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Introduction, History and Computer Basics

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Title: Introduction, History and Computer Basics


1
Introduction, History and Computer Basics
  • Introduction to Computers and Computer Technology

2
Computer Science A foundation
  • Programming
  • Game Development
  • Software Engineering
  • Web design and development
  • Animation
  • Modeling
  • Networking
  • Security
  • System Administration
  • Information Technology
  • History
  • Perspective
  • Social issues
  • Economic issues
  • Ethic issues
  • Consumer issues

Software Development
Networking and IT
Digital Media
General Education
A computer science foundation
3
Role of Algorithms
Hardware
Software
Programming
Program
Algorithm
  • Algorithm A set of steps that defines how a task
    is performed
  • Program A representation of an algorithm
  • Programming The process of developing a program
  • Software Programs and algorithms
  • Hardware Equipment used to input information
    (data) and output the results of the programs,
    algorithms.

4
Origins of Computing MachinesEarly computing
devices
Abacus 300 BC by Babylonians around 1200 A.D. in
China and Japan
  • Abacus positions of beads represent numbers

5
Early computing devices
Pascals mechanical calculator - 1645
Gear-based machines (1600s-1800s) Positions of
gears represent numbers Inventors Blaise Pascal,
Wilhelm Leibniz, Charles Babbage
6
Early Data Storage
  • Punched cards
  • First used in Jacquard Loom (1801) to store
    patterns for weaving cloth
  • Storage of programs in Babbages Analytical
    Engine
  • Popular through the 1970s

7
Early programming
  • Augusta Ada King (Byron), Countess of Lovelace
    (1815-1852)
  • She is known as the "first programmer".
  • The computer language Ada, created by the U.S.
    Defense Department, was named after Ada Lovelace.

8
Babbages Difference Engine (1822)
Part of the Difference Engine (below)
  • Babbage is credited with inventing the first
    mechanical computer that eventually led to more
    complex designs. (1822)
  • The first difference engine was composed of
    around 25,000 parts, weighed fifteen tons (13,600
    kg), and stood 8 ft (2.4 m) high. Although he
    received ample funding for the project, it was
    never completed. (Wikipedia)

9
Early Computers
Vacuum tube
Transistor
Microchip
  • Here is a brief overview of some of the early
    computers and trends in computing.

10
First Generation Vacuum Tubes
  • 1930s Vacuum tubes were used as electronic
    circuits or electronic switches.

11
1946 - ENIAC
  • First large-scale electronic digital computer was
    ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and
    Calculator)
  • 30 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 8 feet high
  • 3 additions every second, (incredibly slow by
    todays standards).
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vVAnhFNJgNYY

12
Second Generation Transistors
  • 1947 - Walter Brittain and Willaim Shockley
    invented the transistor at Bell Laboratories
  • Replaced the vacuum tube as an electronic switch

13
Third Generation Integrated Circuits
  • 1959, Jack Kirby and Robert Noyce (who later
    became the cofounder of Intel Corp.) developed
    the first integrated circuit (silicon chip or
    microchip).
  • An integrated circuit (IC) is a system of
    interrelated circuits packaged together on a
    single sliver of silicon.
  • It is a way of placing multiple (millions)
    transistor devices into as single, smaller
    device, the microchip.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vaWVywhzuHnQfeature
    related

14
Fourth Generation - Microprocessor
  • A microprocessor is a Central Processing Unit
    (CPU) on a single chip.
  • 1971, Intel Corp. introduced the first
    microprocessor chip.
  • Intel 4004
  • 108 kHz and contained (equivalent of) 2300
    transistors

15
IBM Personal Computer
  • On August 12, 1981, IBM released their new
    computer, named the IBM PC
  • 2004 IBM sells PC business to Lenovo

16
Apple Computers
  • 1975 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak starts Apple
    Computer
  • 1984 Apple Macintosh with Graphical User
    Interface (GUI)

17
Laptops
  • 1981 - Adam Osborne, produced the Osborne 1
  • 1988 - Compaq laptop with color screen
  • 2008 Macbook Air thinnest laptop
  • 2011 Dell XPS 15Z thinnest Windows laptop

18
Trends from 1990 to today
  • Microsoft continues to update Windows with latest
    version Windows called Windows 8
  • LINUX operating system, an open source version of
    UNIX, is taking on MS Windows and gaining in
    popularity
  • IBM has stopped making small computers sold
    their business to Lenovo
  • HP, the largest maker of PC is planning to sell
    their PC division
  • Apple continues to be a major player in personal
    computers, especially for the creative market,
    iPods, iPads, iPhones, etc.
  • Google has become a major player in the Internet
    solutions

19
Trends from 1990 to today
  • Faster
  • Smaller
  • More reliable
  • Less expensive
  • Easier to use

20
Fifth Generation
  • Fifth generation computing devices, based
    on artificial intelligence, are continuing to be
    in development.
  • Parallel Processing is coming and showing the
    possibility that the power of many CPU's can be
    used side by side, and computers will be more
    powerful than those under central processing.
  • The goal of fifth-generation computing is to
    develop devices that respond to natural
    language input and are capable of learning and
    self-organization.

