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Toy safety

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Toy safety the law in brief The main requirements are that toys must: satisfy safety requirements (termed the essential safety requirements ) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 17 May 2019
Slides: 39
Provided by: Brian4d
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Tags: safety | toy

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Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Toy safety


1
Toy safety the law in brief
  • The main requirements are that toys must
  • satisfy safety requirements (termed the
    essential safety requirements)
  • bear the CE marking
  • bear the required name and address details
  • be accompanied by warnings where necessary

2
The law how it protects us
  • If any toy is found to be unsafe according to the
    regulations, then the producer can be found
    guilty of a criminal offence.
  • The producer can claim that in principle all
    reasonable steps were taken to ensure the toys
    safety to avoid prosecution, fines or even
    imprisonment, but the toy gets no such reprieve
    and will be withdrawn from sale across the EU
    straight away.
  • All member states are automatically notified that
    there is an unsafe toy, and the toy is recalled.

3
Legal Requirements
  • Any toy sold in the UK must comply with Essential
    Safety and the Toy Safety Regulations which are
    made under the Consumer Protection Act
  • It is possible to comply with these regulations
    by conforming to British Standard BS 5665 or
    European Standard EN7
  • It makes no difference whether the toys are mass
    produced by a large manufacturer or hand crafted
    and sold at a car boot sale

4
BS 5665
  • BS 5665 "Safety of Toys" consists of four main
    areas shown below. These might form the basis of
    your product analysis and your initial design
    criteria.
  • Physical and Mechanical risks.
  • Flammability risks.
  • Toxicity issues.
  • Electrical Safety.

5
Physical and mechanical
  • Can the toy cut, stab, puncture, mangle or choke
    the child?
  • Think about how this could be tested without
    causing injury
  • What would you need to find out about the sizes
    of children?

6
Flammability
  • Does the toy easily catch fire if it is placed
    near to a heat source, fire, heater or sunlight?
  • Are there tests that you could carry out on the
    materials you are considering using?

7
Toxicity
  • Are any of the components made from, or finished
    off with materials that are poisonous if sucked,
    chewed or swallowed?
  • How can you find out whether the materials and
    finishes you are using will present this risk?

8
Electrical safety
  • Toys must have a low voltage supply.
  • For younger children, toys must be battery
    operated and the batteries must only be removable
    by an adult.
  • How can you find out what is available in terms
    of low voltage and how do manufacturers make
    battery access safe?

9
Design criteria
  • Toys must be safe
  • Toy should not be easily flammable or combustible
  • Any detachable parts must not pose a choking
    hazard
  • The construction of the toy should not pose any
    risk of injury
  • Toy should be CE marked
  • Toy should not contain any dangerous chemicals
  • Toy should carry appropriate warnings i.e. small
    parts not suitable for children under 36 months.
  • Toy should be free from any sharp edges
  • The toy should include instructions warnings
  • The name of the manufacturer should be displayed
    on the product

10
Materials
  • The next few slides look at material properties
  • Wood
  • Metals
  • Plastics
  • Fabric
  • Finishes
  • Glues
  • You will need to undertake some additional
    investigations

11
Wood
  • All surfaces must be smooth enough to prevent
    splinters and have no loose knots nor insect
    holes.
  • All edges and corners that can be touched must
    not be sharp.
  • Find out what timbers are commonly used in toy
    manufacture and why
  • Find out how edges are machined to make them
    smooth

12
Metals
  • All parts that can be touched must be smooth and
    free from burrs and not cut fingers.
  • Thin metal sheets should be rolled over at the
    edges.
  • Find out how the edges are made safe

13
Plastics
  • All edges and corners that can be touched must be
    smooth and free from burrs.
  • Thin sections must be made so that they will not
    crack nor shatter if hit.
  • Find out what plastics materials are available
    for you to use
  • Find out how they can be shaped and formed
  • How can you safely test whether these plastics
    will shatter?

14
Fabrics
  • No fabrics must be used that can become detached
    if chewed or pulled. i.e. hair, fur, ribbons
  • How can you test these?
  • What fastening methods can you use to ensure that
    parts cannot be pulled off?

15
Finishes
  • Applied finishes such as paints, varnishes,
    stains etc. that can become loose and flake off
    must not be used.
  • No finishes can be toxic.
  • How can you undertake tests to ensure the
    durability of finishes?
  • How can you find out whether finishes are safe
    for use on toys from a toxicity viewpoint?

16
Glues
  • All glues must be non-toxic and hard setting.
  • No jagged glue runs must be accessible.
  • Find out how you can test these properties
  • Find out how can you check out the toxicity of
    glues?

