonists in
    southern Italy
  • Blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman
    traditions produced Greco-Roman civilization.
  • Trade and travel during Pax Romano helped spread.
  • 500 B.C. A.D. 476 known as Classical Period

77
Art and Architecture
  • sculptors stressed realism, and revealed an
    individuals character
  • Romans beautified their homes with works of art.
  • Pompeii
  • Mosaic? picture made from chips of colored stone
    or glass

78
Pantheon
  • Most famous domed structure
  • Temple to all the Roman gods 126 A.D.
  • Still stands in Rome
  • Built by Hadrian

79
Technology and Science
  • Romans excelled in engineering ? the application
    of science and mathematics to develop useful
    structures and machines.
  • Built bridges, roads, harbors, and aqueducts
  • Aqueducts? bridge-like stone structures that
    brought water from the hills into Roman cities
  • Invented concrete
  • Public baths
  • To wash themselves and to hear the latest news
    and exchange gossip

80
Roman Roads The Appian Way
81
Roman Aqueducts
82
Roman Baths
83
Fasces
  • Fasces The symbolism of the fasces
    suggested strength through unity a single rod is
    easily broken, while the bundle is very difficult
    to break. The axe represented the power over life
    or death through the death penalty, although
    after the laws of the twelve tables, no Roman
    magistrate could summarily execute a Roman
    citizen.5

84
  • Senatus Populus que Romanus
    Aqulia

85
Imperial Roman Road System
86
Roman Law
  • Civil Law
  • System of law that applied to Roman citizens
  • Law of Nations
  • Applied to all people under Roman rule
  • When Rome extended citizenship across the empire,
    the two systems merged.
  • Accused allowed to face the accuser
  • Presumed innocent until proven guilty
  • Judges interpret the laws and make fair decisions

87
Section 5 The Long Decline
  • A.D. 180
  • Marcus Aurelius dies
  • Pax Romana ends
  • Disruptive political pattern emerges
  • 50 year period, 26 emperors reigned
  • High taxes
  • Many poor jobless due to slavery

88
Emperor Diocletian
  • 284 A.D.
  • Set out to restore order
  • Divided the empire into four parts
  • Had four officials to help rule the empire
  • Retained absolute power
  • Fixed prices for goods and services to slow
    inflation

89
Diocletian Splits the Empire in Fours 294 CE
90
Emperor Constantine
  • 312 A.D.
  • Granted toleration to Christians
  • Constantines reforms to save empire
  • Built a new capital, Constantinople
  • Made the east portion of the empire the center of
    the power
  • Sons followed in father footsteps in jobs or
    trades.

91
Constantinople The 2nd Rome (Founded in 330)
92
THEODOSIUS
  • A.D. 379-392
  • Divided the empire into two parts
  • Western empire capital Rome
  • Eastern empire capital Constantinople
  • Made Christianity Roman Empires only religion

93
ROME INVADED
  • Huns invade Roman Empire led by Attila the Hun
  • Invasion also by Germanic tribes from Northern
    Europe invade northern boundaries of Roman Empire
  • Germanic Tribes Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Franks,
    Vandals, Angles, Saxons, and Lombards
  • Germanic tribes invade because attacks from the
    Huns and they wanted Roman riches

94
Barbarian Invasions 4c-5c
95
Foreign Invasions
  • Huns Nomadic people, migrating across Central
    Asia
  • Huns mostly attack parts of Eastern Roman Empire
  • Many Roman Empire cities paid the Huns not to
    attack
  • Dislodge Germanic peoples in their path
  • Visigoths, Ostrogoths, and others crossed into
    Roman territory seeking safety
  • Roman legions were hard pressed to halt invading
    peoples
  • Surrendered Britain, France and Spain

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98
Rome Defeated
  • Huns defeated Ostrogoths
  • Visigoths made treaty with Eastern Rome for
    protection
  • Rome mistreated Visigoths with high taxes.
  • 410
  • Visigoth general Alaric overran Italy and
    plundered Rome
  • 434
  • Attila, Hun leader
  • scourge of God
  • Embarked on a savage campaign of conquest across
    much of Europe
  • Vandals sack Rome 455 A.D.
  • 476? fall of Rome
  • Odoacer ousted the emperor in Rome
  • Romulus Augustus last Western Roman Emperor. 14
    years old.

99
Important Time Periods
  • Prehistory any time before 3500 B.C.
  • Ancient Civilization 3500 B.C.- 500 B.C.
  • Classical Period 500 B.C.-A.D. 476
  • Middle Ages A.D. 476- A.D. 1550
  • Dark Ages A.D. 476 A.D. 1000
  • Renaissance A.D. 1350- A.D. 1550

100
Causes of the Fall of Rome
  • Military Causes
  • Roman legions lacked the discipline and training
    of past Roman armies.
  • Use of mercenaries? foreign soldiers serving for
    pay
  • Foreign Invaders Germanic Tribes and Huns
  • Political Causes bad leadershipemperors senate
  • Government became more oppressive and
    authoritarian? lost support of the people
  • Corrupt officials
  • Frequent civil wars
  • Dividing the empire

101
Causes of the Fall of Rome
  • Economic Causes
  • Heavy taxes
  • Reliance on slave labor discouraged Romans from
    exploring new technology
  • Farmers abandoned their land
  • Middle classes sank into poverty
  • War and epidemic diseases swept the empire
  • Social Causes
  • Decline of patriotism
  • Upper classes devoted to luxury and self-interest

102
Byzantium The Eastern Roman Empire
103
BYZANTINE EMPIRE
  • Justinian greatest Byzantine emperor (ruled C.E.
    527 to 565 )
  • Eastern Roman empire became known as Byzantine
    Empire
  • Byzantine Empire Greece, Asia Minor, Parts of
    Arabia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, North Africa,
    Italy, and small part of Spain
  • Byzantine culture more influenced by Greek
    culture than Latin culture
  • Spoke Greek instead of Latin
  • Well known for Justinian Code of Laws
  • Had legal scholars make laws simple and easy to
    understand
  • Most European laws are based on Justinian Code of
    Laws
  • Empress Theodora was very influential wife of
    Justinian
  • Advised Justinian in choosing government
    officials

104
  • Byzantine culture becomes more influenced by
    Greek Culture than Roman Cultureexample speak
    Greek not Latin
  • Famous architecture onion dome spread to
    Russia and Middle East
  • The dome was used in building many Eastern
    Orthodox Churches
  • Romance Languages-Languages influenced mostly by
    LatinFrench, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and
    Romanian
  • Indo-European- English, Russian, German, Swedish,
    Greek, Hindi, Persian, French, and Italian

105
The Byzantine Empire During the Reign of Justinian
106
The Byzantine Emperor Justinian
107
Onion Dome in Russia
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