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DRIVING PROCEDURES AND MANEUVERS

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DRIVING PROCEDURES AND MANEUVERS ALABAMA COURSE OF STUDY #10, #11 and #12 Describe proper procedures for pre-starting, starting and stopping a vehicle. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DRIVING PROCEDURES AND MANEUVERS


1
DRIVING PROCEDURES AND MANEUVERS
  • ALABAMA COURSE OF STUDY 10, 11 and 12
  • Describe proper procedures for pre-starting,
    starting and stopping a vehicle. Explain basic
    maneuvers of driving, including steering,
    braking, passing, lane changing, merging,
    parking, signaling and turning. Explain
    defensive driving techniques, including the Smith
    System and the search, identify, predict,
    decide, and execute (SIPDE) process.

2
Driving Procedures and Maneuvers
  • Pre-Start Checks

3
Pre-Start Procedures
  • Check condition of tires, lights, car body, etc.
  • Check around the vehicle.
  • Check intended path of travel.
  • Close and lock doors.
  • Adjust seats.
  • Adjust mirrors and head restraints.
  • Fasten safety belts.

4
Outside The Vehicle Checks
5
Check Tires
  • Tires should be checked to make sure they are not
    under inflated, worn or damaged.
  • It should be noted which way the tires are turned
    because this will be the direction your car will
    go as soon as it begins moving.

6
Lights And Car Body
  • Make sure all lights and windows are clean and
    undamaged.
  • If it is cold, you may have to scrape snow or ice
    off your windshield.
  • At least once a week or when stopping for gas,
    check oil, coolant, battery, brakes, transmission
    and windshield-washer fluids.

7
Check Around The Vehicle And The Intended Path Of
Travel
  • Look for children playing nearby each year
    about 200 kids under the age of six are killed
    while playing in the driveway.
  • Look for animals that may be hiding or sleeping
    near the vehicle.
  • Check for objects around the vehicle (toys,
    etc.).
  • Check under vehicle for stains that could
    indicate fluid leaks.

8
Inside The Vehicle Checks And Procedures
9
Close And Lock All Doors
  • Make sure all doors are securely closed and
    locked.
  • Put key into the ignition.

10
Adjust Seats
  • Adjust seat so that you can clearly see the
    roadway and comfortably reach the floor pedals
    and other controls.

11
Adjust Mirrors And Head Restraints
  • Adjust rearview and left side view mirrors so
    that you can use them with just your eyes and do
    not need to move your head.
  • Adjust right side view mirror for the best vision
    with the least amount of head movement.
  • Adjust your head restraint and have passengers
    adjust theirs.

12
Fasten Seatbelts
  • Fasten your safety belt and make sure all
    passengers have fastened theirs. Remember the
    law!

13
Get Ready To Start Your Engine!
14
Starting the Car
  • Make sure the car is in park (neutral for a
    manual).
  • Depress clutch (only for a manual transmission).
  • Check for parking brake to be on (optional).
  • Turn ignition key on position and check gauges,
    then on to the start position. Release the key
    as soon as the engine starts.

15
Put Vehicle in Motion
  • Put foot firmly on the brake, using the right
    foot.
  • Depress clutch pedal (manual transmission only).
  • Shift into desired gear (drive or reverse).
  • Release parking brake (if applied).
  • Check mirrors and blind spots.
  • Signal intentions.
  • Remove the foot from the brake (ease off clutch
    in manual transmission).
  • Apply gas pedal.
  • Cancel signal.

16
Stopping and Securing the Vehicle
  • Check traffic (mirrors).
  • Signal intentions.
  • Lightly tap brake pedal to warn others you are
    slowing or stopping.
  • Apply smooth, steady, firm pressure to the brake
    pedal until the vehicle has stopped (apply clutch
    pedal in manual transmission).

17
Stopping and Securing (cont.)
  • Set parking brake (optional).
  • Shift into park (reverse for manual
    transmission).
  • Take foot off brake (and clutch).
  • Check to make sure all optional equipment is off.
  • Unfasten seat belt.
  • Remove key
  • Open door, exit curbside (if possible), and lock
    doors.

18
BASIC MANEUVERS
  • There are several basic maneuvers involved in
    driving safely and correctly
  • Steering
  • Braking
  • Parking
  • Turning

19
Push-Pull-Feed Steering
  • Safer because arms are not across the steering
    wheel at any time.
  • Preferred turning method if there are driver side
    airbags.
  • Hold steering wheel with right hand resting
    between 3 and 5 and left between 7 and 9. One
    hand pushes the wheel up toward 12 oclock. At
    the same time, the other hand slides up to 1
    oclock for the right turn(11 for left), grasp
    the wheel, and pull it down. While pulling hand
    goes down, the pushing hand releases its grip and
    returns to original position.

