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Psychosocial Development Chapter 3

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Title: Psychosocial Development Chapter 3


1
Psychosocial Development Chapter 3
  • Freudian Theory
  • Eriksonian Theory

2
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
An Austrian physician, Freud, developed
psychoanalysis, a theory of personality based on
the idea that the conscious mind is like the tip
of an iceberg, and a vast unconscious area exists
below the surface containing repressed thoughts,
impulses, and desires. These unconscious forces
influence behavior. Freud said that mental
disorders are caused by a repression of
unconscious sexual and aggressive drives.
3
Freuds Ego is the Tip of the Iceberg
4
Freuds Model of the Mind The Id
  • The id is the original source of personality,
    present in the newborn infant. The ego, and then
    the superego, develop later.
  • The id motivates behavior and provides the energy
    source (libido) for the operation of the id, ego
    and superego.
  • It consists of a collection of basic instincts or
    biological drives (particularly the sexual and
    aggressive drives) that are the source of
    libidinal energy.

5
Freuds Model The Id, continued
  • The id is buried at the deepest level of your
    unconscious mind, far removed from conscious
    reality.
  • The id operates on the pleasure principle It
    seeks to avoid pain and obtain pleasure
    regardless of any external considerations.
  • The id engages in wish fulfillment, a process by
    which the id attempts to reduce tension by
    forming a mental image of its desires.

6
Freuds Model of the Mind The Ego
  • The ego is the executive of the personality. It
    decides what actions are appropriate. It
    determines which id instincts will be satisfied,
    and in what manner.
  • The ego operates on the reality principle its
    role is to test images for their reality.
  • According to Freud, the ego's job is so difficult
    that at times the mind unconsciously resorts to
    psychological defenses.

7
Freuds Model The Superego
  • The super-ego is the internalized representation
    of the values society and moral standards that
    are taught to the child by parents and others.
  • Initially, parents control a childs behavior
    directly through rewards and punishments.
  • Through the incorporation of parental standards
    into the super-ego, behavior is gradually brought
    under self-control.

8
Freuds Model The Superego, cont.
  • The super-ego is composed of two parts
  • The conscience, which incorporates all the things
    the child is punished or reprimanded for doing.
    The conscience punishes by making the person feel
    guilty.
  • The ego ideal, which incorporates those actions
    the child is rewarded for doing. The ego-ideal
    rewards by making the individual feel proud.
  • The superego develops slowly (around age 4) and
    at an unconscious level. It slowly gains the
    power to criticize and supervise the id and ego.

9
Ego Defense Mechanisms
  • Denial Denying a problem exists
  • Repression Unconscious forgetting
  • Rationalization Justifying behavior
  • Projection Transferring blame
  • Reaction Formation Developing new personality
    traits

10
Denial?
  • Failing to take seriously warning of health
    risks from cigarette smoking can be considered a
    form of denial. The ego fends off anxiety by
    preventing recognition of the true nature of the
    threat.

11
Ego Defense Mechanisms, cont.
  • Regression Reoccurring behaviors that have been
    outgrown
  • Displacement The transfer of emotions produced
    in one situation to another situation
  • Sublimation The channeling of energy away from
    an impulse that causes anxiety (e.g., sexuality)
    and into a form considered admirable by ones
    society.
  • Compensation Defenses against feelings of
    inferiority

12
Your Turn!
  • Jake has violent impulses. Rather than
    express them directly, he gets a job dismantling
    wrecked cars. This is an example of
  • sublimation.
  • regression.
  • projection.
  • compensation.
  • reaction formation.

13
Your Turn!
  • Jake has violent impulses. Rather than
    express them directly, he gets a job dismantling
    wrecked cars. This is an example of
  • sublimation.
  • regression.
  • projection.
  • compensation.
  • reaction formation.