21
Computer Basics
22
What is a computer?
  • A computer is a digital device which can be
    programmed to change (process) information from
    one form to another.
  • Do exactly as they are told.
  • Digital devices Understand only two different
    states (OFF and ON - 0 and 1)

22
23
Traditional Types of Computers
  • General purpose computers
  • Super computer
  • Mainframe
  • Personal Computer

23
24
Traditional types of computers
  • Super computers
  • fast processing power
  • used by NASA and similar organizations
  • Example CRAY supercomputers

25
Traditional Types of Computers
  • Mainframe Computers
  • First computers, introduced in 1950s
  • Used by large businesses
  • Typically supported thousands of users
  • Very expensive
  • Used for very large processing tasks
  • IBMs new Mainframe
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vLN4J4mClckA

25
26
Traditional Types of ComputersPersonal Computers
  • Small, self-contained computers with their own
    CPUs
  • Uses a microprocessor, a CPU (Central Processing
    Unit) on a single chip.

26
27
Personal Computers
  • Desktop computers
  • Laptop computers
  • Tablets
  • Wearables

27
28
Hardware versus Software
  • Hardware The physical components that make up a
    computer system.

28
29
Hardware versus Software
  • Software The programs (instructions) that tell
    the computer what to do.
  • System Software
  • Application Software
  • Stored on a storage media such as hard disk,
    CD-ROM, floppy disk, tape, etc.

29
30
Hardware Components
PROCESS
Know these!
30
31
Input and Output Devices
31
32
The Processor
Lets open the box!
32
33
The Processor
  • circuit board a board with integrated circuits
    (microchips)
  • system board or motherboard
  • interface boards or expansion boards
  • system board or motherboard a single circuit
    board with the components which make up the
    computers processor for a microcomputer,
    including the
  • CPU (Central Processing Unit)
  • Memory
  • RAM
  • ROM or ROM BIOS
  • expansion slots

33
34
34
35
The Processor The CPU
  • CPU (Central Processing Unit) A complex
    collection of electronic circuits on one or more
    integrated circuits (chips) which
  • 1. executes the instructions in a software
    program
  • 2. communicates with other parts of the computer
    system, especially RAM and input devices
  • The CPU is the computer!

Rick Graziani graziani_at_cabrillo.edu
35
36
RAM
  • RAM is TEMPORARY memory
  • RAM is volatile
  • stores ON and OFF bits (software and data)
    electrically
  • when power goes off, everything in RAM is lost

36
37
ROM (Read Only Memory)
  • ROM (Read Only Memory) integrated circuits
    (microchips) that are used to permanently store
    start-up (boot) instructions and other critical
    information
  • Read Only information which
  • Cannot be changed
  • Cannot be removed
  • Fixed by manufacturer

37
38
ROM (Read Only Memory)
  • ROM is sometimes known as ROM BIOS (Basic Input
    Output System software)
  • ROM contains
  • start-up (boot) instructions
  • instructions to do low level processing of
    input and output devices, such as the
    communications with the keyboard and the monitor

38
39
Computer Performance
  • CPU speed (and type)
  • Amount of RAM (and speed)
  • Hard disk capacity

39
40
Software
  • System Software
  • Application Software

40
41
Application Software
  • Performs specific tasks
  • Word processing
  • Calculations
  • Information storage and retrieval
  • Accounting
  • Games
  • Cannot function without the OS (Operating System)
  • Written for a specific operating system and
    computer hardware.

41
42
Operating System Software
  • Loads automatically when you switch on a computer
  • Main roles
  • Controls hardware and software
  • Permits you to manage files
  • Acts as intermediary between user and applications

42
43
GUI Graphical User Interface
Windows 3.1
Windows 95/98/XP
43
44
CLI Command Line Interface
  • No GUI
  • MS DOS / Command Prompt
  • Linux / Unix

44
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