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The Battle for National Reform


Title: The Battle for National Reform Author: Zach Lipman Last modified by: socialstudies Created Date: 9/23/2009 7:33:06 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Battle for National Reform

The Battle for National Reform
  • Chapter 22

Theodore Roosevelt and the Modern Presidency
  • The loveable president
  • Changed the powers, role and perception of the
  • The Accidental President
  • that damned cowboy! Mark Hanna
  • reputation of substance, rather than of style
  • New York Legislature energy among lethargy
  • Rancher and peace authority in Dakota Territories
  • San Juan Hill (useless but heroic)

Theodore Roosevelt
  • Never rebelled against leaders of his party
  • TR philosophy on reform / govt
  • Reform protecting the govt from more radical
  • Govt not an agent of a particular interest,
    but as the mediator of public good with the
    president at its center

Government, Capital and Labor
  • TR allied himself with progressives who urged
    regulation, but not destruction, of the trusts
  • wanted to investigate the activities of
    corporations and publish them
  • believed an educated public would eliminate most
    corporate abuses
  • govt could legislate those that remained
  • Department of Commerce and Labor

TR Trust Buster?
  • 1902 ordered the Justice Department to invoke the
    Sherman Antitrust Act against Northern Securities
    Company (J.P Morgan)
  • J.P. Morgan fix it up
  • 1904 Supreme Court ordered the NSC
  • Roosevelt assured Morgan that he did not wish to
    dissolve trusts
  • 40 anti-trust suits filed during the TR
  • but no serious commitment to reverse the
    prevailing trend toward economic concentration

J.P Morgan
TR Friend of Labor?
  • 1902 United Mine Workers Strike
  • threatened to send in troops
  • federal arbitration awards 10 wage increase and
    9 hour day
  • no recognition of union
  • TR viewed himself as a champion of management and

The Square Deal
  • Through skillful politicking, Roosevelt wins
    re-election in 1904
  • After re-election, free to display extent and
    limits of reform
  • Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act of 1906 sought to
    restore regulatory authority to government
    (empower the I.C.C.)
  • cautious
  • Senator Robert LaFollette never would forgive

Square Deal Acts
  • Pure Food and Drug Act
  • Meat Inspection Act (Upton Sinclair, The Jungle)

The Square Deal Continued
  • eight-hour day for workers
  • broader compensation for victims of industrial
  • inheritance and income taxes
  • regulation of the stock market
  • TR criticized conservatives who obstructed these
  • Lead to stalemate in agenda
  • Widening gap between president TR and the
    conservative members of his party

  • TR life time sportsman and naturalist, was the
    first president to take an active interest in the
    new and struggling American conservation movement
  • Spent four days hiking in the Sierras with John
    Muir, founder of the Sierra Club
  • Sierra Club aesthetic value of forest
  • TR administration supported rational and
    efficient human use of the wilderness
    scientific management

Gifford Pinchot
  • Gifford Pinchot was TR chief forester 1907
    worked furiously to seize all the forests and
    many of the water power sites till in the public
    domain before a Conservative Congress restricted
    presidents authority.

Conservation Continued
  • TRs administration established governments
    role as manager of the continuing development
    of the wilderness
  • Pleasing the opposition Newlands Act provided
    federal funds for the construction of dams,
    reservoirs, and canals in the West
  • open new lands for cultivation
  • cheap electric power
  • greater impact would not be felt for twenty years

The Panic of 1907
  • despite reforms govt had little control over the
  • Same three mistakes as 1893
  • supply production out runs the capacity of demand
  • banking system inadequate
  • financial mismanagement
  • Roosevelt falsely blamed for mad economic

The Panic of 1907 Continued
  • Roosevelt and Morgan make a deal Morgan props
    up shaky financial institutions in return for
    protection from anti-trust action
  • TR does not run again in 1908
  • conservative backlash, might not have gotten
    party bid
  • panic of 1907
  • promised not to run again in 1904
  • retired from public life, briefly, at age 50

The Troubled Succession
  • Hand-picked by Roosevelt to succeed him
  • Attention to law and detail instead of aggressive
    like Roosevelt
  • Came to office as the darling of both
    progressives and conservatives soon found he
    could not please both

Taft and the Progressives
  • Payne-Aldrich Tariff
  • called Congress to a special session to lower
    protective tariff rates
  • Taft made no effort to influence Congress,
    arguing it was unconstitutional for him to do so
  • P-A Tariff was weak and angered progressives

The Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy
  • Taft replaces Roosevelts secretary of the
    interior who was a conservationist with a
    conservative corporate lawyer, Richard Ballinger
  • Ballinger removes 1 million acres of public
    forests and mineral reserves to private
  • Louis Glavis, Interior Department Secretary,
    finds evidence that Ballinger was selling areas
    of Alaska for personal profit
  • Glavis, shows case to Gifford Pinchot (still head
    of Forest Service) and Pinchot takes case to
  • Ballinger cleared by Tafts attorney general
  • Glavis fired by Taft
  • Pinchot, not happy takes the case to the Press
    and asks Congress to investigate the issue
  • Pinchot fired for insubordination
  • Conservative Congressional Committee exonerates
  • Symbolic
  • Taft separates himself from Roosevelt supporters
  • Big business vs. progressive managed control

The Return of Roosevelt
  • Gone for two years on an African Safari
  • Return to America, a major public event turned
    down an invitation to the White House to meet
    with Pinchot
  • Announced a public speaking tour
  • believed Taft had completely twisted around his
  • believed that he alone was capable of reuniting
    the Republican Party

New Nationalism
  • made clear he had moved a considerable way from
    the cautious conservatism of the first years of
    his presidency
  • social justice only possible through a strong
    federal government
  • inheritance taxes
  • workers compensation in industrial accidents
  • regulation of the labor of women and children
  • firmer regulation of corporations

Spreading Insurgency
  • 1910 Congressional Elections
  • Conservatives ousted, Progressives elected
  • Democrats beginning to make their mark in
  • Roosevelt says he does not want to run for
    President, but rather urge Taft to return to
    progressivism two things changed his mind
  • 1911 antitrust decision by the Taft
    Administration TR takes it personally
  • 1912 Progressive Candidate LaFollette suffers a
    public breakdown in response to his daughters

Fighting Bob
The Republican Schism
  • Roosevelt wins almost every primary election at
    the individual state level
  • Republican Party leaders override the primary and
    refuse to admit Roosevelts delegates
  • Roosevelt marches out of the convention with his
  • In August of that year, Roosevelt creates a new
    Progressive Party to nominate him as president
  • fit as a bull moose Progressive becomes Bull
    Moose Party

Woodrow Wilson and The New Freedom
  • The Rise of Wilson
  • Born and raised in the South
  • Author of books on the American political system
  • President of Princeton University 1902 (New
  • Governor of New Jersey 1910
  • Reputation for progressivism and unwillingness to

Woodrow Wilson
Election of 1912
  • traditional Republicans split
  • Taft Republican Party
  • Roosevelt Progressive / Bull Moose Party
  • Roosevelt Impaired
  • Many Republicans refused to leave the party
  • Roosevelt shot by a would be assassin during the
    last weeks of the elections
  • Democrats nominated a strong candidate
  • Wilsons New Freedom vs. Roosevelts New
  • two opposing progressive perspectives
  • proper response to monopolies was to destroy them
    (Wilson / Brandies) rather to regulate them

The Scholar as President
  • Wilson more bold and forceful that both Roosevelt
    and Taft
  • demanded fierce loyalty
  • used Presidential powers to mold together a
    coalition of conservatives and progressives who
    would support his program
  • Democrat majorities in both houses helped his
  • elected candidates realized they would have to
    enact progressive reform to stay elected

The Scholar as President Continued
  • Tariffs
  • substantial lowering of the protective tariff
  • Underwood-Simmons Tariff
  • many Americans believed this act introduced real
    competition into American markets
  • help break the power of trusts
  • graduated income tax
  • imposed a 1 tax on individuals and corporations
    earning over 4,000
  • ii. rates went up to 6 on incomes over

The Scholar as President Continued Again
  • Banking Reform
  • govt would have substantial control at the
    national level
  • bankers would retain control at the local level
  • Federal Reserve Act most important piece of
    domestic legislation during Wilsons
  • created 12 regional banks, each to be controlled
    by the individual banks of its district
  • new paper currency Federal Reserve Notes
  • central institutions able to shift funds quickly
    into troubled areas

Problem of the Trusts
  • During 1912 Campaign, Wilson promised to attack
    economic concentration (aka monopolistic trusts)
    but his philosophy began to change into one of
    regulation, like Roosevelt

Federal Trade Commission Act
  • created a regulatory agency that would help
    businesses determine in advance whether their
    actions would be acceptable to the government
  • would have authority to launch prosecutions
    against unfair trade practices
  • increased governments regulatory authority

Clayton Antitrust Act
  • originally reflected the ideals of 1912 campaign
  • Wilson did not back it strongly, weakened in
  • Promises of 1912 election never materialized