14
Freuds Psychosexual Stages of Development
15
Freuds Psychosexual Stages Oral Stage (birth-1
year)
  • crisis birth also, weaning brings on a period
    of frustration and conflict. It is the child's
    first experience with not getting what he/she
    wants.
  • focus oral activities such as sucking and
    swallowing, thumb-sucking, nursing, biting,
    crying, tasting, vocalization
  • fears separation anxiety fear of loss of an
    object or loss of love

16
Freuds Psychosexual Stages Oral Stage (birth-1
year)
  • adult behaviors An oral character erotic
    pleasures still obtained through the mouth
    talking too much liking to argue and be
    critical, being demeaning, boasting, or mouthing
    off. Over-eating, drinking, excessive smoking,
    nail-biting...the person is still trying to
    release libidinal energy through adult oral
    activities.
  • Oral-dependent personality Easily fooled and
    craving attention
  • Oral-aggressive personality Argumentative and
    sarcastic.

17
Oral Stage
  • According to Freud, the childs early
    encounters with the world are largely experienced
    through the mouth.

18
Freuds Psychosexual Stages Anal Stage (18-36
months)
  • crisis delayed gratification toilet training
  • focus withholding or producing feces at the
    appropriate times being clean
  • Children discover the pleasure they can obtain
    from their genitals, and thus become extremely
    aware of themselves and members of the other
    gender.
  • fear being unclean inappropriate
  • adult behaviors excessive neatness, obstinacy,
    envy, miserliness (anal retentive) promiscuity,
    poor impulse control, spendthrift (anal
    expulsive), hand washing

19
Freuds Psychosexual Stages Phallic Stage
  • crisis awakening sexual desire for the opposite
    sex parent which violates the incest taboo, and
    is rejected by that parent.
  • focus a desire to possess one parent and get rid
    of the other
  • Oedipus Complex castration anxiety penis envy
  • fear of being castrated
  • adult behaviors Unresolved Oedipus/Electra
    complexes lead often to
  • delayed marriage, marrying someone much older
    than self, and relating to that person as a
    father/mother figure
  • rage, abandonment, jealousy, loneliness, vanity,
    exhibitionism, sensitive pride, or narcissism.
    Freud believed that a detached, hostile, absent
    father or overly close mother prevent boys from
    detaching from mother at age 3. This causes
    heterosexuals to become homosexual. Boys grow
    up, identifying with mother, and seek a man as a
    replacement for self.

20
Freuds Psychosexual Stages Latency Period (age 6
- puberty)
  • crisis identification with same sex begins
    during this "natural homosexual period" when
    children develop heroes and heroines of same sex
    to model themselves after. Wish to possess
    opposite-sexed parent is repressed.
  • focus Focus on sexuality is reduced or
    sublimated. Sexual impulses are redirected into
    learning tasks. Peers
    become important children turn their attention
    to developing skills needed for coping with the
    environment.
  • fear Fear of the super-ego

21
Freuds Psychosexual Stages Genital Stage
(puberty)
  • identification with same sex parent
  • focus person engages heterosexual activities to
    release libidinal energy. At puberty, sexual
    energies activate all of the unresolved conflicts
    from earlier years.
  • adult behaviors If all goes well through these
    stages, the person becomes a fully functioning
    adult. Per Freud, the personality is completely
    formed by adolescence.

22
Psychoanalysis, the Therapy
  • Developed by Freud at the turn of the 20th
    century.
  • Psychoanalysis is concerned with understanding
    how one's past conflicts influence current
    behavior.

23
Psychoanalysis, continued
  • It is based on the theory that psychological
    disturbances arise from anxieties rooted in
    unconscious conflicts (between the id, ego, and
    superego.
  • The goal is to uncover unconscious content.
  • It uses the technique of free association, where
    the patient verbalizes all thoughts and feelings
    that come to mind.
  • Patients recline on a couch during therapy, to
    encourage relaxation and a free flow of thoughts
    and images from the patient's unconscious.

24
Freuds Consulting Room in London The patient
lay on the couch, and Freud sat on the chair at
the left, out of view, in order to facilitate
transference reactions in the patient.
25
Psychoanalysis, continued
  • Patients must verbalize even painful and
    embarrassing thoughts which come to mind without
    censoring anything.
  • Thoughts are allowed to move freely from one
    association to the next.
  • The analyst looks for symbolic content, and the
    thread which connects the associations.