17
Components
  • Components are widely used in toys such as
  • Cords
  • Springs.
  • Wheels
  • Screws
  • Nails
  • Nuts and Bolts.
  • Fixings
  • Wires
  • Knobs

18
Cords
  • Very common in pull-along toys
  • Must be at least 1.5mm thick to stop a child's
    finger from being cut.
  • The cord must have no knots or loops which could
    turn into a slip knot or noose.

19
Springs
  • Must be covered if accessible and if a childs
    finger or skin could become trapped or nipped in
    the coils when they close.

20
Wheels
  • Wheels and tyres should not come off if they are
    of such a small size that they could be
    swallowed. (Choke Test).
  • Clearance between the wheel and the chassis
    should be less than 5mm or greater than 12mm.

21
Screws
  • The pointed ends of screws must be inaccessible
    and any screw head must be smooth to the touch.
  • The heads of countersunk screws must be sunk
    below the surface.
  • Screws must be protected from corrosion.
    (rusting).

22
Nails
  • Heads must be below the surface and protected
    from corrosion.
  • Any accessible pointed ends must be removed not
    just punched or turned over.

23
Nuts and bolts
  • Both the head and nut ends of a bolt must be
    smooth to the touch and not cause cuts,
    punctures, tears to the skin or clothing, or
    damage to the furniture.
  • Bolts must be locked so that they cannot become
    loose in use.

24
Fixings
  • No fixing should be used if it could potentially
    come off and be swallowed.

25
Wires
  • Wires that form part of the toy that a child can
    reach must have safe ends, i.e. Rounded, blunted,
    bent over or terminated in a ball.
  • Wires that can be bent by a child must not break
    if repeatedly bent.

26
Knobs
  • Any small ball, knob etc. that could be swallowed
    must never be allowed to become detached.

27
Other features
  • The following features may also need to be
    considered
  • Hinges
  • Levers
  • Rotary mechanisms
  • Holes and gaps
  • Protrusions
  • Separate parts
  • Strength
  • Packaging

28
Hinges
  • The gap at the hinge line should be either less
    than 5mm or greater than 12mm
  • Explain why that should be the case

29
Levers
  • Collapsible toys (or parts of toys) must have
    stops to prevent the risk of fingers being
    trapped in the folding mechanism
  • Explain how you could test this feature

30
Rotary mechanisms
  • No rotating mechanisms (levers, gears, pulleys,
    cams, etc.) can be accessible if there is a
    possibility that it might cause an injury

31
Holes and gaps
  • The toy is dangerous if a pencil can be poked
    into a hole or gap and touch moving parts or
    sharp objects which could cause injury.
  • Explain why a pencil is mentioned

32
Protrusions
  • Any rigid part (solid or tubular) which sticks
    out must be protected by a firmly attached rubber
    or plastics cap if it is liable to cause an
    injury to a falling child

33
Separate parts
  • Any detachable parts must pass the Choke Test.
  • Any non-detachable parts must be fixed so that
    either, a child cannot grip them with their
    fingers or teeth, or the parts cannot be removed
    when submitted to a force of 90 Newtons.
  • Work out how you can test this requirement

34
Choke tester
  • Detachable parts must not fit inside this
    cylinder. If they do, there is an increased
    danger that the parts would choke the child.

35
Strength
  • Any toy can be used for a purpose for which it
    was not intended
  • If the toy could bear some or all of the weight
    of a child when being used, then the toy must be
    designed to be strong enough to withstand that
    weight
  • How can you find out how heavy children are?

36
Packaging
  • Packaging used for the toy should not be the
    cause of accidents.
  • Any plastic bag must have a minimum thickness of
    0.038mm, have air holes and not be fitted with a
    drawstring.

37
Age Warning logo
  • The "Age Warning" logo that consists of an
    unhappy childs face alongside the numbers "0-3",
    first appeared on toys in 1995 and means that the
    toy is unsuitable for children that are younger
    than three years old. Sometimes, you may find the
    logo referred to as the "grumpy baby" symbol!
  • Either beside the Age Warning symbol or within
    the toys packaging will be further information
    describing the risk in more detail. For example,
    the toy may contain small parts that represent a
    choking hazard.

38
The Lion Mark
  • The Lion Mark was introduced by The British Toy
    Hobby Association (BTHA) in 1989 to promote high
    safety standards throughout the toy industry, the
    bright red and yellow 'Lion Mark' is an easily
    recognisable icon to help consumers identify toys
    that have been classified as being safe for
    children to use.
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