20
PUSH PULL-FEED STEERING
  • This method lets you keep both hands on the wheel
    at all times.
  • It helps to reduce fatigue on long drives and
    gives better control in emergency situations.

21
Steering Hand-Over-Hand
  • Method in which a drivers hands cross when
    turning.
  • To turn right, use your left hand to push the
    wheel up, around, and down. At the same time
    bring your right hand across left forearm to grip
    wheel on far side. Then use your right hand to
    pull the side of the wheel up, around, and down.
    Reverse these for a left turn.

22
9 and 3 or 8 and 4 Hand positions on the
steering wheel
  • Picture the wheel as a clock and place hand at
    these positions
  • Either of these positions provide you the best
    control in an emergency situation.
  • 8 and 4 is safer with driver side airbags.

23
Thumbs Up
  • With either one of the hand positions, always
    rest thumbs on the wheel, not wrapped around.
  • This is safer and a more relaxed, comfortable
    hold.

24
Steering in a Straight Line
  • When steering or tracking straight ahead, steer
    to a point in the center of your path of travel.
  • Look well ahead, not down.
  • Make slight, constant corrections with the
    steering wheel.
  • Dont oversteer or wander in your lane.

25
Steering (tracking) to the rear
  • When backing a vehicle, visibility through the
    rear window is limited.
  • To maximize visibility, turn your head and
    shoulders to look in the direction you are going.
  • When moving backward, the rear of the vehicle
    moves in the direction that you turn the wheel.
  • The front of the vehicle will move in the
    opposite direction (swing outward)
  • DONT USE THE MIRRORS FOR BACKING. Look in the
    direction your vehicle is moving.
  • Keep looking back until your vehicle comes to a
    stop.

26
Backing
  • When backing in a straight line, the left hand
    should be at the 12 oclock position
  • The right hand/arm should be positioned so that
    the shoulders can turn.
  • When backing to the sides use both hands
    (push-pull-feed or hand over hand) and look in
    the direction you will be travel with quick
    glances to the front.

27
BRAKING
  • There are different types of braking systems
  • Anti-lock braking system (ABS) is the safest
    system. ABS is designed to the wheels from
    locking when the driver presses too hard on the
    brake pedal in an emergency. They do not shorten
    the stopping distance.
  • Conventional braking involves disc brakes. With
    this system pressure squeezes the brake pads
    against a flat metal wheel disc, producing the
    friction needed to stop the wheel from turning.

28
BRAKING
  • With conventional braking, to avoid locking the
    brakes in an emergency situation, press the
    brakes until they almost lock then ease up
    slightly and back down.
  • The parking brake is attached by a cable to the
    rear wheels. It is used to prevent a parked
    vehicle from rolling. It can also be used in
    case of brake failue.

29
Basic Maneuvers
  • PASSING
  • LANE CHANGING
  • MERGING

30
PASSING ANOTHER VEHICLE
  • Check the roadway ahead, signal, check mirrors
    and blind spot.
  • Return when you can see both headlights of the
    car being passed in your rearview mirror dont
    cut in too soon.
  • Dont speed up when being passed.
  • It is illegal to pass on the shoulder of the
    road.
  • You will need to accelerate at least 10 mph
    faster than the car being passed (ok to speed??)

31
PASSING
  • Use a very slight controlled movement of the
    steering wheel when moving to pass or change
    lanes usually not more than1/8 of a turn.
  • Be alert for places where highways may narrow and
    dont pass there.
  • Hold the steering wheel firmly when being passed
    by large trucks to adjust for possible wind gust.
  • Move out of a drivers blind spot as quickly as
    possible when passing

32
PASSING
  • Before risking a pass, consider the drivers
    likely action will they soon pull over or turn,
    will they need to swerve to avoid a pedestrian,
    cyclist, animal, etc.?
  • When in doubt as to the safety of a passing
    maneuver dont pass.
  • If the vehicle being passed demonstrates erratic
    behavior, drop back and re-evaluate the
    situation.
  • If, when passing, one misjudges the speed and
    distance of an oncoming car, try to brake and
    fall back behind the vehicle being passed. If
    this is impossible then speed up quickly to
    complete the pass.