26
Analysis of Transference
  • Transference the patient transfers to the
    therapist feelings that correspond to those the
    person had toward important persons in the past,
    especially in childhood.
  • The role of the psychoanalyst is to be ambiguous
    or impersonal to allow the patient to transfer to
    him or her feelings that relate to important
    past relationships with others.
  • e.g. The patient may view the analyst as a
    rejecting father or
  • overprotective mother, lover, friend,
    villain, hero.
  • Through this re-experiencing of relationships,
    the patient can learn better ways to relate to
    others, and is able to discontinue this
    automatic, unconscious way of relating.

27
Analysis of Resistance
  • During treatment, the patient may resist talking
    about certain topics.
  • Such resistance is said to reveal important
    unconscious conflicts.
  • It is a reaction to any attempt to bring
    repressed strivings and fantasies into
    awareness.
  • As the analyst becomes aware of resistance,
    he/she brings them to the patient's awareness so
    they can be dealt with realistically.

28
Analysis of Resistance, cont.
  • The patient is defending him or herself against
    the discovery of the unconscious material without
    being aware either of the material or of his
    resistance.
  • There are many reasons why a person may repress
    certain strivings.
  • He or she might be afraid of being punished, of
    not being loved, or of being humiliated if the
    repressed impulses were known to others (or to
    the self).

29
Dream Analysis
  • Freud considered dreams way to tap the
    unconscious.
  • He believed that during sleep the censoring
    function of the brain relaxed, so that forbidden
    desires, fears , conflicts, and wishes as well as
    other unconscious feelings are more freely
    expressed.
  • He distinguished between the
  • manifest content (remembered portion of the
    dream)
  • latent content (hidden, true meaning of the
    dream
  • of dreams)

30
Psychoanalysis, concluded
  • Psychoanalysis is the exploration of
    long-forgotten childhood experiences.
  • It involves clarification and confrontation which
    help the individual become aware of the
    unconscious conflicts that are affecting his/her
    current behaviors.
  • Interpretation more explicitly links current
    behaviors to past events.
  • Working through helps the individual incorporate
    new insights into his or her personality.

31
Your Turn!
  • In Freudian theory, the __________ operates
    on the reality principle its role is to test
    images for their reality.
  • id
  • unconscious
  • ego
  • libido
  • superego

32
Your Turn!
  • In Freudian theory, the __________ is the
    "executive" structure that is directed by the
    reality principle.
  • id
  • unconscious
  • ego
  • libido
  • superego

33
Your Turn!
  • Which Freudian concepts do these events
    suggest?
  • A 4-year-old girl wants to snuggle on Daddys lap
    but refuses to kiss her mother.
  • a celibate priest writes poetry about sexual
    passion.
  • A man who is angry at his boss shouts at his kids
    for making noise.
  • A woman whose father was cruel to her when she
    was little insists over and over that she loves
    him dearly.
  • A 9-year-old boy who moves to a new city starts
    having tantrums.

34
Your Turn!
  • Which Freudian concepts do these events
    suggest?
  • Answers
  • A 4-year-old girl wants to snuggle on Daddys lap
    but refuses to kiss her mother. The
    Oedipal/Electra complex
  • A celibate priest writes poetry about sexual
    passion. Sublimation
  • A man who is angry at his boss shouts at his kids
    for making noise. Displacement
  • A woman whose father was cruel to her when she
    was little insists over and over that she loves
    him dearly. Reaction Formation
  • A 9-year-old boy who moves to a new city starts
    having tantrums. Regression

35
Your Turn!
  • Jake has violent impulses. Rather than
    express them directly, he gets a job dismantling
    wrecked cars. This is an example of
  • sublimation.
  • regression.
  • projection.
  • compensation.
  • reaction formation.

