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The Progressive Era 1898-1920

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Title: The Progressive Era 1898-1920


1
The Progressive Era 1898-1920
2
The Populist Party 1891-1896
  • Represented laborers, farmers, and industrial
    workers vs. bankers and railroads
  • Agenda
  • Unlimited coinage of silver
  • to make farm prices ? loan repayment easier
  • Direct election of senators
  • Term limitsPresident hold a single term
  • Graduated income taxtax wealthy at higher rate
  • Immigration quotas
  • Shorter work daysto 8 hours instead of 10-14

3
William Jennings Bryan
  • 1896, Democrats nominated
  • Democratic Party adopted many Populist ideas
  • Cross of Gold speech
  • Denounced bankers for crucifying mankind on a
    cross of gold
  • Defeated in 1896 1900 by McKinley

4
Gold vs. Silver
  • Americans bitterly divided over the
    nation's money.
  • The gold standard, which the United States had
    effectively been on since 1873, limited the money
    supply but eased trade with other nations, whose
    currency was also based on gold.
  • Many Americans believed in bimetallism (making
    both gold and silver legal currency).

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8
Populist Party
  • The Populist illustrate a role often played by
    third partiesthey provide an outlet for
    disadvantaged groups to voice grievances and
    generate new ideas.
  • Populist reforms were later enacted by other
    political parties.

9
The Progressive Movement
  • Mainly middle-class city dwellers, rather than
    farmers and workers
  • Believed government should increase its
    responsibility for human welfare by taking an
    active role in protecting workers and consumers.

10
Activity
  • Read the Cross of Gold speech and answer the
    corresponding questions.
  • Due at end of class.

11
Muckrakers exposed government corruption the
abuses of industry
  • Jacob Riis
  • He photographed and described the appalling
    conditions of the urban poor in How the Other
    Half Lives.

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17
Muckrakers exposed government corruption the
abuses of industry
  • Ida Tarbell
  • Her book, History of the Standard Oil Company
    (1902), showed how Rockefellers rise was based
    on ruthless business practices.

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19
Muckrakers exposed government corruption the
abuses of industry
  • Lincoln Steffens
  • He exposed corruption in city and state
    governments in his book The Shame of Cities
    (1904).

20
Muckrakers exposed government corruption the
abuses of industry
  • Upton Sinclair
  • His novel, The Jungle (1906), exposed the
    unsanitary conditions of the meatpacking industry
    and led to passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act.

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22
Municipal Reforms
  • Before, cities were ran by political machines or
    bosses. They would give immigrants jobs,
    housing, and citizenship in exchange for their
    vote.
  • The machine would steal from the public treasury
    through bribes.
  • Progressives replaced bosses with public-minded
    mayors.

23
Other Areas of Concern
  • Some Protestant church leaders became part of the
    Social Gospel movement, which worked to help poor
    city dwellers.
  • One goal of urban reformers was building codes
    that would require safer, better-lighted,
    better-ventilated, and more sanitary tenements.

24
  • Boss Tweed
  • New York City political boss in the 1850-60s

25
Progressive Profiles
  • Read and complete packet by the end of class.

26
Activity
  • Research and find the answers to the
    corresponding questions.

27
State Government Reforms led by Robert
LaFollette, governor of Wisconsin
  • Secret Ballotearlier voting was not private,
    subject to pressure intimidation
  • Initiativesallows voters to directly introduce
    bills in the state legislature
  • Recallelected officials could be removed by
    voters in a special election
  • Referendumvoters could compel legislators to
    place a bill on the ballot for approval
  • Direct Party Primariesparty members decide who
    they want to represent them in the general
    election

28
Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt
1901-1909
  • Square Dealproposed new laws to protect consumer
    health, to regulate some industries, and to
    conserve the nations natural resources
  • Meat Inspection Act (1906)after reading The
    Jungle
  • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)regulated the
    preparation of foods and sale of medicines
  • Trust-busterrevived the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    filed a lawsuit to break of Rockefellers
    Standard Oil Company

29
T. Roosevelt with naturalist John Muir at
Yosemite National Park
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Progressive Presidents William H. Taft 1909-1913
  • Antitrust cases
  • Set aside a great deal of public land for
    conservation
  • 16th Amendmentallowed Congress to tax individual
    incomes
  • 17th Amendmentdirect election of US Senators
    instead of by state legislature

32
Progressive Presidents Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921
  • New Freedomthat would tame big businesses and
    allow for more competition
  • Lowered tariffscheaper goods
  • Used the 16th Amendment to introduce a
    progressive income tax
  • Federal Reserve Act (1913)reformed the banking
    industry by establishing the Federal Reserve
    Banks
  • Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)increasing
    governments power to prohibit unfair business
    practices and established the Federal Trade
    Commission

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The Suffrage Movement 1865-1920
  • Suffrage the right to vote
  • Susan B. Anthony Elizabeth Cady Stanton worked
    to get women the right to vote
  • 19th Amendment (1920)no state could deny a
    citizen the right to vote on the basis of gender.

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Seneca Falls
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39
Role of Women Changes 1870-1914
  • Free public school for girls
  • Some colleges for women
  • Inventions like the sewing machine, typewriter,
    and telephone added new jobs for women outside
    the home.
  • New labor-saving devices, such as the washing
    machine and vacuum cleaner reduced housework and
    provided middle-class women with more leisure
    time.

40
Rights of African Americans
  • The decades after the Civil War were a difficult
    time for African Americans.
  • Laws prevented them from exercising their right
    to vote.
  • In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court
    upheld the Jim Crow laws, which required
    segregated"separate but equal public facilities
    for African Americans and whites.

41
Rights of African Americans
  • Lynching by white mobs took the lives of hundreds
    of African Americans.
  • Booker T. Washington, a former slave and founder
    of Tuskegee Institute, urged African Americans to
    get vocational training in order to establish
    themselves economically.
  • This strategy, he believed, would increase their
    own self-esteem and earn them respect from white
    society.

42
Rights of African Americans
  • Washington's policy was called accommodation.
  • Wanted to accommodate pre-existing conditions in
    society rather than start a revolution.

43
Rights of African Americans
  • W.E.B. Du Bois, a Harvard-educated professor,
    shared Washington's view of the importance of
    education but rejected accommodation.
  • He felt that African Americans should protest
    unfair treatment and receive a broad, liberal
    education, rather than a vocational one.

44
Two different and competing ideas!!
  • What do they share in common though?
  • What Supreme Court act does this set the stage
    for?

45
Activity
  • Read your strategy card and corresponding
    sources.
  • Answer the following questions.
  • Prepare to present next class.

46
The End
  • The Progressive Era came to an end when the
    United States entered World War I.
  • During the war, American priorities shifted to
    the war effort, and in the 1920s, the trend
    shifted away from reform and toward acceptance of
    society as it was.

47
Impact of Progressives on the Nation
  • Watchdog of BusinessesAmericans looked to
    government for protection from unfair business
    practices
  • Expansion of Democracygreater power in the hands
    of the people (like direct election of senators
    and primaries) in order to keep it from political
    bosses

48
Impact of Progressives on the Nation
  • Role of Protectorprotect consumers, children,
    women and environment not minorities
  • New Tax Policiesgraduated income tax changed how
    government was financed and helped to correct
    social inequalities through limited
    redistribution of wealth
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