33
Lane changing and Merging
  • Never move from one lane to another until you
    make certain that you do so safely.
  • To change lanes safely, follow these steps
  • Check mirrors
  • Signal intentions
  • Check your blind spot
  • Adjust speed as needed
  • Move smoothly when time and space permits
  • Cancel signal, if necessary.

34
SIGNALS
  • The vehicle is equipped with mechanical signal
    that communicates your intention to turn or
    change lanes.
  • To operate the signal, move the indicator arm
    upward for a right turn, and downward for a left
    turn.
  • Alabama law states that you must signal at least
    100 feet prior to a turn, and a good rule of
    thumb, signal before you start braking.
  • Signal all changes in lane position.

35
Turning
  • Before you make a turn you should consider
  • - Is there heavy traffic?
  • - Do signs prohibit a turn?
  • - Can I see clearly for 500 feet?
  • -Do I have enough space?
  • - Traffic and pedestrians

36
TURNING RIGHT
  • Check the roadway ahead
  • Choose the correct lane
  • Signal your intentions
  • Position car near the right side of the lane
    turning right keep it tight
  • Wait for a 6-8 second gap in traffic to your
    left.
  • When your front wheels are even with the bend in
    the curve, start turning (using push-pull-feed or
    hand over hand) and follow the general curve of
    the curb.
  • Look through the turn along your intended path of
    travel.
  • Complete the turn by reversing your steering as
    you accelerate.
  • Cancel your signal, if necessary.

37
TURNING LEFT
  • Check the roadway ahead for vehicles,
    pedestrians, or other obstacles in your intended
    path.
  • Choose the correct lane
  • Signal your intentions
  • Position car near the left side of the lane .
  • Wait for a 9 second gap to the right and a 7
    second gap to your left..
  • Proceed into the intersection until just prior to
    the centerpoint of the intersection.
  • Keep your wheels straight and yield to any
    oncoming traffic.
  • Look through the turn along your intended path of
    travel. Turn into the lane just to the right of
    the centerline elbow on the yellow
  • Complete the turn by reversing your steering as
    you accelerate.
  • Cancel your signal, if necessary.

38
Parking
  • DO NOT PARK
  • - Within intersections
  • - On a crosswalk of sidewalk
  • - Within 20 feet of a crosswalk at an
    uncontrolled intersection
  • - Within 30 feet of any flashing beacon, stop
    sign or traffic signal
  • - In front of a driveway
  • - On any bridge or in a tunnel
  • - On the roadway side of any vehicle parked at
    the curb or edge of a highway (double parking)
  • - Beside a curb that is painted yellow, or
    where official signs prohibit parking

39
Parking the vehicle
  • Perpendicular parking spaces are marked at a 90
    degree angle to the curb. The steps are
  • Stay 7-8 feet from parked cars for best
    visibility.
  • Observe all traffic conditions, check for other
    vehicles about to back out.
  • Use proper turn signals.

40
Perpendicular Parking
  • Slow to 3-5 mph. Start turning when you can look
    down the side of the vehicle beside your chosen
    space.
  • Steer sharply and proceed slowly, checking for
    clearance of your front bumper.
  • As you move slowly forward, straighten the wheels
    and center in your space.
  • Stop just short of the curb or in line with the
    other vehicles.

41
ANGLE PARKINGOn the right
  • Stay 5-6 feet from the parked vehicles to give
    yourself room to see and maneuver.
  • Observe traffic in all directions and be alert
    for vehicles leaving spaces.
  • Signal your intentions.
  • Proceed until you can see along the left side of
    the vehicle to the right of your space.

42
Angle Parking
  • Steer sharply right and creep ahead at 3-5 mph
    into the space midway between the lines
  • Check the left front and right rear of your
    vehicle to make sure you have clearance
  • As you straighten the wheels, move forward until
    the front of your vehicle is aligned with those
    on both sides.

43
Parallel ParkingHave a space at least 5 ft.
longer than the length of your vehicle
  • Check traffic, signal, and approach the parking
    space in the proper lane.
  • Flash brake lights to alert following drivers of
    your intention to stop.
  • Move parallel to the vehicle in front of the
    space, leaving about 2 feet between vehicles.
  • Stop when the center door posts, or the backs of
    the front seats of the vehicles are even.
  • Keep your foot on the brake, and shift to reverse.

44
Parallel Parking
  • Back up, steering sharply to the right.
  • Align the back of the front seat with the rear
    bumper of the vehicle in front.
  • Continue backing slowly, straightening your front
    wheels, until your front bumper lines up with the
    rear bumper of the front vehicle.
  • Continue backing slowly, steering rapidly to the
    left.
  • Stop before making contact with the bumper of the
    vehicle behind the space.
  • With foot on brake, shift to drive and even up
    car in space.
  • Car should be within 12 inches of the curb.

