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This Adolescent Life


This Adolescent Life An exploration of the physical, individual, social, and cognitive developments of adolescents Group 3M Michael Gadient Melanie Harrington – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: This Adolescent Life

This Adolescent Life
  • An exploration of the physical, individual,
    social, and cognitive developments of adolescents

Group 3M Michael Gadient Melanie
Harrington Brenda Hummel Erin Richards
Fat Cells
Initiation of Puberty (1.35)
Sex Hormones (Estradiol, Testosterone)
Leads to bodily change
Pituitary Gland
Gonadotropins (FSH, LH)
Adrenal Gland
GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone FSH
follicle-stimulating hormone LH
luteinizing hormone
Physical Growth (2.5, 2.14, 3.2, 3.5)
Growth Spurt Height dramatically increases Body Shape Hips and shoulders widen
Girls begins around age 10 greatest increase from ages 10-12 1316 increase slows, levels off average adult height 64 inches wider hips smaller waist curvier
Boys begins around age 13 greatest increase around age 14 15-18 growth continues average adult height 70 inches broader shoulders lengthened form
Physical Growth (2.7-13)
  • Muscle growth is due to testosterone and is
    therefore greater in males.
  • Weight lifting is not recommended during pubertal
    muscle growth.  
  • During puberty fat levels increase dramatically
    in both sexes. Ratio of muscle to fat
  • Girls 54
  • Boys 31
  • Female fat accumulation peaks just before

Physical Growth (1.38)
Primary Sex Characteristics (1.41)
  • At birth 400,000 immature eggs
  • During puberty 80,000 immature eggs in each
  • Menarche Begins between ages 9-16
  • a thick layer of blood and tissue cells is formed
    in uterus
  • ovary releases mature egg
  • egg is either fertilized (pregnancy) or released
  • egg becomes mature every 28 days during regular
  • At birth No sperm
  • During puberty millions of sperm produced every
  • Spermarche Begins around age 12
  • 1st production of sperm
  • appearance of nocturnal emissions about every 2

Primary Sex Characteristics (1.41, 3.3, 4.2)
Changes in reproductive anatomy caused by changes
in hormones
Males Penis doubles in length and diameter Testes increase in length and are 8.5 times their original weight. Testes reach adult size at 16 or 17 years of age Erections occur Females Labia majora, labia minora and clitoris grow Ovaries size and weight increases Uterus doubles in length Vaginas length increases and deepens in color
Secondary Sex Characteristics (4.1-2, 3.1)
Hair increases, changing from soft and fine to
thick and coarse, and grows where it didnt
  • Males
  • 12-16 years of age
  • Pubic
  • Underarm
  • Facial
  • Limbs
  • Chest
  • Back
  • Shoulders
  • Females
  • 9-14 years of age
  • Pubic
  • Underarm
  • Facial
  • Limbs

Secondary Sex Characteristics (1.42-43)
Female Breast Development Process
Areolar Enlargement
Breast Buds
Overall Breast Enlargement
Breast Development Most girls and some boys
experience enlarged breasts. These breasts
disappear in boys within 1 year of appearance.
Nipple Projection
Skin Rougher Increased sweat production makes
skin oilier More prone to acne and odor
Order of Pubertal Events (5)
(No Transcript)
Self Reflection
  • Behaviors
  • Lie on bed alone and listen to music
  • Look in the mirror and groom oneself
  • Sit alone and fantasize
  • Thoughts
  • Who am I?
  • What do people think of me?
  • What kind of life will I have?

Consequences of Self-Reflection (1.164)
Change in self-concept Change in self-esteem
Change in emotional understanding Change in identity
Self-Concept (1.165)
  • Focus on abstract traits
  • Im really nice, smart, and mature, but when I
    am with the guys I can be a real jerk.
  • Actual self or feared self
  • Ill probably be a loser just like my brother.
    Hes 30 and still lives with my parents.
  • Possible self or ideal self
  • Im going to be a famous writer, make money and
    buy my own island.

