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The Roman Empire


The Roman Empire – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Roman Empire

The Roman Empire

After Exam
  • Pick up the 4 Atlas worksheets for the Roman
    Empire and begin working on them using the atlas
    on the side counter.

Outline of the Roman Empire
  • After conquering Etruscans From around 300 BCE,
    Rome began to grow in political importance.
  • Within 300 Years it had unified the whole
    Mediterranean into one empire.
  • Intellectually, Rome was dominated by Greece, but
    its genius was in statecraft and law.
  • Will go from Republic to Empire to 2 Empires
    then will Fall _at_ 476 C.E.

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  • Romans were not philosophical like the Greeks.
  • They were practical conquer, govern, make laws,
  • Courage, duty, determination were the prime
    virtues not artistic excellence.
  • Rome conquered through a mixture of diplomatic
    skill and force.
  • If they couldnt talk a neighbor into joining
    them, they would send in their armies.

  • Romans found a republicgovernment in which
    citizens elect leaders
  • Different groups struggle for power in early
    Roman Republic
  • Patricianswealthy landowning class that holds
    most of the power
  • Plebeiansartisans, merchants, and farmers can
  • vote, cant rule
  • Tribuneselected representatives protect
    plebeians political rights
  • Twelve Tables
  • In 451 B.C. officials carve Roman laws on twelve
  • Called Twelve Tables, they become basis for later
    Roman law
  • Laws confirm right of all free citizens to
    protection of the law
  • Citizenship is limited to adult male landowners
  • Twelve Tables are hung in the Forum

  • Government Under the Republic
  • Rome elects two consulsone to lead army, one to
    direct government
  • Senatechosen from Roman upper class makes
    foreign, domestic policy
  • Democratic assemblies elect tribunes, make laws
    for common people
  • Dictators are leaders appointed briefly in times
    of crisis
  • The Roman Army
  • Roman legionmilitary unit of 5,000 infantry
    supported by cavalry
  • Army is powerful key factor in Romes rise to

  • Romes Commercial Network
  • Rome establishes large trading network
  • Access to Mediterranean Sea provides many trade
  • Carthage, powerful city-state in North Africa,
    soon rivals Rome

The Punic Wars
  • Rome fought 3 wars against Carthage.
  • Carthage was a major power in North Africa
    controlling part of the Mediterranean Sea.
  • The 1st war (264-241 B.C.) resulted when Carthage
    spread into Sicily. The Romans sided with the
    Sicilians, fought on land and Sea for 16 years.
    Resulted in a peace treaty where Carthage left

  • The 2nd Punic War (218-201 B.C.) resulted when
    both sides decided to ignore the treaty and try
    to get more land.
  • The Carthagians were in Spain, under the
    leadership of Hannibal.

  • Rome controlled the seas with a superior navy.
  • This forced Hannibal to attack over land.
    Hannibal led an army 90,000 troops and 40-60
    elephants across the Alps and into Italy.
  • Once there, he rallied 15,000 more soldiers and
    marched on Rome. But, after vicious fighting for
    several years, Rome won.

  • The Third Punic War (149-146 B.C.) 100 years
    after the 1st war, Rome essentially destroyed
    Carthage out of pure hate.
  • The kingdom of Macedonia had allied with
    Carthage. Several years of fighting, even though
    Carthage had abided by treaties, led to their
  • In 146 B.C., Rome burned the city of Carthage,
    left no building standing, and salted the earth
    so that crops would no longer grow.

  • The Republic Collapses Economic Turmoil
  • Gap between rich and poor widens as Roman
    Republic grows
  • Farmers, former soldiers, lose to large estates
    become homeless
  • Two tribunes, Tiberius and Gaius, try to help
    poor, are murdered
  • Civil warconflict between groups within same
    country begins
  • Military Upheaval
  • Military becomes less disciplined and disloyal
  • Soldiers recruited from poor show loyalty only
    to their generals

  • Julius Caesar Takes Control
  • Military leader Julius Caesar elected consul in
    59 B.C.
  • Caesar, Crassus, Pompey form a triumviratea
    group of three rulers
  • Military victories give Caesar increasing
    popularity and power
  • Pompey fears Caesars growing power and
    challenges him
  • Caesar defeats Pompeys armies in Greece, Asia,
    Spain, Egypt
  • Caesar is named dictator for life in 44 B.C.
  • Caesars Reforms
  • Caesar makes reforms grants wider citizenship,
    creates jobs for poor
  • Group of senators opposes Caesar kills him on
    March 15, 44 B.C.

  • Beginning of the Empire
  • 43 B.C., Caesars supporters take control become
    Second Triumvirate
  • Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus alliance ends in
    jealousy, violence
  • In 31 B.C., Mark Antony and Cleopatras forces
    are defeated at Actium
  • Octavian accepts title of Augustus, exalted
    one, and rules Rome

  • A Vast and Powerful Empire Pax Romana
  • Under Augustus, Rome moves from a republic to an
  • Power no longer resides with citizens, but a
    single ruler
  • Rome enjoys 200 years of peace and prosperity
    known as Pax Romana
  • A Sound Government
  • Augustus, Romes ablest ruler, creates lasting
    system of government
  • glorifies Rome with beautiful public buildings
  • sets up a civil service to administer the empire



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  • The Rise of Christianity
  • Rome conquers Judea, home of Jews makes it part
    of empire, A.D. 6
  • Many Jews believe a Messiah, or savior,
    eventually will free them Jesus of Nazareth
  • Jesusa Jew born in Bethlehem (around 6 to 4
    B.C.), raised in Nazareth
  • At age 30 begins preaching monotheism, Ten
  • Does good works, reportedly performs miracles
  • Stresses personal relationship with God, love for
    friends and enemies Apostlesthe twelve men who
    are disciples (or pupils) of Jesus
  • Jesus ignores wealth and status his message
    appeals to poor
  • Many Jews view Jesus as the Messiah others
    see him as a heretic
  • Roman governor Pontius Pilate sentences Jesus to
    be crucified
  • Apostles believe Jesus ascended into heaven after
  • Christos, Greek word for savior Christianity
    derived from Christ