36
Your Turn!
  • Jake has violent impulses. Rather than
    express them directly, he gets a job dismantling
    wrecked cars. This is an example of
  • sublimation.
  • regression.
  • projection.
  • compensation.
  • reaction formation.

37
Ego Defense Mechanisms
  • Divide into small groups (3to 5) people and
    discuss the examples on p. 87 of your text.
  • Decide which defense mechanism is represented in
    each case.
  • Put all group members names on one sheet of paper
    and turn in your answers for credit.

38
Erik Erikson (1902-1994)
Neo-Freudian Erik Erikson revised Freuds stages
of development and proposed eight major dilemmas
that are universally experienced over the life
course.
39
Eriksons Dilemmas
  • A psychosocial dilemma is a conflict between
    personal impulses and the social world that
    effects development.
  • Each dilemma has a positive pole and a negative
    pole.
  • For optimal personality development, the person
    must resolve the dilemma primarily in the
    positive direction.

40
This first stage of life is infancy.
  • Human babies are helpless.

41
Eriksons Stages Stage 1 - Infancy
  • Trust vs. mistrust (the first year of life)
  • Virtue Hope
  • Parents must maintain a supportive and
    nurturing environment. If the infants needs are
    met, the infant develops a sense of basic trust.
  • Mistrust is caused by inadequate or
    unpredictable care and by parents who are cold,
    indifferent, unkind, or rejecting.

42
Newborns derive many benefits from the sense of
touch.

43
Eriksons Stages Infancy
  • Trust vs. mistrust, continued
  • A child who has learned trust is able to give and
    receive love, master fears, and feels secure and
    adequate as a person.
  • A mistrustful child harbors a suspicious view of
    the world, and feels isolated because of an
    inability to relate to others.

44
Eriksons Stages Stage - 2 Early Childhood
  • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
  • (ages 1- 3) Virtue Will
  • As the toddler develops bowel and bladder control
    he or she also develops a healthy attitude toward
    being independent.
  • If parents encourage their childs use of
    initiative and reassure the child when mishaps
    occur, the child will develop the confidence
    needed to cope with situations that require
    autonomy.

45
Stage 2 Early Childhood
  • Toddlers are learning to act on their own.

46
Eriksons Stages Early Childhood
  • If the child is made to feel that independent
    efforts are wrong, then shame and self-doubt
    develop instead of autonomy.
  • If parents are controlling or critical of their
    childs efforts, s/he may begin to feel ashamed
    of her/his actions and doubt her abilities.

47
Eriksons Stages Stage 3-Preschool
  • Initiative vs. guilt
  • (ages 3-6) Virtue Purpose
  • The child must discover ways to initiate
    actions on his or her own. If such initiatives
    are successful, guilt will be avoided.

48
Stage 3 Preschool Age (ages 3-6)
  • The child imitates adults, anticipates future
    roles, and develops an appropriate gender-role
    identity.

49
Eriksons Stages Middle Childhood
  • Industry vs. Inferiority
  • (ages 6-12) Virtue Competence
  • The child must learn to feel competent,
    especially when competing with peers. Failure to
    achieve a sense of industry during middle
    childhood tends to result in a sense of
    inadequacy and inferiority.

50
Stage 4 Middle Childhood
  • Children learn to get along with others and
    compete.

51
Eriksons Stages Adolescence
  • Identity vs. role confusion
  • (ages 12-18) Virtue Fidelity
  • The teen must develop a sense of role
    identity, especially in terms of selecting a
    future career. He or she works at refining a
    sense of self by testing roles, then integrating
    them to form a single identity.

52
Eriksons Stages Adolescence
  • An adolescent must establish a stable
    identity in preparation for experiencing intimacy
    in adulthood.

53
Eriksons Stages Adolescence
  • Erikson suggested that adolescents often
    experience an identity crisis - they worry about
    who they are.
  • This self-confrontation involves elements such as
    the awakening of sexual drives, the attainment of
    logical thought, and social concerns.