Four Domains of Self-Image that may affect
Self-Esteem (6)
Susan Harter
  • Appearance
  • Chelsea, does my butt look fat in these jeans?
  • Social Acceptance
  • Three people have already invited me to the
  • Close Friendship
  • Jessica totally understands me. Its like were
  • Romantic Appeal
  • I cant believe he called me and asked me to the

(No Transcript)
Personal Relationships (1.75)
Beliefs and Values
Psychosocial Moratorium(7)
Periods of trying things out
Identity exploration
No adult responsibility

Identity Achievement Its what parents cant
wait for
Awareness of Identity(1.184)
I dont think of myself as Asian American. Im
just American.
Im not part of two cultures. Im just African
When Im with my Somali friends I feel American,
and when Im with my American friends I feel
Being Mexican and American means I get the best
of both worlds.
Social Aspects of Adolescent Development
Parent-child Relationships Friendships
Interactions with the opposite sex Social Skills
Parent Child Relationships (8,9)
  1. The establishment of Autonomy.
  2. There is an increase in distance in parent-child
  3. Autonomy is necessary if the teen is to become
    self-sufficient in society.

How Adolescents Spend Their Time (10)
  • Leisure can be separated into 3 categories

Adult/ Parent 15
School 23
  • 40 Socializing with friends
  • 23 Maintenance (self-care)
  • 29 Productive (homework, volunteer activities)

Leisure 29
Establishing Identity Through Associations
  • An important part of establishing an identity in
    adolescence involves associations with cliques
    and crowds.
  • Cliques are small groups of friends who know each
    other well, do things together, and form regular
    social groups.
  • Crowds are larger, reputation-based groups who
    are not necessarily friends and do not
    necessarily spend much time together.
  • Cliques and crowds help define their own
    identities and the identities of others.
  • In late adolescence as identities are better
    established, and adolescents become more
    individualistic, the significance of crowds

Whats up Rodgerson? Need a lift?
Interactions with the Opposite Sex
  • As adolescence progresses, teens begin to spend
    more time in mixed sex crowds.

Types of Dating (11)
Dating helps adolescents develop intimacy and the
ability to love and care for others.
  • Group dating - A group of many boys and girls go
    out together.
  • Casual dating - Individuals go out once in a
    while with no committed relationship. This gives
    adolescents a chance to experiment with dating
    and discover who they enjoy spending time with.
  • Serious dating - The couple is committed to one
    another in an exclusive relationship.

Social Skills (1.257)
Popularity and the ability to make friends easily
are often associated with healthy social skills.
Unpopular adolescents tend to lack social skills
and have difficulty making friends. The two types
of unpopular adolescents are
Rejected Adolescent These students are excessively aggressive, quarrelsome and disruptive. Tend to ignore others wants, and are selfish and belligerent. They are actively disliked by their peers.
Neglected Adolescents These students are shy, withdrawn, and avoid group activities. They are rarely noticed by their peers.
Rejected adolescents have a greater risk of
dropping out of school and having
aggression-related problems. Neglected
adolescents are likely to have low self esteem
and suffer from loneliness, depression and
alcohol abuse.
Interventions (1.259)
  • Teachers can help students counteract the affects
    of unpopularity by incorporating activities in
    the classroom that focus on learning social
  • Rejected students should be taught how to control
    and manage anger and aggressiveness.
  • Neglected students should be taught how to enter
    a group, how to listen in an attentive and
    friendly way, and how to attract positive
    attention from peers.