  • Christianity Spreads Through the Empire
  • Apostle Paulspends life preaching and
    interpreting Christianity
  • Common languages of Latin and Greek help to
    spread message
  • Paul stresses Jesus is son of God who died for
    peoples sins
  • Paul declares that Christianity open to all
    converts Christianitys Expansion
  • Christianity becomes powerful force
  • embraces all people
  • gives hope to the powerless
  • appeals to those repelled by extravagance of
    Roman life
  • offers personal relationship with a loving God
  • promises eternal life after death

  • Jewish Rebellion
  • Jews rebel against Rome Romans storm Jerusalem,
    destroy Temple
  • Rebellions in A.D. 66, 70, 132 fail Jews driven
    from homeland
  • Diasporacenturies of Jewish exile (from Greek
    word for dispersal)
  • Persecution of the Christians
  • Christians wont worship Roman gods become
    enemies of Roman rule
  • Roman rulers use Christians as scapegoats for
    hard times
  • As Pax Romana crumbles, Christians crucified,
    burned, killed in arena

  • Emperors Attempt Reform
  • Diocletian Reforms the Empire
  • In A.D. 284 Emperor Diocletian restores order,
    divides empire in two
  • Two emperors1 in Greek-speaking East,
    Latin-speaking West
  • In A.D. 305 Diocletian retires, rivals compete
    for power
  • Constantine Moves the Capital
  • Constantine becomes emperor of Western Empire in
    A.D. 312
  • Seizes Eastern Empire in A.D. 324 moves Roman
    capital to Byzantium
  • Byzantium eventually renamed Constantinople city
    of Constantine

  • Constantine Accepts Christianity
  • ConstantineRoman emperor battles for control of
    Rome in A.D. 312
  • Has vision of cross, Christian symbol places on
    soldiers shields
  • Believes Christian God helped him win legalizes
  • In A.D. 380 Emperor Theodosius makes Christianity
    religion of empire
  • Early Christian Church
  • Priests direct a single church bishops supervise
    numerous churches
  • Apostle Peterfirst bishop of Rome clergy trace
    their authority to him
  • Popethe father, or head, of Christian Church
    Rome, center of Church

  • The Fall of the Roman Empire
  • The Empire Declines
  • Pax Romana ends in A.D. 180 with death of emperor
    Marcus Aurelius
  • Subsequent emperors unable to govern giant empire
    Romes Economy Weakens
  • Hostile tribes outside the empire disrupt trade
  • Inflationdrop in value of money and rise in
    prices, weakens trade
  • Overworked soil, war-torn farmland leads to food
  • Military and Political Turmoil
  • By third century A.D. Roman military in turmoil
  • Soldiers loyal to commanders, not Rome
    commanders fighting for throne
  • Government enlists mercenariesforeign soldiers
    they pay to fight
  • Average citizens lose interest in the affairs of

  • The Western Empire Crumbles
  • Germanic Invasions
  • Mongol nomads from Asia, the Huns, invade
    northern borders of empire
  • Germanic tribes flee Huns, enter Roman lands,
    sack Rome A.D. 410
  • Vandals
  • Came from East Germany.
  • Moved into Gaul and Spain, eventually into North
  • Incredibly violent and destructive.
  • to vandalize
  • The Goths
  • Excellent fighting Germanic tribes.
  • Did not like the Romans at all!
  • Defeated the Roman army huge moral buster for
    the Romans!
  • Theyre not invincible!

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  • Attila the Hun
  • Attilaunites the Huns in A.D. 444 plunders 70
    cities in East
  • Attacks Rome in 452 famine and disease prevents
  • Fought across Europe against Roman Empire, won a
  • Made way into Northern Italy, wasting cities as
    he went.
  • The Pope convinced him to turn back and go home
    he did.

  • An Empire No More
  • Last Roman emperor falls to Germans in 476 end
    of Western Empire
  • East thrives for another thousand years
    (Byzantine Empire)
  • After all this, how did it fall?
  • Tons of theories mine lack of a strong
    centralized government.
  • Economic difficulties and problems defending the
    boundaries of the empire led to a lack of control
    over the military and a farming out of soldiers
    mainly Germans!!!!!
  • When you are concerned with warfare, basic trade
    disappears. Another reason is the division of the
    empire The other capital on the Bosporus Strait
    between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

  • Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization
  • The Legacy of Greco-Roman Civilization
  • Romans adopt aspects of Greek and Hellenistic
  • Results in Greco-Roman culture, or classical
  • Roman Fine Arts
  • Romans develop bas-relief sculptures to tell
  • Artists skilled in creating mosaics, painting
  • PompeiiRoman town ash from volcano eruption
    A.D. 79 preserves art
  • Learning and Literature
  • Romans borrow from Greek philosophy and
  • Poet Virgil writes epic Aeneid modeled after
    Homers Greek epics
  • Roman historian Tacitus excels in writing
    factually accurate history

  • The Latin Language
  • Latin was official language of Roman Catholic
    Church until 1900s
  • Develops into French, Spanish, Portuguese,
    Italian, Romanian
  • More than half the words in English stem from
  • Roman System of Law
  • Principles of Roman law form basis of modern
    legal systems
  • Romes Enduring Influence
  • By preserving and adding to Greek civilization,
    Rome strengthened the Western cultural tradition