45
Parking on a Hill
  • When parking on a hill you must make sure your
    car does not roll into traffic if the brakes do
    not hold.
  • ALWAYS set the parking brake.
  • The only time that you are going to turn your
    wheels to the left is when you are uphill with a
    curb.

46
PARKING ON HILLS
  • Make sure the vehicle does not roll into
    traffic set the parking brake and shift to
    park, then turn the wheels correctly
  • - Downhill with a curb
  • Turn wheels to the right or toward the
    curb.
  • - Uphill with a curb
  • Turn wheels to left or away from the
    curb.
  • - Uphill without a curb
  • Turn wheels to the right or toward the
    side of the road
  • -Downhill with no curb
  • Turn wheels to the right or toward the side
    of the road

47
3 Point Turnabout
  • Make sure you can see for a great distance before
    beginning.
  • Not permitted on freeways, on curves, or near the
    top of a hill.
  • They are governed by local ordinances and there
    may not be a sign to warn you of someone making a
    3 point turn.

48
3 Point Turnabout
  • Check traffic, signal, and stop as close to right
    edge of the curb as possible. Do not run off the
    roadway. Check both directions and make sure you
    have a 20-30 second gap.
  • Signal for a left turn. Look over left shoulder
    and move vehicle slowly while turning sharply
    left to bring the car to a stop in the opposite
    lane.

49
3 Point Turnabout
  • When front wheels are almost to the curb about 4
    feet away, turn the wheel rapidly to the right.
    Stop the vehicle just short of the curb, again do
    not run off the roadway.
  • Check traffic to your left, then over your right
    shoulder. Shift to reverse, while backing slowly,
    turn the wheel to the extreme right position.
    About 4 feet before stopping, turn the wheel to
    the left. Keep looking back until stopped.

50
3 Point Turnabout
  • Shift into drive, check traffic, signal, move
    into proper lane, cancel signal, and accelerate
    to a normal speed.
  • TIP Gear, steer, look, go (3 times)

51
Defensive Driving
  • There are many different techniques that we can
    use to help minimize our risks while driving on
    the roadways.
  • There are 2 that are the backbone of safe
    driving. They are Smith System, SIPDE

52
Smith System
  • The Smith System is a series of principles
    designed to help one drive safely and
    defensively.
  • The Smith System consist of 5 important
    guidelines.

53
Smith Guidelines
  • 1. Aim High look well ahead of your vehicle as
    you drive. Try to look 20 to 30 seconds ahead of
    you.
  • 2. Get the Big Picture search the whole scene.
    Ex. As you approach an intersection search for
    vehicles, pedestrians, and others.

54
Smith System
  • 3. Keep Your Eyes Moving- search the scene
    constantly. Stay alert for changes on the roadway
    or potentially dangerous conditions that might
    require you to make an adjustment.

55
Smith System
  • 4. Make Sure Others See You- Communicate with all
    others using the roadway. Position your vehicle
    so others can see you. Signal your intentions to
    others. Ex. Tapping brake for stopping.

56
Smith System
  • 5. Leave Yourself A Way Out Position your
    vehicle so that you keep a margin of space to
    avoid a collision.
  • Be a defensive driver

57
S.I.P.D.E.
  • The SIPDE process is an easy-to-use system for
    dealing with the driving challenge.
  • S.I.P.D.E. is an acronym for a 5 step process for
    defensive driving.

58
SIPDE
  • S- Search the roadway and the off-road areas 20
    to 30 seconds ahead for information that can help
    you with a path of travel.
  • I Identify objects or conditions within 12 to
    15 seconds ahead that could interfere with your
    planned path of travel.

59
SIPDE
  • P- Predict what actions or changes in
    conditions on or near the roadway could increase
    possible danger.
  • D Decide what action or actions you should
    take to help minimize risks.
  • Ex. Steer right or left, brake, increase speed,
    reduce speed, etc.

60
SIPDE
  • E Execute the decision you have made.
    Executing a decision in most cases is making a
    routine maneuver. You might have to take some
    kind of emergency action.

61
Smith System SIPDE
  • Almost all of the procedures that make up these 2
    processes, we do everyday.
  • We should do these procedures over and over again
    until we can perform them automatically.
  • Following these will help us to minimize risks on
    the roadway.

62
  • REMEMBER!!
  • The SIPDE and Smith System are ongoing
    processes. You will be reacting to one
    situation, while gathering information about a
    new one.
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