Wilsons conclusion supervision over
Retreat and Advance
  • Fall of 1914 Wilson decides Reform Movement is
    complete and that agitation for reform would end
  • refused to support the movement for national
    womans suffrage
  • condoned re-imposition of segregation in the
    agencies of federal government
  • dismissed efforts from Congress to support new
    reform legislation
  • Congressional elections of 1914 shattered
    Presidents complacency Democrats ousted by
    re-united Republicans
  • With 1916 on his mind, Wilson began to push for
    a second flurry of reforms
  • Nominated Louis Brandies to the Supreme Court
  • Supported a measure to make it easier for farmers
    to receive credit
  • Workers compensation for federal employees
  • Keating-Owen Act first federal law regulating
    child labor / struck down by Supreme Court

The Big Stick America and The World, 1901
1917 (Pre-WWI PPT)
  • Little public involvement in countrys
    international affairs prior to World War I

Roosevelt and Civilization
  • TR believed in the value and importance of using
    American power in the world (Proverb Speak
    softly, but carry a big stick)
  • Clear distinction between civilized and
    uncivilized nations
  • civilized Anglo-Saxon or Teutonic
  • uncivilized non-white, Latin or Slavic
  • Economic development also important American
  • civilized producers of industrial goods
  • uncivilized sources of raw materials
  • relationship between the two viewed as vital
  • Roosevelt believed in order to preserve order and
    stability, build a strong navy

Protecting the Open Door in Asia
  • TR was concerned with military tensions between
    Japan, Russia, Germany, France and Asia
  • Mediated conflict between Russia and Japan in
  • part of deal stated US could trade freely in the
  • Roosevelt wins Nobel Peace Prize in 1906
  • Russian Fleet destroyed by Japan Japan begins
    to exert authority in Pacific
  • Domestic issues
  • extension of Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Oriental School
  • Hearst Papers Yellow Peril
  • The Great White Fleet on world tour

The Iron-Fisted Neighbor
  • Principal Sphere of interest Latin America
  • 1902 Venezuela European powers converge off
    Venezuelan coast, TR uses threat of US naval
    power to force Germany to withdrawal
  • Roosevelt Corollary TR states that US has the
    right to intervene in domestic affairs of its
    neighbor if they proved unable to maintain order
    on their own
  • Dominican Republic debts to Europe
  • Cuba Platt Amendment

The Panama Canal
  • Roosevelt determined to achieve dream of
    connecting Atlantic to Pacific
  • Original site was Nicaragua
  • French originally tried and failed in
    Panamauneven ground would require locks
  • US chose Panama when French lowered their price
    of their prior holdings from 109 mil. To 40
  • 1901 Hay-Pauncefote Treaty eliminated Britain
    from the deal
  • Trouble with closing deal with Columbia
  • John Hay and suspicious deal with Columbian
  • TR upset when Columbians change their mind, calls
    them inefficient bandits and blackmailers

The Panama Canal Continued
  • US and French organize and support revolution in
  • U.S.S Nashville off the coast in Panama to
    maintain order
  • US military presence kept Colombia from
    suppressing the rebellion
  • Independent Nation of Panama officially
    recognized by the US
  • 1914 Panama Canal opens TR exclaims I took the
    Canal Zone and let Congress debate!

Taft and Dollar Diplomacy
  • Taft also worked to expand the nations economic
    interest overseas, but little interest in world
  • P.C. Knox worked to expand US investments into
    less developed regions
  • Failure and greed of Taft-Knox diplomacy Asia
  • Taft expands Americas economic influence in
    Manchurian region, counter to Roosevelt policy
  • Constructing railroads
  • Russians loose alliance with Japanese and
    American railroad project quickly collapses
  • Failure and greed of Taft-Knox diplomacy
  • Nicaragua 1909, American corporate inspired
  • American seize customs houses
  • Knox encourages American bankers to offer
    substantial loans to the new government, thus
    increasing US financial leverage

Diplomacy and Morality
  • Dominican Republic
  • Mexico
  • Porfirio Diaz, corrupt leader in Mexico, but
    friendly to American Businessmen
  • Victoriano Huerta seizes leadership, Wilson calls
    him a government of butchers
  • Battle at Veracruz US on brink of war
  • Carranza takes leadership, unfriendly to US
  • US supports coup by Poncho Villa, then abandons
  • PV retaliates attack on US soil
  • General John Pershing chases Villa and attacks
    Mexico on Mexican soil
  • Never find Villa