54
Eriksons Stages Adolescence
  • The desire to feel unique does battle with the
    wish to fit in.
  • To assert themselves, teens may rebel against
    authority figures, particularly parents.
  • Conversely, they may embrace a clannish group
    when overwhelmed with the pressure to establish a
    separate identity.

55
Your Viewpoint
  • What are some major concerns of young adults
    (18-27 years of age)?

56
Eriksons Stages Young Adulthood
  • Intimacy vs. isolation
  • (ages 18-35) Virtue Love
  • The adults formation of close friendships and
    romantic relationships is vital to healthy
    development.
  • By intimacy, Erikson meant an ability to care
    about others and to share experiences with them.

57
Eriksons Stages Young Adulthood
  • Failure to establish intimacy with others leads
    to a sense of isolation.
  • The person feels alone and uncared for in life.
  • This circumstance often sets the stage for later
    difficulties.

58
Eriksons Stages Young Adulthood
  • Most young adults seek to establish
    meaningful relationships with others and look for
    a mate.

59
Eriksons Stages Middle Adulthood
  • Generativity vs. stagnation
  • (ages 35-60) Virtue Care
  • Adults need to develop useful lives by
    contributing to the world, such as by helping and
    guiding children. They may also make indirect
    contributions to the next generation, through
    writing books or constructing buildings, etc.

60
Life Begins a Slow Decline at Age 40
61
  • In a youth-oriented society, many middle-aged
    people are reluctant to give up their sense of
    being a young person.

62
Your Viewpoint
  • How would you like your life to be in old age?
    Is there anything you can do now to make this
    happen?
  • What do you fear most about growing old?

63
Eriksons Stages Late Adulthood
  • Integrity vs. despair
  • (age 60 on) Virtue Wisdom
  • When reflecting on their lives, elderly people
    may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure. A
    life well spent will result in a sense of
    well-being and integrity.

64
Eriksons Stages Late Adulthood
  • After the age of about 60 or so, developmental
    tasks include
  • Accepting inevitable losses (death, youth,
    physical beauty, physical abilities)
  • Being able to relate to the past without regrets
  • Spending time doing things that people find
    meaningful
  • Finding new meaning in life when former sources
    are gone (children, careers)
  • Maintaining outside interests
  • Enjoying grandchildren

65
Your Turn!
  • According to Erikson, failure to achieve a
    sense of industry during middle childhood tends
    to result in
  • a sense of inadequacy and inferiority.
  • a failure to develop a sense of identity.
  • feelings of self-hatred that cannot easily be
    erased.
  • a sense of rebellion that caries into adulthood.
  • mistrust of others.

66
Your Turn!
  • According to Erikson, failure to achieve a
    sense of industry during middle childhood tends
    to result in
  • a sense of inadequacy and inferiority.
  • a failure to develop a sense of identity.
  • feelings of self-hatred that cannot easily be
    erased.
  • a sense of rebellion that caries into adulthood.
  • mistrust of others.

67
Your Turn!
  • Life satisfaction in old age seems to
    depend upon
  • maintaining physically demanding occupational
    roles.
  • continued performance in roles considered
    important by society.
  • the system of social support maintained for
    people as they disengage from all activities.
  • spending time doing things that people find
    meaningful.
  • staying physically vigorous.

68
Your Turn!
  • Life satisfaction in old age seems to
    depend upon
  • maintaining physically demanding occupational
    roles.
  • continued performance in roles considered
    important by society.
  • the system of social support maintained for
    people as they disengage from all activities.
  • spending time doing things that people find
    meaningful.
  • staying physically vigorous.

69
Chap. 3 - Review
  • What did Freud say was the cause of mental
    disorders?
  • What was Freuds model of the mind?
  • What do these structures represent?
  • When are the super-ego and conscious formed
    according to Freud?

70
Chap. 3 - Review
  • What are Freuds five stages of personality
    development?
  • What is Psychoanalysis and what are the main
    techniques?
  • What are the eight stages of Erikson's theory of
    personality development?

71
Psychosocial Development Chapter 3
  • End of Presentation
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