Ways in which Adolescents Support One Another
Advice and guidance in solving personal problems.
Informational Support
Instrumental Support
Help with tasks.
Ability to rely on one another in social
Companionship Support
Esteem Support
Encouraging success and consoling failure.
Cognitive Learning Theory
Cognitive Learning Theory Explains learning by
focusing on changes in mental processes and
structures that occur as a result of peoples
efforts to make sense of the world. (12.237)
Learners are active in their attempts to understand their experiences Learners development depends on what they already know
Learners construct, rather than record, understanding Learning changes persons mental structure
4 basic principles
Cognitive Development
You cannot teach a 9-year-old something that
only a 13-year-old can learn. (1.66)
Piagets Stages of Development
Adolescent Stages Critical Cognitive Tasks
Concrete Operational (7-12yrs) Concrete Logic
Formal Operational (12yrs) Abstract Reasoning (hypothetical and deductive)
Classroom Application (13) Preoperational - Use
concrete props and visual aids to illustrate
lessons and help children understand what is
being presented Operational - Ask students to
deal with no more than three or four variables at
a time. Require reading with a limited number of
characters. Formal Operational - Give students
an opportunity to explore many hypothetical
Cognitive Development - In Emerging
Adulthood -
The gains that take place in emerging adulthood
appear to be due more to education than to
maturations. (1.71-73)
Postformal Thinking Cognitive development beyond formal operations
Pragmatism Adapting logical thinking to the practical constraints of real-life situations
Reflection The capacity to evaluate the accuracy and logical coherence of evidence and arguments
Information Processing
Information Processing Theory of learning that
explains how stimuli enter our memory systems,
are selected and organized for storage, and are
retrieved from memory. (1.74)
Speed Information processing speed
Capacity Number of aspects of a situation you can keep in your mind at once
Automaticity How much cognitive effort needed to devote to processing
Attention/ Perception
Sensory Memory
Working Memory
Long-term Memory
Sensory Memory Information store that briefly holds stimuli from the environment until they can be processed
Working Memory Store that holds information as a person processes it
Long-Term Memory Permanent information Store
Can Adolescents Make Competent Decisions?
  • Critical Thinking Way of thinking that involves
    not merely memorizing information but analyzing
    it, making judgments about what it means,
    relating it to other information, and considering
    ways in which it might be valid or invalid.
  • Results of Research
  • Studies suggest that critical thinking skills do
    not develop automatically in adolescence.
  • Adolescents appear to be capable of making some
    decisions although psychological factors may be
    more likely to influence their decisions.

Identifying the consequences that would result
from each choice
Identifying the range of possible choices
Behavioral Decision Theory(1.81-82)
Evaluating the desirability of each consequence
Integrating information
Assessing the likelihood of each consequence
Awareness of Identity(1.83,86, 12.250-251)
The limited ability to understand the thoughts
and feelings of others.
Perspective Taking
Imaginary Audience
Everyone is staring at me!
The process people use to attach meaning to
The number of connections or links between an
idea and other ideas in long-term memory.
Psychometric Approach(1.88,92-93)
Psychometric Approach Focuses on measuring
individuals cognitive abilities through
Intelligence Testing.
  • Sternberg Intelligence measured by IQ tests.
  • Intelligence test scores improved throughout the
    teens and twenties for verbal tests, but
    performance scores peaked in the mid-twenties.

Impact of Diversity on Information
  • The role of culture in cognitive development
    cannot be underestimated.
  • Cultural psychology suggests that cognition and
    culture are inextricably related.
  • Some scholars have suggested that the Western
    adolescent intense exposure to electronic media
    has diminished information-processing abilities.

  • Sowhat do you think of that?

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  • American Academy of Pediatrics. (2005). Puberty
    Information for Boys and Girls.
  • University of Maryland Medical Center. (2001).
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  • TAP Pharmaceutical Products Inc. (2005). Central
    Precocious Puberty Symptoms and Causes.
  • Harter, S. (1982). The Perceived Competence Scale
    for Children. Child Development. 53(1).
  • Strayer, J. (2002). The Dynamics of Emotions and
    Life Cycle Identity. Identity An Intrinsical
    Journal of Theory and Research. 2(1), 47-49.
  • Zwick, S. Adolescence Whats happening to the
    Child-Parent Relationship? http//
  • Huebner, A. (2000). Adolescent Growth and
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  • 10. Binger, J.J. (1994). Individual and Family
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    Jersey, pp. 330-376. In Simon, J. How Do
    Adolescents Spend Their Time? http//inside.bard.e
  • 11. Steinberg, L. (1989). Adolescence. New York
    McGraw-Hill, Inc.
  • In Oswald, A. Issues of Adolescent Dating.

  • Eggen, Paul and Kauchak, Don., Educational
    Psychology Windows on Classroom. 6th-ed. Pearson
    Education Inc., Upper Saddle River New Jersey,
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    Applications. Educational Psychology Interactive.
    Valdosta, GA Valdosta State University.
    Retrieved date, from http//
  • Photographs