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The Science of Marine Biology

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The Science of Marine Biology Ch. 1 US and World Populaion Clock Lets check it every 10 minutes Objectives Understand the brief history of marine biology Review the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Science of Marine Biology


1
The Science of Marine Biology
  • Ch. 1

2
US and World Populaion Clock
  • Lets check it every 10 minutes

3
Objectives
  1. Understand the brief history of marine biology
  2. Review the scientific method
  3. Induction vs. deduction

4
What is biology?
The study of life
Zoology
Botany
Microbiology
5
What is marine biology?
Marine Biology the science of biology applied to
the sea
6
What is marine science?
  • Biological oceanography
  • Study of the biology, geography, and chemistry
    of the ocean

7
Timeline
  • Lets look at a students timeline from a couple
  • years ago.

8
What do YOU know about the ocean?
  • Think about it for a minute and write a few
    things down. Be prepared to share . . .
  • What do you want to know?

9
It began with a clam bake?
  • People started learning about the sea since the
    first time they saw the ocean
  • Stone age
  • clambakes about 3 million years ago
  • Polynesians
  • Around 4000 B.C.
  • Navigation, fishing, trading
  • Hawaii, 500 AD
  • NZ, 1000 AD

10
Where is Polynesia?
11
Phoenicians
  • 2000 B.C. Phoenicians
  • Mediterranean coast
  • Extensive trade and navy

12
Aristotle the first marine biologist
  • Greek philosopher
  • 384-327 B.C
  • Described many forms of sea life
  • Recognized gills as breathing apparatus of fish

13
Darwin and Forbes
  • HMS Beagle sailed around the world in 1831
  • Map coastlines atolls barnacles other sea life
  • Forbes (1815-1854)
  • focused on sea floor
  • Azoic theory life limited to depth--no life past
    1800 ft.
  • disproved

14
The Challenger Expedition
  • 1872-1876
  • First oceanographic expedition to circumnavigate
    the world
  • Thousands of specimens
  • 19 years to publish results, 50 volumes thick
  • Laid the foundation for modern marine science

15
Permanent laboratories
  • Stazione Zoologica
  • Naples, Italy, 1872 -- first marine lab in the
    world
  • Marine Biological Laboratory
  • Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 1888 first marine
    lab in the U.S.
  • Scientists now able to work from shore

16
SONAR
  • WW II (late 1930s) --gt submarine warfare --gt
    SONAR
  • SONAR
  • SOund NAvigation Ranging
  • Ship emits loud sounds (pinging) and times how
    long it takes to return. This determines depth.

17
Sidescan SONAR
  • Sound energy continuously transmitted from
    towfish in the shape of a fan that sweeps sea
    floor
  • Records picture of ocean bottom

18
SCUBA
  • SCUBA
  • Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus
  • Allow us to observe marine organisms in their
    environment

19
Modern Marine Science
  • Alvin
  • Brings us to the depths (4000 m)
  • Shinkai 6500 (Japanese)
  • Can work down to 6500 meters!!!
  • Remote sensing
  • Using computers and satellites to track SST,
    currents, organisms, etc.
  • FLIP (FLoating Instrument Platform)
  • Wave models for when I surf!

20
Scientific Method Quick Review
  • Scientific conclusions MUST be based on
    observations
  • Whats a hypothesis?
  • A statement that might be true
  • It can be tested
  • No hypothesis can be absolutely proved true
  • What is a theory?
  • A hypothesis that has been accepted as true for
    the time being b/c it has passed test after test
    with a large body of supporting evidence
  • It can be overturned by new evidence . . .

21
Observation is the key
  • As we observe more and more about the ocean we
    seek to explain our observations
  • The water is red. Why? What makes it red? How
    will it affect marine life? How will it affect
    humans?
  • Without observation, science would cease to exist
    . . .

22
Induction vs. Deduction
  • Induction
  • Separate observations (small/specific) ? arrive
    at general conclusions (big/general)
  • Scientific method observe--gt hypothesis--gt
  • experiment--gt theory
  • Deduction
  • General principals (big/general) ? specific
    conclusions (small/specific)
  • Begin with theory --gt experiments and
    observations to test theory
  • Example with gravity

23
Human Population and the Ocean
  • Pass out human population statistics
  • What do you notice?
  • Make a graph
  • What do you notice about the curve? Whats this
    called? How will this affect the ocean?

24
Exponential Growth
  • Death rates continuing to decline. Why?
  • Improvements in nutrition, sanitation, and health
    care
  • During 1650 to 1800 pop doubled to 1bil.
  • By 1930, doubled again to 2 bil.
  • Doubling to 4 bil took less than 50 years!
  • What type of curve? Why?
  • Constant rate of growth.

25
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26
  • Find a partner
  • Would you rather receive 1,000.00 per day for a
    month OR start with 0.01 and double your money
    each day for a month (30 days)
  • Find the total
  • 30,000.00
  • 5,905,609,000 cents or 59,056,090.00!!
  • This is exponential growth

27
Dead Zones due to humans?
  • NPR interview on dead zones

28
Are we still in the age of discovery and
exploration?
  • What is your opinion?
  • Assignment is two fold
  • Do some research and write a one paragraph answer
    to this question. Provide at least two sources
    to support your opinion.
  • Second paragraph describes your own personal
    history with the ocean as well as the future.
    What does the ocean mean to you? How do you
    relate to it?
  • Be prepared to share this with the class
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